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W4. 



Assyrian and 
Babylonian Literature 



The World's Great Books 



Committee of Selection 



Thomas B. Reed 

Speaker of the House 
of Representatives 

Edward Everett Hale 

Author of The Man 
Without a Country 



William R. Harper 

President of the 
University of Chicago 

Ainsworth R. Spoffbrd 

Of the Congressional 
Library 



Rossiter Johnson 

Editor of Little Classics and Editor-in-Chief of this Series 



Aldine Edition 



SIR HENRY RAWLINSON. 

Photogravure from an engraving. 



Assyrian and Babylonian 
Literature 

Selected Translations 



With a Critical Introduction by 
Robert Francis Harper 



Illustrated 




New York 

D. Appleton and Company 

1901 

r 



Copyright, 1900, \ 
By D. APPLETON AND COMPANY. 



INTRODUCTION 



7^ ISCOVERY of the Cuneiform Inscriptions. — The his- 
i y tory of the ancients has a peculiar charm for us, 
which gradually increases as from year to year the 
darkness gives way to light through the excavation and 
decipherment of the monuments. Until a very recent 
date, scholars were accustomed to turn to Egypt for the 
beginning of all things. Egyptian literature was the old- 
est, Egyptian civilization the earliest, and from the Egyp- 
tian hieroglyphs, through the Phoenician, our alphabets 
were derived. But the cuneiform inscriptions bring an- 
other story, and the seat of the earliest known and most 
influential civilization must now be changed from the val- 
ley of the Nile to the country between the Tigris and the 
Euphrates, southern Mesopotamia, or, in other words. 
Babylonia. These inscriptions have opened up to us a 
history far more interesting and valuable than that written 
on the papyri and monuments of Egypt. It deals with a 
nation that played an important part in Old Testament his- 
tory and exerted a powerful influence over the chosen 
people — with a nation whose literature begins earlier than 
that of the Hebrews and runs parallel with it until the latter 
are carried into captivity by the former. Although interest- 
ing from a general historical standpoint, this literature is 
the more valuable because of its striking similarities to the 
Hebrew, and because of the help it brings to an understand- 
ing of the biblical text. 

At the beginning of the present century little was 



iv ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

known of the ancient capitals of the Assyro-Babylonians 
aside from the meagre and imperfect accounts given by the 
Jewish and Greek historians. One would have searched his 
maps in vain for the exact location of Nineveh, the head- 
quarters of the Assyrian armies which plundered the Israel- 
ites for so many years and finally besieged, captured, and 
transported the inhabitants of Samaria. In the case of 
Babylon it was no better — a city one of whose kings car- 
ried into captivity the remnant left by his northern kins- 
men, the Assyrians. 

Passing the travels and writings of Benjamin of Tudela 
(about 1 1 60); Rabbi Pethachiah, of Ratisbon, a short time 
after the death of Benjamin; Conti (1444); Ortelius, of Ant- 
werp, who published his " Geographical Treasury " in 1596, 
in which was incorporated all that was known at that time 
of Oriental geography; Hakluyt's collections of travels and 
voyages (1599) containing an account, translated from the 
Italian, lof-the travels of Cesare de P^efici, who was-ohc- 
first to give us a description of Akerkuf, identified in re-^ 
cent years as the Dur-Kurigalzu of the inscriptions; Rau- 
wolf, of Augsburg, who describes Akerkuf as the Tower of 
Babel (1573); about the beginning of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, John Cartwright, the first European to attempt a sur- 
vey of the ruins of Nineveh; Don Garcia de Silva y FigTi- 
eroa, ambassador of Philip III of Spain to the court of 
Persia; Pietro della Valle (1621), who still regarded Bagh- 
dad as the site of Babylon, and who identified the great 
mound near Hilleh ( ^ Babil) as the site of the Tower of 
the Confusion of Tongues; Pedro Teixeita, a Portuguese; 
Sir Thomas Herbert (1626); Tavemier, who visited Mosul 
in 1644; Pater Vincenzo Maria di Santa Caterina da Siena 
(1657), who was the first, since Benjamin of Tudela, to 
identify the site of Babylon with Hilleh as over against 
Baghdad; Flower (1667); Chardin, who in 1674 copied the 
so-called Window inscription, the shortest of the trilingual 
Achaemenian inscriptions; Engelbert Kampfer (about 
1694), who copied the so-called H^ Persepolis inscription; 
Cornelis de Bruin (1701); Otter, in 1734,^ who was the 



INTRODUCTION V 

first to notice the Behistun inscriptions and reliefs, after- 
ward copied by Rawlinson and used in the decipherment 
of the inscriptions; Edward Ives (1758); Pater Emmanuel 
de Saint Albert, whose report on the " Ruins of Babylon " 
to the Duke of Orleans formed the basis of D'Anville's 
" Memoir " on the position of Babylon, read before the 
French Academy of Inscriptions in 1755; Carsten Niebuhr, 
who in 1765 copied several Achaemenian inscriptions, and 
from whose plates Grotefend afterward deciphered the 
names of Darius and Xerxes, thus opening the way for all 
future work in this line; Count Caylus, who in 1762 pub- 
lished the celebrated " Vase of Xerxes," with the quadrilin- 
gual inscription — in Egyptian (Hieroglyphs), Old Persian, 
Susian, and Babylonian — " Xerxes, the Great King "; and 
others, we come to the French scholar, Beauchamp, who, 
between 1790 and 1795, shipped to Paris some specimen 
bricks covered with Babylonian characters. The excite- 
ment occasioned by these short inscriptions, and especially 
by the report that the ruins of Babylon had been discov- 
ered in the vicinity of Hilleh, caused the East India Com- 
pany to issue orders to their agent in Bassorah to obtain 
as quickly as possible a collection of these Babylonian in- 
scriptions and to send them by Bombay to England. Be- 
tween 1 80 1 and 18 10 several different collections were 
shipped, among which was the famous Nebuchadrezzar 
stone in ten columns, called the East India House Inscrip- 
tion, and now in the India Office in London. 

As yet no systematic work had been done in excavating 
these old Assyrian and Babylonian ruins. Claudius James 
Rich, an Englishman, the East India Company's repre- 
sentative in Baghdad, was the first to begin such excava- 
tions. Rich commenced his work in 181 1, and in 1812 
published his " Memoir on the Ruins of Babylon," and in 
1818 his " Second Memoir on Babylon," containing " an 
inquiry into the correspondence between the ancient de- 
scription and the remains still visible on the site." In this 
" Second Memoir " are found copies of several more or less 
important Babylonian inscriptions, among which may be 



vi ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

mentioned as the most important the so-called Borsippa in- 
scription of Nebuchadrezzar. Rich continued his work 
until 1820, sending at intervals to England such remains of 
inscriptions, bricks, sculptures, etc., as were excavated. 
In 1820 he made a journey for his health into the Kurdish 
mountains, and on his return he spent a few days in Mosul 
on the Tigris. From Mosul he saw on the other (or left) 
side of the river mounds similar to those at Hilleh, and he 
was informed by Arabs that a large stone had been found in 
these mounds, covered with engravings of men and ani- 
mals. This find had been reported to the governor of 
Mosul, and he had ordered it to be broken into a thousand 
pieces, because, as he said, it contained engravings of the 
ancient gods; and with the Turks idolatry is the most 
heinous sin. Rich came to the conclusion that these 
mounds opposite Mosul represented the capital of the As- 
syrian Empire. On his journey down the Tigris to Bagh- 
dad he landed at the mouth of the Upper Zab and ex- 
amined the mounds there, called by the Arabs Nimrud. 
He collected a number of inscribed bricks, which are now 
to be found in the British Museum, but was not able to pur- 
sue his investigations further. 

After a lapse of twenty years, in the spring of 1840, 
Austen Henry Layard visited the ruins of Nineveh as iden- 
tified by Rich. In 1842 Layard returned to Mosul without 
having made any excavations. Here he met P. C. Botta, 
the French consul, who had been interested in this work 
by the Orientalist Mohl, at that time professor in Paris. 
Layard, being without the means necessary to carry on the 
excavations, strongly urged Botta to direct his attention to 
the work. Botta himself was without means at this time, 
but in 1843 he was enabled to begin, and he continued until 
1845, during which time he laid bare the city walls of 
Khorsabad and discovered many valuable inscriptions. In 
i849-'5i he published his "Monuments of Nineveh," by 
order of the French Government, in which are to be found 
220 pages of inscriptions. 

In the spring of 1845 Sir Stratford Canning, at that 



INTRODUCTION vii 

time the English ambassador at Constantinople, offered 
Layard sufficient money to undertake excavations. To- 
ward the end of the year Layard began work on the ruins 
of Nimrud, five hours south of Mosul (an hour in the East 
is from two and three quarters to three English miles). 
From the beginning he was successful. The sum allotted 
by Canning gave out in June, 1847, ^"^ Layard was again 
compelled to return to England. During the two years 
he had, however, laid bare three large Assyrian palaces — 
viz., the Northwest palace, that of Ashurnaqirpal (884-858 
B. c.) ; the Central palace, probably built by the follower of 
Ashurnagirpal, Shalmaneser II (858-823 b. c), in which 
was found the celebrated Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser 
(now in the British Museum); and finally that of Esar- 
haddon (680-669 b. c). The richest returns came from 
the Northwest palace, and the inscriptions found were in 
a much better state of preservation than those excavated by 
Botta in Sargon's palace at Khorsabad. 

Sir Stratford Canning generously presented the entire 
results of Layard's expedition to the British Museum, to 
which place they were shipped by the explorer himself. 
Layard shortly afterward published an account pf his work 
in " Nineveh and its Remains." This book created a great 
sensation in England, and as a result the English Gov- 
ernment became interested in the excavations. In 1849 
Layard was given leave of absence from his diplomatic post 
in Constantinople and sent back to Assyria, and Hormuzd 
Rassam, English consul at Mosul, but a native Arab, was 
ordered to join him. During the first expedition, Layard 
had confined his operations to Nimrud, but in this, his 
second, he began work at Kbuyunjik, the site of Nineveh. 
Botta had already conducted excavations at this mound, 
but with comparatively little success, since his methods 
were wholly unscientific. Instead of running trenches here 
and there to find walls and then following these walls, Botta 
sank perpendicular shafts to no purpose. In his first ex- 
pedition Layard had found the Southwest palace of Sen- 
nacherib (705-681 b. c), as restored by his grandson Ashur- 



viii ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

banipal, but he had not been able to carry his work to com- 
pletion. In his second trip (i849-'5i) this building was 
fully brought to light. This palace was the largest yet 
found, containing seventy-three rooms. Excavations were 
also made in Nebbi Yunus — i. e., the grave of the prophet 
Jonah — where Layard says that he found Esarhaddon 
inscriptions, and in Qal'at Sherkat (the old Asshur). 
In Nebbi- Yunus, palaces of Ramman-Nirari (811-782 
B. c), Sennacherib, and Esarhaddon were found, while in 
Qal'at Sherkat, Layard, or rather Rassam, discovered the 
foundations of a palace of Tiglath-pileser I, and here 
it was that the large cylinder of eight hundred lines 
belonging to Tiglath-pileser I (1120 B.C.) was found. 
During this expedition Layard also visited several sites 
in Babylonia, but he was able to accomplish little or 
nothing. 

Immediately following and closely connected with 
Layard's second expedition was that of Hormuzd Rassam 
(i852-'54), during which the North palace of Ashurbanipal 
was discovered and laid bare. In this was found the cele- 
brated " Library of Ashurbanipal," containing thousands of 
clay tablets inscribed on both sides. 

About the same time with Rassam (i852-'S4, or rather 
i85i-'S5), Victor Place, the French consul at Mosul, took 
up the work of excavating at Khorsabad which had been 
begun by Botta. While this work was going on in Assjrria, 
Loftus from 1849, Fresnel and Oppert in 1852, and Tay- 
lor from 1852, began excavations in Babylonia. In 
i853-'54 Loftus and Taylor visited and afterward described 
the ruins of Warka, Senkereh, Ur, etc. The French ex- 
pedition was badly managed, but it must be acknowledged 
that almost all that we know of the topography of Baby- 
lonia dates from this expedition. The boat containing the 
results of their excavations was wrecked in the Tigfris on 
May 23, 185s, and hence the inscriptions never reached 
Paris, to which place they were being shipped when lost. 
Accounts of both of these expeditions have been given by 
Oppert and Loftus respectively. With these expeditions 



INTRODUCTION ix 

what may be called the first period of Assyro-Babylonian 
excavations comes to an end. 

Before going to the second period, mention must be 
made of the discovery and copying of the famous Behistun 
inscription by Colonel Rawlinson (later Sir Henry). This 
inscription consists of about four hundred lines, and it was 
carved, by order of Darius Hystaspes, on a steep mountain 
— about seventeen hundred feet high — called Behistun 
(near Kermanschah). The English officer not only copied 
this inscription for the first time (between the years 1835 
and 1837), but he also made the first translation, having 
worked at intervals on this inscription from 1835 to 1846, 
when he brought his manuscript, containing the copy of 
the Babylonian text, to London. The important part 
played by this inscription and its discoverer in the history 
of the decipherment of the inscriptions will be noted later. 
After the close of the first period, no excavations were 
made for almost twenty years. During this time Layard 
published his " Inscriptions in the Cuneiform Character 
from Assyrian Monuments," and the first three volumes of 
the " Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia " had ap- 
peared, edited by Rawlinson with the help of Edwin Norris 
and George Smith. 

In 1872 George Smith had the good fortune to dis- 
cover some tablets containing the Chaldean account of the 
Deluge. The results of his find were laid before the 
Society of Biblical Archaeology on December 3, 1872. " In 
consequence of the wide interest taken at the time in these 
discoveries, the proprietors of the 'Daily Telegraph' 
newspaper came forward and ofifered to advance a sum of 
one thousand guineas for fresh researches at Nineveh in 
order to recover more of these interesting inscriptions, the 
terms of agreement being that I should conduct the ex- 
pedition, and should supply the ' Telegraph ' from time to 
time with accounts of my journeys and discoveries in the 
East in return." In January, 1873, with George Smith, 
the second period of excavations began. Between 1873 
and 1876 Smith made three expeditions, from the last of 



X ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

which he never returned, dying on his homeward journey 
at Aleppo, August 19, 1876, of a fever contracted in Bagh- 
dad. Smith's chief work was to make a more thorough 
examination of the palaces in Kouyunjik, and especially of 
the Northwest palace discovered by Rassam. Rassam con- 
tinued the work begun by Smith, and between 1877 and 
1 88 1 made three expeditions. The chief result of the first 
was the uncovering of another palace of Ashumagirpal at 
Nimrud, and the finding of the celebrated Bronze Gates 
of Shalmaneser II, In the same year he visited the palaces 
of Sennacherib and Ashurbanipal at Kouyunjik, and 
brought back with him about fourteen hundred tablets and 
the large ten-column cylinder of Ashurbanipal, known as 
the Rassam (R") cylinder. In his second expedition he 
directed his attention to Babylon. Besides the so-called 
Egibi tablets, contracts, etc., he brought with him this time 
inscriptions of Nebuchadrezzar, and, what is more impor- 
tant, inscriptions of Nabonidus and of Cyrus. During his 
last trip the most important discovery was the Temple of the 
Sun at Abu-Habba, the Sephervaim of the Old Testament 
and the Sippara of the inscriptions. This site was accident- 
ally, found while Rassam was hunting for another mound. 
It is only seven to eight hours southwest of Baghdad, or less 
than twenty-five miles. 

From 1876 to i88i,rwhile Rassam was also at work, the 
French vice-consul at Bosrah, Ernest de Sarzec, had been 
excavating at Tello, the Shirpuria — or Lagash — of the in- 
scriptions. The finds were for the most part non-Semitic. 
They are now in the Louvre. De Sarzec has been excavat- 
ing at Tello at intervals during the last twenty years. He 
was there in 1889, and was visited by some of the American 
party who were then excavating at Niffer. 

The first American expedition to Babylonia was the 
Catherine Wolfe (1884-1885), under the direction of Dr. 
William Hayes Ward, of " The Independent." The pur- 
pose of this party was to explore and to describe sites rather 
than to excavate. The most interesting part of the report 
is in regard to Anbar, about which Dr. Ward says: " The 



INTRODUCTION xi 

discovery of this city, which represents the Agade, or Sip- 
para of Anunit, the Akkad of Genesis x, lo, the Persabora 
of classical geographers, and the Anbar of Arabic his- 
torians, is of the first importance." Dr. Ward has dis- 
cussed this site at length in the January number of " He- 
braica," 1886. He recommended Anbar, Nifler, and Warka 
for excavation, also mentioning Umm-el-Akarib, and the 
neighbouring Yokha as specially promising sites. While 
no excavation was attempted by the Catherine Wolfe Ex- 
pedition, it laid the foundation for the collection belonging 
to the Metropolitan Museum in New York. It is also to 
be regarded as the forerunner of the expedition of the 
Babylonian Exploration Fund, sent out by the University 
of Pennsylvania. 

In 1884 the French Government sent M. Dieulafoy and 
Messrs. Babin and Houssay upon an archaeological mission 
to Susa. This expedition met with success, Dieulafoy sent 
the finds to Paris, and a special gallery has been set aside 
in the Louvre for their display. 

In the winter of 1887 some Fellahin made a very im- 
portant discovery at Tel-el-Amarna in Upper Egypt, on the 
eastern bank of the Nile, about midway between Minieh 
and Siout. These ruins represent the site of the Temple of 
Amenophis IV — i. e., Khu-en-Aten, the so-called " Heretic 
King" of the eighteenth Egyptian dynasty, about 1500 
B. c. — ^the son of Amenophis III. Inthe early part of this 
century, when the scientific staff attached to the army of 
Napoleon, on the expedition to Egypt, were surveying and 
searching for materials for a complete map of Egypt — 
afterward edited by Jacotin — a number of Egyptian an- 
tiquities were found at Tel-el-Amarna, which, afterward, 
found their way into the different European museums. 
However valuable and important these early finds were, 
there can not be any comparison between them and the 
finds of 1887. No one knows exactly where or when these 
tablets were found, since the Arabs, as is customary, took 
care to obliterate all traces of their digging after their great 
find. During the winter of 1887 and 1888 about two 



xii ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

hundred of these tablets were offered for sale by native 
dealers. Afterward others were found. Various views have 
been given as to the total number of these tablets found, 
but the outside limit is perhaps three hundred and thirty. 
The British Museum secured eighty-two through Dr. 
Budge, the Gizeh Museum in Egypt about sixty, and the 
Berlin Museum about one hundred and sixty, of which a 
very large number are so fragmentary as to g^ve little or no 
connected sense. The authorities of the Berlin Museum 
have published their collection, together with those at 
Gizeh, under the editorship of Drs. Winckler and Abel. 
The Tel-el-Amarna tablets in the British Museum are 
marked Bu. 88-10-13+, or Budge, the 13th of October, 
1888. They have been edited by Drs. Bezold and Budge. 
In addition to those tablets which were secured by the dif- 
ferent museums, a great many passed into the hands of 
private individuals, Turkish, Russian, and French officials, 
and missionaries. 

In April, 1888, Messrs. Humann, Luschan, and Winter 
made excavations in Zinjirli under the auspices of the Ber- 
lin Oriental Committee. Zinjirli lies at the base of the 
Amanus Mountains, called by the Turks Giaour — east of 
the ridge — facing the Antioch plain. It is one of the nar- 
rowest parts of the plain, midway between Antioch and 
Marash. The work of excavation was renewed in 1890 
and 189 1, and extended to Gerjin, a large mound an hour 
and a quarter to the east of Zinjirli. The most important 
inscriptions discovered were: (i) The Monolith of Esar- 
haddon; (2) the Panammu statue, bearing an inscription 
in old Aramaic characters similar to those on the Mesha 
stone; (3) the Hadad inscriptions; and (4) the Building 
inscription. 

The second American expedition to Babylonia was 
that of the Babylonia,n Exploration Fund, under the aus- 
pices of the University of Pennsylvania. The sites for ex- 
cavation, chosen by Dr. Peters, were Anbar, identified by 
the Catherine Wolfe Expedition with Sippar; Birs Nimrud 
(Borsippa) and Niffer or Nufar (Nippur). The last-named 



INTRODUCTION xiii 

site was the one finally selected. The conditions of excava- 
tion were those prescribed by the Turkish law. No con- 
cessions, or special permissions, were granted, except in 
the matter of the topographical map of the site to be ex- 
cavated, which is generally required beforehand. A popu- 
lar account of the first and second campaigns has been 
published by Dr. Peters, the director, under the title 
" Nippur, or Explorations and Adventures on the Eu- 
phrates." 

The Irade granting permission to excavate — as given in 
Dr. Peters's "Nippur," I, Appendix C — reads as follows: 

" In behalf of the trustees of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, the United States legation at Constantinople has 
applied for permission to excavate for antiquities at Birs 
Nimrod, in the district of Hilleh, and at a place called Tel 
Niffer, in the subdistrict of Divaniah, both belonging to 
the Vilayet of Baghdad; and subject to the following con- 
ditions this permission is herewith granted: 

" I. According to the laws relating thereto, all the an- 
tiquities discovered shall revert to the Imperial Museum. 

" 2. The objects found shall be kept in a safe place ap- 
pointed by the Government, through the commissioner, 
and the excavators shall not touch or meddle with them. 

" 3. Excavations shall not be begun until maps of the 
places to be excavated are approved by the Vali (governor- 
general) of the glorious city of Baghdad. 

" 4. Excavations shall not extend beyond , the limits 
shown by the maps; nor shall excavations be made in more 
than one place at the same time. 

" 5. If there be discovered any attempt to defraud the 
Government in any way and by reason thereof the excava- 
tions be stopped, the excavators shall claim no damages 
for losses accruing from the delay. 

" 6. If excavations do not begin, or if begun are not 
finished, during the period for which this permission is 
granted, the excavators are obliged to obtain a new per- 
mission before they can prosecute further excavations. 



xiv ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

"7. If, at the end of the excavations or before, the 
Government be duly notified, and the excavators are proved 
to have walked according to the statutes of the law, the 
bond-money deposited by the excavators shall be returned. 

" 8. If without good reason excavations do not begin 
within three months after this permission has been passed 
over to the excavators by the Vali of Baghdad, or if with- 
out good reason the excavations shall stop at any time for 
two months, this permission is null and void. 

" 9. The permission can not be transferred to another 
party or sold. 

" ID. The excavators shall pay the salary of the com- 
missioner appointed by the Minister of Public Instruction 
to accompany them. 

" Finally, the excavators shall strictly fulfil all the above 
conditions; then the excavators may purchase such part of 
the objects found as may seem superfluous to the Imperial 
Museum if, after the price has been agreed upon, the su- 
preme court of Bab-el-Aali consent to the sale thereof. 

" Therefore, for a period of two years to the above- 
mentioned trustees this as a permission has been given. 
" Grand Vizier Mehmed Kiamil Ben Sallih, 
" Minister of Public Instruction — Muniflf. 

" November 19, 1304; and First Spring 27, 1306." 

The expedition left the United States in June, 1888, 
and arrived at Niflfer on January 30, 1889. On account of 
the great importance of the results obtained, the following 
short descriptions, taken from "The Babylonian Expedi- 
tion of the University of Pennsylvania," Volume I, Part II, 
edited by Professor Hilprecht, curator of the Babylonian 
Museum in the University of Pennsylvania, are given in 
full: 

" In the first campaign (1888-1889) the staff were John 
P. Peters, director; Hermann V. Hilprecht and Robert 
Francis Harper, Assyriologists; J. H. Haynes, business 
manager, commissary, and photographer; Percy Hast- 
ings Field, architect; Daniel Noorian, interpreter; Bedry 



INTRODUCTION XV 

Bey, commissioner of the Ottoman Government. The 
excavations occupied the. time from February 6 to April 
15, 1889, with a maximum force of two hundred Arabs. 
The principal results were: a trigonometrical survey of the 
ruins and their surroundings, an examination of the whole 
field by trial trenches, systematic excavations chiefly at 
Sections III, V, I, and X. Many clay coffins examined 
and photographed. Objects carried away: Over two thou- 
sand cuneiform tablets and fragments (among them three 
dated in the reign of King Ashuretililani of Assyria); a 
number of inscribed bricks; terra-cotta brick stamp of 
Naram-Sin ; fragment of a barrel cylinder of Sargon of As- 
syria; inscribed stone tablet; several fragments of inscribed 
vases (among them two of King Lugalzaggisi of Erech); 
door-socket of Kurigalzu; about twenty-five Hebrew bowls; 
a large number of stone and terra-cotta vases of various 
sizes and shapes; terra-cotta images of gods and their an- 
cient moulds; reliefs, figurines and toys in terra-cotta; 
weapons and utensils in stone and metal; jewelry in gold, 
silver, bronze, and various precious stones; a number of 
weights, seals, and seal cylinders, etc. 

" In the second campaign (1889-1890) the staff were 
John P. Peters, director; J. H. Haynes, business manager, 
commissary, and photographer; Daniel Noorian, inter- 
preter and superintendent of workmen; and an Ottoman 
commissioner. The excavations occupied the time from 
January 14 to May 3, 1890, with a maximum force of four 
hundred Arabs. The principal results were an examina- 
tion of ruins by trial trenches and systematic excavations 
at Sections III, V, and X continued, a row of rooms on 
the southeast side of the ziggurrat and shrine of Bur-Sin 
II excavated. The objects carried away were about eight 
thousand cuneiform tablets and fragments (most of them 
dated in the reigns of the Cassite kings and of rulers of the 
second dynasty of Ur); a number of new inscribed bricks; 
three brick stamps in terra-cotta and three door-sockets in 
diorite of Sargon I; one brick stamp of Naram-Sin; sixty- 
one inscribed vase fragments of Alusharshid; two vase frag- 



xvi ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

ments, of Entemena of Shirpurla; one inscribed unhewn 
marble block and several vase fragments of Lugal-kigub- 
nidudu; a few vase , fragments of Lugalzaggisi; two door- 
sockets in diorite of Bur-Sin II; over one hundred inscribed 
votive axes, knobs, intaglios, etc., presented to the temple 
by Cassite kings; about seventy-five Hebrew and other im- 
scribed bowls; one enamelled clay coffin and many other 
antiquities similar in character to those excavated during 
the first campaign, but in greater number. 

" In the third campaign (i 893-1 896) the staff were J. 
H. Haynes, director, etc., and an Ottoman commissioner; 
Joseph A. Meyer, architect and draughtsman, from June to 
November, 1894. The excavations occupied the time from 
April 1 1, 1893, to February 15, 1896 (with an interruption of 
two months, April 4 to June 4, 1894), with an average force 
of fifty to sixty Arabs. The principal results were systematic 
excavations at Sections III, I, II, VI-X, and searching for 
the original bed and banks of the Shatt-en-Nil; an exam- 
ination of the lowest strata of the temple, three sections ex- 
cavated down to the water level; a critical determination of 
the different layers of the basis of uncovered pavements 
and platforms; the later additions to the ziggurrat studied, 
photographed, and, whenever necessary, removed; the pre- 
served portions of Ur-Gur's ziggurrat uncovered on all 
four sides; systematic study of the ancient system of Baby- 
lonian drainage; the two most ancient arches of Babylonia 
discovered; structures built by Naram-Sin and pre-Sar- 
gonic buildings and vases unearthed; about four hundred 
tombs of various periods and forms excavated, and their 
contents saved. The objects carried away were about 
twenty-one thousand cuneiform tablets and fragments 
(among them contracts dated in the reign of Dungi and 
Darius II and Artaxerxes Mnemon); many bricks of Sar- 
gori I and Naram-Sin; the first inscribed brick of Dungi 
in Nippur; fifteen brick stamps of Sargon I, one of Naram- 
Sin; inscribed torso of a statue in diorite (two thirds of 
life size, about 3000 B. c), and fragments of other statues of 
the same period; incised votive tablet of Ur-Enlil; three un- 



INTRODUCTION xvii 

finished marble blocks of Lugal-kigub-nidudu, and over 
five hundred vase fragments of pre-Sargonic kings and 
patesis; about sixty inscribed vase fragments of Alush- 
arshid, one of Sargon, three of Entemena; one door-socket 
and one votive tablet of Ur-Gur; one votive tablet of 
Dungi; a number of inscribed lapis-lazuli disks of Cassite 
kings; fragment of a barrel cylinder of the Assyrian pe- 
riod; fragments of an old Babylonian terra-cotta fountain 
in high relief; water cocks; drain tiles; a collection of 
representative bricks from all the buildings found in Nip- 
pur; about fifty clay coffins and burial urns, and many 
other antiquities of a character similar to those excavated 
during the first two campaigns but in greater number and 
variety." 

The Imperial Ottoman Museum at Constantinople has 
recently been conducting excavations at Abu Habba (Sip- 
par) with funds granted from the private purse of the 
Sultan. These excavations have been under the direction 
of Father Scheil and Bedry Bey, and important finds have 
been made. 

The prospects for future excavations are very poor, for 
two chief reasons. The Turkish Government, in. the per- 
son of Hamdy Bey, of the Stamboul Museum, has, finally 
learned the value of these discoveries^ and has passed a 
law that all antiquities are hereafter to be regarded as the 
property of the Sultan. The translation of the Turkish law 
on archaeological excavations; which follows, is taken from 
Dr. Peters's" Nippur," Appendix D: 

" Article I. The remains left by the ancient popula- 
tions of the states forming at present the dominions of the 
Ottoman Empire — ^that is to say, the gold and silver and 
other ancient coins, and the inscriptions containing refer- . 
ence to history, and statues, and sepultures, and ornamental 
objects in clay, stone, and other materials, utensils, arms, 
tools, statuettes, ring-stones, temples, palaces, circuses, 
theatres, fortifications, bridges, aqueducts,, bodies and ob- 
jects in tombs, burying mounds, mausoleums and columns 
— are regarded as antiquities. 



xviii ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

" Art. II. In general, the right of ownership of all the 
antiquities is regulated by the present law. 

" Art. III. • All the antiquities discovered in the Otto- 
man territory, be it on the surface, underground, or ex- 
humed, picked up in the sea, the lakes, the rivers, the 
streams, or the valleys, are the property of the Govern- 
ment. 

" Art. IV. • The monuments of antiquity which happen 
to be in the property or houses of private persons, either 
loose or built in the walls, can not be moved by the pro- 
prietors of the property; and for the keeping of those an- 
tiquities the Government has inaugurated the following 
measures: 

"Art. V. It is forbidden to destroy the antiquities 
which may be discovered on one's land, like buildings, 
roads, walls of castles and fortresses, baths, tombs, and 
other things; and in order not to occasion any damage to 
antiquities, they will refrain from establishing any lime-kiln 
at a distance less than half a kilometre from the spot where 
the antiquities are to be found; or from the erection of 
any kind of building and works which would be injurious; 
or to remove the stones of tumbled-down ancient monu- 
ments; from measuring or taking moulds; or of placing 
ladders on them for any purpose whatsoever; from appro- 
priating or restoring old buildings and making use of them 
in part or in all; or to use them for deposits of grain, straw, 
or hay, or to use them as tanks, or for cattle, or turn them 
into fountains, or to use them for other purposes. 

' "Art. VI. The. places on which the Government has 
decided to make excavations may be bought from their 
owners, if they are in the hands of private persons or so- 
cities; if they refuse to sell, the regulation on expropriation 
for public uses shall be applied in order to buy that prop- 
erty. 

" Art. VII. No one is allowed to make excavations, to 
extract or appropriate antiquities in the Ottoman domin- 
ions without having previously obtained the official permit 
in accordance with the present regulation. 



INTRODUCTION xix 

"Art. VIII. The exportation of antiquities found 
within Ottoman territory is absolutely forbidden. 

" Art. IX. The permit for the excavation and ex- 
humation of antiquities may be granted to private persons 
or to any scientific society. The terms of that permit must 
be in accordance with the conditions of the present regu- 
lation. 

" Art. X. As to the searches and excavations for an- 
tiquities, after the opinion of the administration of the Im- 
perial Museum and the conclusions of the Council of Public 
Instruction have been obtained, and after the Ministry of 
Public Instruction has submitted the case to the Sublime 
Porte, the final permit will be granted in accordance with 
the terms contained in the third chapter of the present regu- 
lation. 

" Art. XI. A duplicate list describing the quantity 
and quality of the objects excavated must be made on the 
printed blanks to be furnished by the Ministry of Public 
Instruction, which must be signed and certified; then one 
of the copies will remain with the excavator and the other 
with the Board of Public Instruction; where such boards 
do not exist they will be recorded in the books kept for 
the purpose by the local authorities and sent to the Min- 
istry of Public Instruction. 

" Art. XII. ■ The antiquities excavated with an official 
permit belong to the Imperial Museum, and the excavators 
have only the right to take drawings or moulds. 

" Art. XIII. The antiquities discovered without per- 
mit are confiscated; and if the excavator has already dis- 
posed of them, he will pay their value. 

" Art. XIV. The antiquities which may be discovered 
by accident in digging the foundations of a building or of 
a wall or of a sewer shall be divided in equal parts between 
the owner of the property and the Government; and then 
at the division of those antiquities, as the Government had 
the choice of taking such as it thinks proper on paying 
their value, it may get from the landowner, out of those 
which have fallen to his share, such a portion as it wants. 



XX ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

"Art. XV. Those who desire to undertake excava- 
tions of antiquities shall prepare a topographical plan show- 
ing the boundaries of the spot to be excavated, and present 
it at Constantinople to the Ministry of Public Instruction; 
and, if they are in the provinces of the governors-general, 
with written request, and the governors-general will for- 
ward it together with their report of their investigation of 
the subject to the Ministry of Public Instruction. 

" Art. XVI. The delivery of the permit for excava- 
tion appertains to the Ministry of Public Instruction after 
agreement with the direction of the Imperial Museum, but 
unless the necessary investigations are made and, accord- 
ing to Article X, the consent of the Sublime Porte is ob- 
tained, this permit can not be given. 

" Art. XVII. • The permit for excavating antiquities 
can only be granted under the following conditions: 

" I. After ascertaining that it will cause no obstruction 
to the forts, fortifications, or public buildings, nor interfere 
with public utility. 

" 2. If the excavations are to take place in the landed 
property of a private person, to satisfy the owner. 

" 3. The pecuniary security which shall be agreed upon 
by the director of the Imperial Museum must be actually 
deposited. 

" After the fulfilment of those conditions, the Ministry 
of Public Instruction, after conforming to the prescriptions 
of the preceding article, delivers the permit. 

" But no permit can be granted for more than two 
years. And if, before beginning the excavations, or even 
after having begun them, for some reason the period of the 
permit is allowed to pass and the explorer wants to con- 
tinue his researches^-if there is no objection, the Ministry 
of Public Instruction, after an agreement with the director 
of the museum, may grant a permit for an additional period 
not longer than one year. 

"Art. XVIII. The Ministry of Public Instruction 
will collect on the permits of excavation on account of 
the museum: on a permit from one day to six months, five 



INTRODUCTION xxi 

liras; on a permit from six months to one year, ten liras; 
on a permit from one year to two years, twenty liras. 

" Art. XIX. If, after having obtained the permit, 
the excavations are not commenced within the period of 
three months from its date, or after having commenced 
then they should be discontinued for two months, the 
permit will be annulled : and if the explorer wants to renew 
it the Ministry of Public Instruction, with the director of 
the museum, may continue or not the old permit, or cancel 
it and furnish a new one in its place. 

" Art. XX. The permit for excavatioh shall not em- 
brace a larger area than ten square kilometres. If after the 
commencement of the excavations an objection is found 
on the part of the Government, on the order of the Ministry 
of Public Instruction the works shall be temporarily 
stopped, and the time of stoppage shall be accounted for 
in the period of the permit, and the explorer will have no 
claim for expenses or damages on account of that stop- 
page. ■ ; '., 

" Art. XXL ■ At the place where excavations are to 
be made the Government will keep an able. and capable 
official; and the travelling expenses and the salary of this 
official, after having been fixed by the authorities,: will be 
collected from the excavators in . full and • paid to him 
monthly by the Treasurer of Public Instruction. - 

" If the excavations are finished before the expiration of 
the permit and the researches abandoned, the surplus of 
the money paid for the salary of the official shall be re- 
turned to the excavator. I 

" Art. XXII.' No permit of • excavatioh shall be 
granted to officials of the Ottoman or of a foreign govern- 
ment for excavations to be made within the district of their 

official post. '■ r: ■■■ 

" Art. XXIII. The transfer by the recipient of a per- 
mit of excavation is forbidden. ' ' 

" Art. XXIV. A person - can not have permits for 
excavation in more than one place. ' > 

" Art. XXV. Those who by accident discover an- 



xxii ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

tiquities are bound, if at Constantinople, to inform the 
Ministry of Public Instruction within five days, and if in 
the provinces, to inform the local authorities within ten 
days. 

" Art. XXVI. At the expiration of the permit or at 
the termination of the excavations, when the excavator 
gives notice of it, if it is found that he has fulfilled all the 
conditions of the regulations, the money he has deposited 
as security will be returned to him in accordance with the 
receipt. 

" Art. XXVII. The amount produced by seizures of 
antiquities, or on condemnation, from sales at public auc- 
tion in accordance with the rule by an official auctioneer, 
and the money accruing from divisions with the owners 
of antiquities, and also fines, and fees of permits, and the 
product of confiscations, shall belong to the treasury of the 
museum. 

" Art. XXVIII. The importation from abroad of any 
kind of antiquities is free and exempt from customs duties, 
and all kinds of antiquities which are to be transported from 
one district to another within the Ottoman dominions are 
exempt from internal duties. 

"Art. XXIX. Permission for the re-exportation of 
antiquities introduced from abroad into the Ottoman do- 
minions, and for the transportation from one district of the 
empire to another of antiquities found within the empire, 
can be obtained by drawing up a list of said antiquities by 
the owner and shipper and transmitting it to the director 
of the museum through the Ministry of Public Instruction; 
and in localities where there are no such boards or com- 
missions, to the local authorities. 

" The owner of antiquities introduced into the empire 
from abroad is bound within eight days to transmit a list 
of them, as before stated, to the administration of the mu- 
seum through the Ministry of Public Instruction, and in 
the provinces to the Board or Commission of Public In- 
struction; and if there is no such board or commission, to 
the local authorities. 



INTRODUCTION xxiii 

" Art. XXX. In any case the re-exportation of an- 
tiquities imported from abroad, and the transportation from 
one district of the empire to another of antiquities found 
within the empire, are necessarily subject to an official au- 
thorization, which can be procured from the Ministry of 
Public Instruction, with the agreement of the director of 
the museum. 

" Art. XXXI. The antiquities exported without the 
special permit of the Ministry of Public Instruction shall, 
if captured, be seized or confiscated in the name of the 
museum. 

" Art. XXXII. The granting of the official permis- 
sion to export antiquities into foreign countries, though re- 
served to the Ministry of Public Instruction with the con- 
sent of the director of the museum, is subject to the fol- 
lowing conditions: 

" I. The museum should possess already a duplicate of 
the kind. 

" 2. It should be established that the said antiquities 
have been imported from a foreign country. 

" Art. XXXIII. Those' who appropriate antiquities 
found on the ground or exhumed, on private or govern- 
ment property, will be liable, in accordance with Article 
138 of the Penal Code, to damages and a fine, and to im- 
prisonment from one month to one year. 

"Art. XXXIV. If those who have accidentally discov- 
ereci some antiquities do not give notice of it, they, after 
being deprived of the share to which they had a right, are 
punished with a fine equal to one fourth of the value of 
their discovery; and if those antiquities are out of reach, 
besides the fine they will have to pay their total value. 

"Art. XXXV. Those who, in transportation from 
one district to another of antiquities found within the em- 
pire, violate Article XXXII, will be subjected to a fine of 
from one to five Turkish pounds. 

"Art. XXXVI. The lawsuits which may originate 
out of these regulations shall be heard in the ordinary 
courts of law. 



xxiv ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

" Art. XXXVII. The Ministry of Public Instruction 
is charged with the enforcement of the present regulations. 

"The 23d of Rebbi-ul-Akhir, 1301, and 9th of Febru- 
ary, 1299 (i. e., February 21, 1884, a. d.)." 

These conditions can not be regarded as very generous. 
Again, the jealousy of the ambassadors of the principal 
powers at Constantinople has frustrated many attempts to 
obtain special and favourable firmans from the Sultan. On 
account of the greed of the Turks and the jealousy of the 
powers, there is little encouragement to attempt further 
work in excavating these Assyrian, Babylonian, and Hittite 
sites. Some of the most important ruins are in the most 
dangerous districts, in places over which the Turkish Gov- 
ernment has no control — e. g., Ur, one of the first capitals 
of Babylonia, Senkereh, Warka, Niffer, etc. The Bedawin, 
in whose territory these sites lie, do not acknowledge the 
rule of the Turkish Government, and they are not the gen- 
tlest people in the world, as some of the experiences of the 
last American expedition go to prove. 

The native Arabs have been excavating for many years, 
and with good results. There are in London one or two 
Arabs representing the dealers in Baghdad and Hilleh. 
The best^known dealer there was Joseph Shemtob, an Arab 
Jew. The University of Pennsylvania in 1888 purchased 
two large collections from Shemtob, and in 1889 another 
large collection from Shemtob's chief in Baghdad. These 
dealers always have in their possession a large number of 
tablets, about which they know nothing and for which they 
ask fabulous prices. .It takes a long time to close a bar- 
gain with them, but gold seems to have a great charm for 
the Arabs, arid after a few weeks they are generally content 
to take twenty-five per cent of the price originally asked. 

The Decipherment of the Cuneiform Inscriptions. — In the 
beginning of the seventeenth century accounts of the in- 
scriptions in Persepolis were brought by travellers to Eu- 
rope. The first of these accounts is that of the celebrated 
traveller, Pietro della Valle, in a letter from Schiraz, dated 
October 21, 1621. In 1674 Chardin copied the first com- 



INTRODUCTION xxv 

plete inscription, the so-called Window inscription, the 
shortest of the trilingual Achaemenian inscriptions. A copy 
of this may be found in his " Travels," published in 171 1. 
This inscription was copied in 1694 by Kampfer. He also 
copied the Babylonian text of the so-called Persepolis in- 
scription H* — ^in all twenty-five lines. In his work, pub- 
lished in 1712, Kampfer discusses the nature of the newly 
discovered writing, and inquires whether it is alphabetic, 
syllabic, or ideographic, deciding in favour of the ideo- 
graphic. Kampfer was also the first to make use of the 
term cuneiform — i. e., wedge-shaped. In 1701 the Dutch- 
man, de Bruin, began his travels. He devoted the year 
1704 to the ruins of Persepolis. In 1714 he published 
two new trilingual inscriptions, besides one Old Persian 
and one Babylonian. Notwithstanding the publication 
of these new finds, nothing further was done toward their 
decipherment until the beginning of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. 

In 1762 the celebrated vase of Xerxes was found by 
Count Caylus, and the quadrilingual inscription on it con- 
taining the words " Xerxes, the Great King," was pub- 
lished in the same year. The important role played by 
these vase inscriptions will be noticed later. 

In 1765 Carsten Niebuhr copied in Persepolis several 
Achasmenian inscriptions. He also distinguished forty-two 
different signs, which he correctly called letters. From 
1798 Tychsen and Miinter carried on the work begun by 
Niebuhr, and published their scanty results in 1862. In 
the same year, on September 14th, Georg Friedrich Grote- 
fend placed his discoveries before the Society of Sciences in 
Gottingen. Grotefend was the first to. decipher a com- 
plete inscription. His discoveries did not at once receive 
the notice which they merited, and it was not until the 
Parisian Arabist, Silvestre de Sacy, published his accounts 
of them that they attracted attention. 

The following short account of Grotefend's method 
of work is, for the most part, from Friedrich Delitzsch's 
appendices in the German edition of George Smith's " Chal- 



xxvi ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

dean Genesis." As toward the end of the eighteenth cen- 
tury new and more trustworthy copies of inscriptions 
arrived in Europe, their study was taken up again, and in 
1802 Grotefend, of Hanover, published the first transla- 
tion of a cuneiform text — ^viz., of a Persian Achaemenian 
inscription. His genius succeeded, by combinations as bold 
as they were ingenious, in paving the way for further dis- 
coveries. The old authors told him that the palaces of 
Persepolis, out of whose ruins the inscriptions came, had 
been built by Achaemenian kings. The Pehlevi inscrip- 
tions, scattered over these same ruins, and deciphered by 
de Sacy, led to the expectation that something somewhat 
analogous would be found in the cuneiform. Grotefend had 
already learned the direction in which these inscriptions 
were to be read — ^viz., from left to right. He chose for his 
work two small ones — the first of which had been engraved 
on a door-post of a building on the second palace terrace of 
Persepolis, and the second on the wall of a building on the 
third terrace. Miinter had already, by chance, noted in the 
inscriptions a word which was often repeated, and he had 
decided that this word must have the meaning of " king." 
This same word was also found in the two inscriptions of 
Grotefend, which were almost alike. The only difference 
was that in the first inscription a group of sig^s, which we 
may call A, preceded the word for " king," and in the sec- 
ond a group which we may call B; and further that in the 
second, A and the word for " king " following it were re- 
peated, while in the first a group of signs (C) without the 
title of king corresponded to A. Accordingly, the two in- 
scriptions had some such form as this: 

I. A king C 

II. B king A king 

From this Grotefend drew the conclusion that these 
groups of signs contained proper names, standing in a 
genealogical relation to each other. A must be the father 
of B, C the father of A, and, while A as well as B were 
kings, C, because the title was ever wanting after his name, 
was not born a king. According to this, A seemed to be 



INTRODUCTION xxvii 

the founder of a dynasty. The kings were Achasmenian, 
and hence only two things were possible: A contained 
either the name of Cyrus or that of Darius. The first pos- 
sibility was discarded at once, because the father as well 
as the son of Cyrus was named Cambyses, and hence the 
groups of signs, B and C, must have been the same. Again, 
group A was too long for Cyrus. Accordingly, Darius 
was all that was left for A, and Grotefend, taking into con- 
sideration the forms of these names known to the Greeks, 
Hebrews, and Persians, read: 

A: D-a-r-h-w-u-sch = Darius. 
B : Kh-sch-h-a-r-sch-a = Xerxes. 
C: V-i-sch-t-a-s-p = Hystaspes. 
And translated the inscriptions: 

" Xerxes, the mighty king, king of kings, son of Darius, 
the king." 

" Darius, the mighty king, king of kings * * * son of 
Hystaspes." 

Later investigations showed that he had read these 
signs correctly. There was only one mistake — the " h " 
should have been read " j." The correctness of his method 
of decipherment was confirmed, beyond all doubt, by the 
vase mentioned above. On this there is a quadrilingual in- 
scription. The first is written in Egyptian hieroglyphs, 
and was deciphered by Champollion as the name of Xerxes. 
The other three are in cuneiform characters, the first of 
which, the Old Persian, corresponded exactly to the group 
on the Persepolis inscription, which Grotefend read Xerxes. 
All later investigations are based on the discovery of Grote- 
fend. Thirty years later (1836), Burnouf and Lassen took 
up the work. Lassen did great service to the young sci- 
ence by his discovery in one of the Darius inscriptions of 
a list of peoples which added much new material for the 
recognition of new values of the signs, and rendered it 
possible, for the first time, not only to read the Persian 
cuneiform inscriptions, but also to explain them from a 
philological standpoint. The theory of Grotefend that the 
language of these inscriptions and that of the Avesta were 



xxviii ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

exactly similar was proved to be wrong. From this time 
on, new discoveries in both the grammar and the lexi- 
con were made, from time to time, by such men as Beer, 
Holtzmann, Westergaard, and others, but the material 
at hand was altogether /too limited to perriiit any great 
advances. 

It was the good fortune of Henry Rawlinson to discover 
this material. In 1835, while a resident in the East, Raw- 
linson began his study of the cuneiform inscriptions. At 
first his work was quite independent of Grotefend's. From 
an examination of the inscriptions of Elvend, near Rama- 
dan, without any assistance from Grotefend's work, he 
found the names of Hystaspes, Darius, and Cyrus. In the 
spring of 1836, while in Teheran, he first became acquainted 
with the works of his predecessors — that of Grotefend in 
the third edition (1815) of Heeren's " Ideen," and of Saint 
Martin in Klaproth's " Apergu de I'origine des diverses 
ecritures " (Paris, 1832). He found, however, that he was 
already, as the result of his own study, further advanced than 
Grotefend. In 1837 he copied, for the first time, a large part 
of the Persian text of the Behistun inscription — ^viz., the 
whole of Column I, the first paragraph of Column II, and 
i-io of Column III, besides four small inscriptions. On 
January i, 1838, he sent his first translations, with notes, 
to London, and they were brought to notice on May 
12, 1838, by Sir Gore Ouseley, in a meeting of the Asiatic 
Society. Rawlinson's first report was not published at 
that time. Gildemeister, of Bonn, has printed the most im- 
portant part in Volume XXVI of the "Journal of the 
German Oriental Society" (Leipsic). In 1839 he was 
called into active service in the war with the Afghans, 
and it was 1843 before he could again return to his copy- 
ing. In 1844 he finished the first' inscription— i, e., the 
Old Persian — ^and in 1847 he copied the Babylonian text 
During the following year he worked out the basis of all 
later decipherment. In 1849 ^^ returned to England with 
the manuscript containing the Babylonian text of this tri- 
lingual inscription, and in 1850 he presented to the Royal 



INTRODUCTION xxix 

Asiatic Society a translation of the Assyrian inscription 
found on the famous Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser. In 
185 1 the printing oi his " Memoir on the Babylonian and 
Assyrian Inscriptions " was finished. This contains the 
cuneiform text, the transliteration and translation of the 
Babylonian version of the Behistun inscription (one hun- 
dred and twelve long lines, the middle of most of which has 
been rendered unreadable on account of the long-con- 
tinued trickling of water over them), together with a com- 
mentary and an analysis of the first thirty-seven lines. 
" The list of signs added to the above contains two hun- 
dred and forty-six numbers, with the addition of phonetic 
values (and also ideographic), most of which have turned 
out to be correct." In 1852 Rawlinson was sent by the 
English Government as consul-general to Baghdad. He 
was given power by the authorities of the British Museum 
to conduct excavations wherever he found favourable sites. 
In 1855 he returned to England, and has since remained 
there, with the exception of a short diplomatic trip to Per- 
sia in 1858. 

" The year 1857 is memorable in the annals of As- 
syriology. In that year the Royal Asiatic Society of Lon- 
don proposed a test of the genuine character of the transla- 
tions offered by scholars of the Assyrian inscriptions. It 
was as follows: Eight hundred lines of cuneiform writing, 
recently found by Layard on clay cylinders, at Qal'at Sher- 
kat, not far from the site of Nineveh, were to be inde- 
pendently translated by any scholars who would come for- 
ward and accept the proposal; the results of their work were 
to be sent, sealed, to the secretary of the society, and the 
packets were to be opened on the same day before a com- 
mission, which should report on the points of resemblance 
or unlikeness to be found in the translations. This pro- 
posal was made public in March, and on May .2Sth four 
packets were opened, containing the work of Sir Henry 
Rawlinson, Mr. Fox Talbot, Dr. Hincks, and Dr. Oppert. 
The general similarity of the results in the four essays 
formed a strong confirmation of the genuineness of the trans- 



XXX ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

lations and the correctness of the method of decipherment, 
which even such a sceptic as M. Renan freely admitted." 

Henry Rawlinson is, in every sense of the word, the 
" Father of Assyriology." He was the first to make the dis- 
covery of an inscription of any length and importance, and 
he was the first to translate an Assyrian inscription. His 
discoveries, although somewhat dependent on those of 
Grotefend, were on the other hand practically independent. 

Passing over Lowenstern, de Saulcy, Longperier, and 
others, we come to the Irishman, Edward Hincks (died 
December 3, 1866, at Killeleagh, County Down, Ireland). 
In 1849 Hincks read a paper before the Irish Academy on 
the Khorsabad inscriptions, in which he dealt chiefly with 
the ideograms of the Assyro-Babylonian, and with the 
chronology of the Assyrians. In 1856 an appendix to the 
foregoing, containing " Addenda and Corrigenda," was 
printed. In all probability this appendix was printed in 1850, 
but the complete volume of the " Transactions " of the 
Academy did not appear until 1855. The most important 
discovery in this appendix is that the so-called Homo- 
phones — i. e., signs with the same value — for the single 
consonants were in reality different signs, some of which 
had a vowel before them and others a vowel after them; or, 
to be more explicit, in the case of the seven accepted signs 
for the consonant b, the values ab, ib, ub, ba, bi, be, and bu 
were to be sharply distinguished from each other. This 
was a great gain for the decipherment of the Assyrian. 
The list of signs was, on account of this discovery, quite 
different from the one proposed by de Saulcy and by 
Hincks himself in his earlier writings. The phonetic com- 
plement was discovered independently by both Hincks and 
Rawlinson. This so-called complement is a sign attached 
to an ideogram to indicate the reading of the ideogram, 
e. g., IS. KU = both kakku and tukultu. When the ideo- 
gram is to be read tukultu, we have, in almost every case, 
the phonetic complement tu, ti, or ta added to the IS. KU 
to indicate this reading. The compound syllabic values 
-were first noted by Hincks — viz., signs having values con- 



INTRODUCTION xxxi 

sisting of a consonant + a vowel + a consonant, as dan 
( = da + an), bul ( = bu + ul), etc. The so-called "allo- 
phones," or " polyphones " — i. e., characters that can be 
read in two or more different ways; e. g., dan, kal, lab, 
rib, all values of one sign — were first observed by Rawlin- 
son. Cf. also u-u-kit, to be read u-sham-kit. 

With Hommel, the history of the investigations from 
1 85 1 on can be divided into two periods, with Hincks and 
Oppert as the leaders of the first. During this period all 
that had been done before was arranged philologically, and 
new facts gathered from new inscriptions were added to 
those already known. In 1868, 1870, and 1872 appeared 
the first three volumes of Edwin Norris's " Assyrian Dic- 
tionary." During this time Volumes I to IV of " The 
Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia " were published 
by Rawlinson, Norris, and George Smith. 

Schrader, the father of Assyriology in Germany, may 
be regarded as the connecting link between these two 
periods, belonging neither to the first nor to the second. 
His great service to the science has been from the stand- 
point of history and not of philology. 

The second period begins with Friedrich Delitzsch and 
continues to the present time. The characteristic feature 
of this period is the close and strictly philological work 
done by Delitzsch and his school. When Delitzsch com- 
menced the study of Assyrian, " Assyriology was in a state 
of slavish dependence on Arabic lexicography." He soon 
became convinced that Arabic was not so important to the 
study of Assyrian as the north Semitic languages, the 
Hebrew and the Aramaic dialects. He was the first to make 
any real attempt to explain the vocabulary of the Assyrians 
by means of the usage of words in the Assyrian texts. In 
other words, instead of slavishly following the lexicons of 
the Arabic, Hebrew, etc., and giving Arabic meanings to 
roots in Assyrian containing the same radicals, he studied 
the language from its own literature, calling the cognates 
to his assistance only when it was necessary. All the his- 
torical inscriptions have been retranslated and explained 



xxxii ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

philologically. Much good work has been done in the 
mythical texts (Haupt, Jensen); the religious literature 
(Zimmern, Tallqvist, Sayce, etc.); the contract tablets 
(Strassmaier, Tallqvist, Peiser, and others); syllabaries (De- 
litzsch); astronomical tablets (Oppert, Sayce, Epping, 
Strassmaier, and Thompson); letters (Smith, Delitzsch, 
and others). There still remains a great deal to be done. 

Land and People. — It is very difficult to define the exact 
boundaries of Babylonia and Assyria, since these varied so 
greatly at different periods in their history In general, we 
may say that they occupied the region watered by the Tigris 
and Euphrates Rivers. Babylonia lay to the south and oc- 
cupied the alluvial plain between the two rivers from the 
point where they most nearly approach each other on 
the north to the Persian Gulf on the south. Her natural 
boundaries were the Tigris on the east, the Arabian Desert 
on the west, the Persian Gulf on the south, and the Assyrian 
highlands on the north. The length of Babylonia was 
about three hundred miles; the greatest breadth about one 
hundred and twenty-five miles; the area about twenty-five 
thousand square miles. The boundaries of Assyria were the 
mountain chains of Armenia and Kurdistan on the north 
and east. Babylonia on the south, and the country watered 
by the Tigris on the west. The area of Assyria was about 
seventy-five thousand square miles — ^about three hundred 
and fifty miles in length, and varying in breadth from one 
hundred and seventy-five to three hundred miles. 

The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers were the chief phys- 
ical features of these countries. The part of Assyria to the 
east of the Tigris was rough. It was, however, well sup- 
plied with water and very fertile. The part to the west 
was larger in extent, but poorly watered and barren. The 
whole of Babylonia was well watered by the rivers and 
a fine system of canals, and the fertility of the country has 
received much comment from both Oriental and classical 
writers. 

The principal cities of Babylonia were Eridu (Abu- 
Shahrein), Ur (Mugheir), Larsa (Senkereh), Erech 



INTRODUCTION xxxiii 

(Warka), Shirpuria or Lagash (Tello), Isin and Mam (the 
sites of which have not yet been identified), in the south; 
and Babylon (near Hilleh), Borsippa (Birs Nimrud), Kutha 
(Tel-Ibrahim), Sippar (Abu Habba), Kish, Nippur (Niffer, 
Nufar), and Agade in the north. 

The chief cities of Assyria were Asshur (Qal'at Sher- 
kat), its earliest capital; Nineveh (Kouyunjik and Nebbi- 
Yunus), Calah (Nimrud), Dur-Shargina (Khorsabad), Ar- 
ba'il (Arbela), Imgur-Bel (Tel-Balawat), and Tarbis (Sherif- 
Khan). Asshur was the only city of importance on the 
western side of the Tigris. 

The Babylonians and Assyrians were Semites, and more 
closely allied to the northern group than to the southern. 
The home of the Semites is still a disputed question. No 
definite statement can be made about the time when they 
settled in southern Babylonia, nor do we know the region 
from which they came. The southern part of the Mesopo- 
tamian Valley seems to have been occupied before the 
arrival of the Babylonians by a non-Semitic people whom 
we may designate as Sumerians. The Semitic Babylonians 
gradually dispossessed this people, adopting, in a great 
measure, their religion and gods, their customs and their 
script, the so-called cuneiform. The Babylonians were a 
mixed type. They were small of stature and of a peaceful 
disposition, preferring agriculture and trade to the pur- 
suit of war. The Assyrians were a purer Semitic type, 
larger, fiercer, more brutal, and more warlike. The Baby- 
lonians were very religious and extremely superstitious, 
with a large number of gods and demons. The Assyrians 
were religious but less superstitious. Their religion was 
derived from the Babylonians, but it was early modified 
and nationalized by them. Ashur, their national god, who 
gave his name to both city and country, was set above all 
the Babylonian deities. It was with his troops and under 
his protection that the Assyrian monarchs made war 
against his enemies. The other gods of the Assyrian Pan- 
theon were subordinated to him, each one, however, re- 
ceiving due honour and position. 



xxxiv ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

The Babylonians were a literary people, and made g^eat 
use of the non-Semitic literature of their Sumerian prede- 
cessors. The Assyrians, on the other hand, were not liter- 
ary, and with the exception of the Historical Inscrip- 
tions, which can hardly be called literature, they have 
left us very little. They were, however, great coypists and 
editors, and they appropriated to themselves the literature 
of their more original, cultured, and learned relatives in 
the south. In fact, our knowledge of Babylonian literature 
is due, in great part, to the Assyrian copies made in the 
time of their great king, Ashurbanipal. 

The language of the two peoples is generally referred 
to as Assyrian. It is Semitic and more closely related to 
the Phoenician, Aramaic, and Hebrew of the northern 
group than to the Arabic of the southern. The Babylo- 
nians pronounced a few consonants in a way different from 
the Assyrians. These differences were not of enough im- 
portance to warrant the distinction of two dialects. As 
stated above, both Babylonians and Assyrians made use 
of the non-Semitic Sumerian script, and hence their 
method of writing differed from the other Semitic peoples 
in being ideographic and syllabic rather than alphabetic. 

The materials on which the literature of Babylonia and 
Assyria is written are clay, stone, and metal. The most 
common material was clay, which was carefully selected by 
the scribes so as to be free from sand. It was washed and 
rolled, and then cut and pressed into the various sizes de- 
sired by the scribes. " For writing, a stick of boxwood 
was used, one end of which was cut into an exact square; 
this end of the stylus was cut away obliquely, so that one 
of the corners of the end formed a somewhat acute angle. 
The stylus was held like a pen, and the pressure was applied 
chiefly to the upper edge in the direction of the point, 
with a slight inclination toward the left. When the tablet 
was very large, small wooden pegs were inserted into the 
blank spaces of the inscribed side before turning, in order 
to prevent obliteration of the writing. These pegs were 
consumed during the process of baking. After the writing 



INTRODUCTION xxxv 

was finished the tablet was dried by exposing it to the sun 
for a day or two. About a week after drying it was placed 
in the oven, probably protected by some earthen case to 
preserve its coming in direct contact with the flame" 
(Haupt). 

Some of the Assyrian Historical Inscriptions are en- 
graved on slabs, monuments, bulls, lions, etc. Others are 
written with the stylus on prismoids and cylinders. The 
Babylonian Historical Inscriptions were generally writ- 
ten on the so-called Barrel-cylinders. An important ex- 
ception is the East India House Inscription of Nebuchad- 
rezzar, which was cut in stone. But clay was the most 
common writing material. 

The Historical Inscriptions. — The Historical Inscrip- 
tions of Babylonia and Assyria are not literature in any 
true sense of the term. The Assyrian deal chiefly with 
campaigns and lists of cities and peoples captured, the 
booty taken, the treatment of the prisoners, and the tribute 
and taxes imposed on the conquered countries. The Baby- 
lonian, on the other hancf, with few exceptions, make no 
mention of the wars and campaigns of the king, but give 
elaborate accounts of his building and repairing cities, tem- 
ples, palaces, walls, streets, canals, etc. The Royal Inscrip- 
tions of the Assyrians may be divided into three classes: 
Annals; History of Wars; and what may be called Lauda- 
tory texts. It may be noted that the first two classes are 
also Laudatory. 

I. The Annals correspond, in some degree, to the 
Books of Kings. The events of each year of the reign of 
a king are related in chronological order. There are not 
many such texts. The most complete is the Black Obelisk 
Inscription of Shalmaneser II, which deals in regular order 
with the events of thirty-one years. The Annals of Sargon 
II and those of Ashurna9irpal are the next in importance. 
The first has to do with fourteen years, and the second with 
seventeen. The Annals of Tiglath-pileser III cover seven- 
teen years, but they are very poorly preserved. The Prism 
Inscription of Tiglath-pileser I is so arranged for five years. 



xxxvi ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

These Annals are a most important source of information. 
They are, in fact, good native histories. 

2, The War Texts deal with periods rather than years, 
as some of the wars cover many years. As a rule these 
wars are arranged chronologically. In some cases, how- 
ever, the arrangement is geographical. Here belong the 
Monolith of Shamshi-Ramman IV, the Taylor Cylinder of 
Sennacherib, which describes eight expeditions, the third 
of which was against Hezekiah of Judah, and the different 
cylinders of Ashurbanipal. 

3. Those who are hostile to the Assyrian school of 
history are inclined to lay great stress on the so-called 
Laudatory texts. In fact, they would have only one classi- 
fication, and all the Royal Texts would fall under the head- 
ing Laudatory texts. There are many of these. A single 
example will be sufficient: " Sargon, the governor of Bel, 
the exalted priest of Ashur, the darling of Anu and Dagan, 
the great king, the powerful king, the king of the world, 
the King of Assyria, the king of the four quarters of the 
world, the favourite of the great gods, the legitimate ruler, 
to whom Ashur and Marduk granted a kingdom without 
equal, and the fame of whose name they sent forth to the 
ends of the earth, etc." These texts become very monot- 
onous, but we must take into consideration the fact that 
their authors were Semites, Orientals, who delight in ex- 
aggeration, and also that these great Assyrian kings were 
really lords of almost all the territory known to them. 
How insignificant were the Hebrews as a temporal power 
when compared with the Assyrians and Babylonians! 
Esarhaddon ruled over Assyria, Babylonia, the Hittites, the 
West Country, Egypt, and some of the islands of the 
Mediterranean. Such a king had the right to use extrava- 
gant language. In these Laudatory texts we find only one 
side of the history of an event. Victories are related and 
defeats suppressed. These inscriptions are, nevertheless, 
of great importance for the history of Assyria. 

. The Royal Inscriptions of the Babylonians are chiefly 
concerned with buildings and pious deeds. Compare, how- 



INTRODUCTION xxxvii 

ever, the Annals of Nabonidus and the Cylinder of Cyrus. 
The latter relates the capture of Babylon, the restoration 
of the shrines and city, and the pacific policy adopted by 
the captor. 

The trilingual inscriptions of the Achaemenian kings, 
apart from their first gfreat service in the field of philology, 
furnish the historian with important data. They recount 
deeds of valour and building enterprises of the Persian 
monarchs. Along with frequent genealogical references, 
there are some important lists. In the great Inscription 
of Darius we have a vivid picture of the uprisings during 
the troublous times in the early part of the monarch's 
reign. The literary style of these inscriptions differs greatly 
from that of the historical inscriptions of the classical period, 
and some of the more general marks of distinction can be 
seen even in a translation. 

In addition to the Wars of the Assyrian Historical In- 
scriptions and the Buildings of the Babylonian, we find 
other interesting particulars. Most of the Assyrian In- 
scriptions begin with an invocation to the gods which is 
followed by a long list of the titles and attributes of the 
king. They close with a request to the gods to bless those 
who look after their inscriptions and to curse those who do 
not. The Babylonian, on the other hand, introduce the 
king, and after a recital of his buildings and pious works, 
close with a fervent prayer for offspring, power, and a long 
reign. 

Among other very important sources of historical infor- 
mation may be mentioned: 

First, the Lists of Babylonian kings. As yet these lists 
are very fragmentary, and hence their value is not con- 
siderable. They give us, however, the names of the kings 
of two or three dynasties in their regular order and add 
a few general remarks in regard to them. Rassam obtained 
a tablet at Babylon containing three hundred to three hun- 
dred and fifty names of kings, but this tablet is so poorly 
preserved that only thirty of these names are legible. 
Among these, however, is to be found the name of the 



xxxviii ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

celebrated Hammurabi. The greater part of his dynasty 
follows, with the number of years of the reign of each king. 
Second, the so-called Eponym Lists, of the Assyrian 
Eponym Canon. Compare, for a full discussion of this 
source of information, George Smith's " Assyrian Eponym 
Canon," from which I quote freely. " In Assyria the prac- 
tice of dating documents according to the regnal years of 
the reigning monarchs was seldom used, by far the greater 
number of inscriptions being dated by the names of cer- 
tain officers called by the Assyrians limmu — a word which, 
by general consent, is translated ' eponym.' The Assyrian 
limmu or eponyms were appointed according to a general 
rotation; and each one in succession held office for a year 
and gave name to that year, the usage of the Assyrians in 
this respect being similar to the archons at Athens and the 
consuls at Rome. Originally the majority of the As- 
syrian eponyms were governors of the principal towns and 
districts, and this leads to the inference that the eponyms 
were an institution dating from the time when Assyria con- 
sisted of a confederacy of small states, before the rise of the 
Assyrian Empire. This would make the eponyms very 
ancient, their foundation probably being as early as 2000 
B. c." There were altogether about thirty functionaries, 
officers and governors, who held the right of being 
eponyms; and it is probable that when all had served their 
terms, the king took a second eponymy and started the 
series afresh. Sir Henry Rawlinson was the discoverer of 
the so-called Eponym Canon tablets. He found them 
among the tablets brought by Layard from Nineveh. He 
first described his discovery in the " London Athenasum," 
Nos. 1805 and 1812, May 30 and July 19, 1862. He dis- 
tinguished four copies of the Assyrian Canon, all imperfect, 
which he numbered I, II, III, IV, but, since his discovery 
of these, several new fragments have been found. All of 
these documents, so far as they are preserved, closely agree. 
Some contain lists of the eponyms in their chronological 
order, and others add to these names the titles of the 
eponyms and short notices of the principal events during 



INTRODUCTION xxxix 

their terms of office. Lists have been preserved from the 
time of Ramman-Nirari II (911-890 b. c.) down to the 
reign of Ashurbanipal (669-625 b. c). 

Third, the so-called Synchronous Tablets — i. e., tables 
giving a short account of the relations of Babylonia and 
Assyria. This synchronous history of Assyria and Baby- 
Ionia is of great importance, and is thoroughly trustworthy. 
It is written by an Assyrian rather than a Babylonian, and 
hence the colouring is Assyrian. It deals with the relations 
of the two countries between the middle of the fifteenth 
and the middle of the fourteenth century, and from the mid- 
dle of the thirteenth to the beginning of the eleventh. 

Fourth, the Babylonian Chronicle, which furnishes simi- 
lar information for the period from about 775 to 669 b. c. 

There is also much history to be found in the Letters, 
Contracts, Boundary Stones, Prayers to the Sun-God, and 
other inscriptions which are not classified as historical. 

The T el-el- Amarna Letters. — Egypt has always been 
full of surprises for the archaeologist, but none has been 
more startling than the discovery, within her confines, of a 
collection of tablets inscribed in the language and lan- 
guages hitherto supposed to belong almost exclusively to 
Mesopotamia and Babylonia. 

As may be imagined, these tablets created a great sen- 
sation among Assyriologists. They have been found to 
consist chiefly of letters and despatches to two Egyptian 
kings, whose names in these inscriptions are Nimmuriya 
and Naphuriya. The Nimmuriya or Mimmuriya — and 
even Immuriya occurs — is to be identified with Amenophis 
III. We have the following from a letter of Tushratta to 
Amenophis IV: " And now I say that just as I was in 
friendship with Mimmuriya, thy father, so also will I be 
more than ten times so with Naphuriya." Naphuriya is 
certainly to be identified with Amenophis IV, and is to be 
regarded as the Babylonian form of Nefer-Cheperu-Ra, and 
Mimmuriya as the father of Amenophis IV, and not the 
grandfather. Professor Erman, of Berlin, was the first 
authority to identify these two names with the Third and 



Xl ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

Fourth Amenophises of the eighteenth dynasty — viz., Neb- 
ma-ra and Nefer-Cheperu-Ra. Several of these letters refer 
to the wife of Amenophis III — i. e., the mother of Ameno- 
phis IV, viz., Queen Te-i-e. Again, several are simply 
addressed to the " King of Egypt," without any further 
designation. These would fall, however, within the time 
of the two Amenophises. 

From the time of Thothmes III, southwestern Asia had 
been subject to the monarchs of Egypt. This supremacy 
had resulted in numerous friendly and many domestic ties, 
in close commercial relations, and in many political en- 
tanglements of a serious nature. In the administration of 
their Asiatic possessions these kings conducted an exten- 
sive correspondence. The documents found in this collec- 
tion hail from these, among other places: one from Burra- 
buriash. King of Karduniash ( ^ Bumaburiash, King of 
Babylon), to Amenophis IV; one from the King of 
Alashiya to the King of Egypt; letters from Tushratta, 
King of Mitani, to Amenophis III of Egypt. We have 
also letters from the PhcEnician and Syrian cities of Byblos, 
Beyrut, Tyre, Accho; letters from these among other indi- 
viduals in Phoenicia and Syria — viz., Abd-Ashirta, Aziru, 
Shubandi. Palestinian cities also contribute a number of 
interesting letters. Of these we note especially those from 
the governor of Gezer, the governor of Ashkelon, from 
Ursa, and six from Jerusalem. 

These and many others give us a picture of the social 
and political status of western Asia in a period about which 
we formerly knew Uttle. We learn that, in spite of domestic 
ties and close commercial relations, the faithful subjects 
of Egypt were hard pressed by the enemies of Egypt's 
crown. The cries for help found in these letters show us 
that the day was not far distant when Egypt should be com- 
pelled either to strengthen her Asiatic garrisons and for- 
tresses, or to surrender her claims on Asiatic territory. 

No less interesting are the marriage contracts between 
the royal families of Egypt and Asia. The results of these, 
as seen in the career of Amenophis IV, influenced and 



IKTRODUCTION xli 

finally determined every other relation between the con- 
tracting peoples. In fact, the one cause of the unpopular- 
ity of Amenophis IV, of his withdrawal from Thebes, and 
construction of his city, temple, and palace on the site 
of the modem Tel-el-Amama, was his undisguised prefer- 
ence for Asiatic gods and worship, and for the peoples of 
the land of his wife, who was an Asiatic princess. 

These tablets are peculiar in size, shape, and style of 
writing. The clay of which they are made is different from 
that found in other Babylonian tablets, being coarse and 
gritty as a rule. The kind of clay of which a tablet is made 
often plays an important part in indicating the country 
from which it came. Bezold and Budge say that " in 
colour the tablets vary from a light to a dark dust tint, and 
from a flesh colour to dark brick-red. Only a few of 
them have been baked. The others are all sun-dried." 
In form the majority are rectangular, but some are oval. 
Some are flat on both sides and others convex. In a 
great many cases the writing is careless, and only one 
side of the tablet is inscribed. Many different styles of 
writing are used, including every class and variety of form 
of cuneiform characters known, with the exception of 
the complicated characters found in some of the old Baby- 
lonian texts. Budge and Bezold describe it as follows: 
" The writing on the Tel-el-Amarna tablets resembles, to 
a certain extent, the Neo- Babylonian — i. e., the simplifi- 
cation of the writing of the first Babylonian Empire, 
used commonly in Babylonia and Assyria for about seven 
centuries b. c. It possesses, however, characteristics dif- 
ferent from those of any other style of cuneiform of any 
period now known to exist; and nearly every tablet con- 
tains forms of characters which have hitherto been thought 
peculiar to the Ninevite or Assyrian style of writing." 
Very often the characters resemble those on the so-called 
Cappadocian tablets which have been described by Sayce. 
They belong to the fifteenth century, and they antedate 
the birth of Moses at least one hundred years. There are 
a few of these Cappadocian tablets in the University of 



xlii ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

Pennsylvania collection, purchased by Mr. Peters in Con- 
stantinople. 

Again, the language of these inscriptions is peculiar. 
It is not good Babylonian. It is forced and often contains 
non-Semitic words and constructions. Bezold and Budge 
say, " It supplies a number of new words and forms, and 
exhibits peculiar grammatical constructions, the existence 
of which has been hitherto unsuspected, and which have 
a close affinity to the language of the Old Testament." 
In other words, Babylonian was the lingua franca, the 
diplomatic language of western Asia and also of Egypt. 
Some of them, however, are written in very poor Baby- 
lonian. 

But this is not all. Some of the tablets from Mitani, 
which must be located in Mesopotamia, just east of Car- 
chemish, the capital of the Hittite empire, were written 
in Babylonian, and others in an altogether different lan- 
guage. The first to notice this different language was the 
indefatigable Sayce, who has been from the first a pioneer 
in the decipherment of cuneiform and Hittite inscriptions. 
In the January "Academy," 1890, p. 64, he calls attention to 
the "language of Mitannu." Some of these tablets are 
written in a non-Semitic language, but with the cuneiform 
characters, just as a great many people write German letters 
or despatches in the Latin script. I think that this is one 
of the most interesting points connected with these Tel-el- 
Amarna tablets. In the fifth volume, second and third 
numbers (August, 1890), of the " Zeitschrift fiir Assjrri- 
ologie," this so-called Mitani language has been discussed 
by Jensen, Briinnow, and Sayce. 

In these texts we find the peculiarity of dividing words 
at the end of a line. These divisions are of the rarest 
occurrence in other Babylonian tablets. The whole sub- 
ject of language has been taken up most thoroughly by 
Dr. Bezold in his book on "Oriental Diplomacy." 

Editions of these texts have been published by the au- 
thorities of the Berlin and British Museums; Dr. Carl 
Bezold has, under the title " Oriental Diplomacy " (1893), 



INTRODUCTION xliii 

published the texts of the latter museum in transliteration, 
with summaries of their contents, a grammatical analysis, 
and a glossary; and Dr. Hugo Winckler, of Berlin, has 
published, in Schrader's " Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek," 
the transliterated text with parallel translation of all the 
Amarna tablets. 

Assyrian and Babylonian Letters.^ — The Assyro-Baby- 
lonian letter tablets that have come down to us comprise 
a large number of documents differing greatly in contents 
and scope. Most of them owe their preservation to the fact 
that they formed part of the royal or temple archives, and 
for this reason they are usually of an official character. 
Until recent years the letters and despatches received rather 
scant attention. The mass of cuneiform literature rescued 
from the ruins of ancient Assyrian and Babylonian cities 
is of immense extent, while the number of Assyriologists 
has never been very large. For obvious reasons, the nu- 
merous historical, religious, and grammatical texts could 
not fail to excite deep interest and to attract the zealous 
study of Oriental scholars. Under these circumstances it 
was but natural that the letter texts, in spite of their great 
value, should be neglected in favour of the more important 
inscriptions just mentioned. 

The first scholar to make use of the epistolary tablets was 
George Smith, who, in the year 1871, published extracts 
from some ten of them in his " History of Ashurbanipal." 
Historical writers like Hommel and Tiele made free use 
in their works of such letters as were of importance for 
their subject; but, until the year 1887, very little was done 
toward the special study of this branch of Assyro-Baby- 
lonian literatlire. In 1887-89 an American, Mr. Samuel 
Alden Smith, published, in the " Proceedings of the So- 
ciety of Biblical Archaeology," and in the second and third 
parts of his " Keilschrifttexte Asurbanipal's," sixty-nine 
texts copied from the best-preserved letter tablets of the 
British Museum, with transliteration, translation, and phil- 
ological notes. Mr. Smith unfortunately lacked the neces- 
' This section was written by Prof. Christopher Johnston. 



xliv ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

sary philological knowledge, and while he added greatly 
to the available material for study, did very little to eluci- 
date the subject. Of a widely different character was the 
work of Professor Friedrich Delitzsch, the founder of the 
Leipsic School of Assyriology, who published in the " Bei- 
trage zur Assyriologie " (iSS^-'gi) a series of three papers 
in which he gave the transliterated text of forty letters, 
with admirable translations, and a full commentary. Very 
many difficult forms and expressions are here explained for 
the first time, and the effect of Professor Delitzsch's work 
was to provide a sure foundation for the elucidation of As- 
syrian and Babylonian letters. 

Perhaps the greatest difficulty in the way of a successful 
study of the Letter texts was the absence of sufficient avail- 
able material upon which to work. While comparatively 
few of these texts were published, and while the great mass 
of those in the British Museum were not even catalogued 
according to their contents, the task was a hopeless one; 
but the difficulty has happily been removed. The cata- 
logue of the Kouyunjik Collection prepared by Dr. Carl 
Bezold, of which the first volume appeared in 1889, has 
rendered it possible to select these texts from the many 
thousands composing the collection; and an American 
scholar, Mr. Robert Francis Harper, of the University 
of Chicago, has been prompt to take advantage of the 
fact. Aided by Bezold's catalogue, he has copied nearly 
all of these texts, and a portion of the results of his labour 
has been given to the world in the four volumes of his 
" Assyrian and Babylonian Letters of the K Collection " 
(i8g2-'g6), containing four hundred and thirty-five care- 
fully edited letters derived, not only from the K Collec- 
tion, but also from the other collections of the British 
Museum. The material collected is far from being ex- 
hausted in these volumes. This has, however, greatly 
stimulated the interest of Assyriologists in the subject, 
and, in addition to a number of briefer communications, 
more elaborate articles upon the Assyro-Babylonian epis- 
tolary literature have been published in 1896 by Dr. 



INTRODUCTION xlv 

George Ricker Berry, of the University of Chicago, and in 
i897-'98 by the present writer. 

For a long time the only letters known to Assyriolo- 
gists were those of the Sargonide period, but far more an- 
cient texts are now available. Dr. Bruno Meissner pub- 
lished in the " Beitrage zur Assyriologie," in 1894, four 
ancient Babylonian letters from the BerUn collections, and 
called attention to the fact that a considerable number 
of such letters exist in the Berlin and British Museums. 
Many of these are business letters derived from the archives 
of temples and private banking firms. The Babylonian 
temples, it should be remembered, in addition to their 
purely religious functions, were influential corporations, 
and conducted extensive commercial and industrial enter- 
prises. Mr. Leonard W. King, of the British Museum, 
published in his book, " The Letters and Inscriptions of 
Hammurabi," fifty-six letters dating back into the third 
millennium b. c. 

The most important letter texts of the pre-Sargonide 
period are undoubtedly the tablets found at Tel-el-Amarna 
in Upper Egypt, in the winter of i887-'88. They consist 
of letters and despatches addressed to Amenophis III, and 
to his son and successor Amenophis IV, by Asiatic mon- 
archs, among them Burnaburiash, King of Babylon, and 
Ashur-uballit, King of Assyria, both previously known 
from the cuneiform inscriptions, and by the prefects and 
governors of a large number of towns in Syria and 
Phoenicia. 

The letters of the Sargonide period are, with few ex- 
ceptions, of an official character. They contain letters of 
kings to members of their families, and to various high 
officers of the empire; reports of governors of provinces, 
and of military and civil officers; proclamations; petitions; 
rieports of priests on omens terrestrial and celestial; astro- 
nomical reports; reports of physicians concerning patients 
under their care; they represent, in short, nearly every 
species of epistolary composition. These texts, varying 
in length from six or seven to sixty or seventy lines, pro- 

D 



xlvi ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

ceed from a great variety of writers of different stations in 
life, and come from every part of the great Assyrian Em- 
pire. They are composed, not in the classical language of 
the historical inscriptions and the poetical texts, but in 
the colloquial speech prevailing at the time they were 
written. Much, of course, depends upon the subject-mat- 
ter and the personality of the writer. The soldier, the 
priest, the physician, the astrologer, has each his technical 
terms and his peculiar forms of expression. Words and 
forms abound which are only met with in this branch of 
cuneiform literature, and the long and flowing periods of 
the classical texts are here replaced by terser forms of 
speech. The syntactical construction is less rigid, while 
the employment of shorter sentences and the more fre- 
quent use of the particles render the style more vivid and 
lively. On the importance of these texts it is hardly 
necessary to dwell. When we consider the unbounded 
enthusiasm with which every fragment of an ancient 
Roman or Greek inscription is received, and remember 
that in these letters we possess hundreds of original con- 
temporary documents whose authenticity is beyond all 
question, their value to all students of Assyro-Babylonian 
life and history is not easily over-estimated. 

The twenty letters translated on pages 241 to 255 are 
published in Harper's work referred to above. They be- 
long to the Sargonide period, and have been specially se- 
lected with regard to variety of subject and style. 

The Babylonian Legal or Contract Literature} — ^The Con- 
tract Tablets are from some points of view one of the most 
interesting forms of the Assyro-Babylonian literature, 
since they admit us to the everyday life of these pioneers 
in civilization, so that we see them buying and selling, 
marrying and giving in marriage, suffering wrong and 
going to law, willing away and inheriting property — in 
short, their struggles and achievements, disappointments 
and sorrows, loves and hates, are all mirrored here. 

Some thousands of these documents have been re- 

' This section was written by Prof. George A. Barton. 



INTRODUCTION xlvii 

covered and are stored in the various museums of the 
world. The British Museum and the University of Penn- 
sylvania possess the largest of these collections. Of these 
thousands, comparatively few have been published, and the 
thousands already recovered are but a few of those we may 
reasonably expect the mounds of the East to yield to the 
spade of the explorer. Through the labours of Strass- 
maier, Meissner, and others, three thousand or more of 
these texts have been published; and through the efforts 
of Peiser, Meissner, Tallqvist, and others, their interpre- 
tation has been accomplished. 

The greater number of these record the simple daily 
acts of buying and selling which form so large a part of the 
life of every civilized community. These sales include the 
transfer of wheat, dates, sesame, and such food-stuffs from 
their producers, the farmers, to dealers and consumers; 
the purchase and sale of slaves, houses, farms, and estates. 
Others record the lease of various kinds of property, and 
still others will it away. Next in number to records of sales 
are the records of money loans. These frequently tell of 
the pledging of a slave or the mortgaging of a house or 
other piece of real estate as security for the loan. At times 
business misfortune overtook the borrower, and hence 
we find records of bankruptcy among these documents. 
Copartnerships were formed for the conduct of various 
kinds of business, and the names of the partners, the 
amount contributed by each, the duties of each, the 
amounts allowed them for expenses, and the amounts 
finally drawn by each from the profits, all find a place 
in this clay photograph of ancient Ufe. Here too we read 
the guarantees given that certain goods, like a coat of 
mail, will be manufactured by a certain date, or that 
others already made will last a certain time. In Babylon, 
as in modern life, business was often transacted through 
agents, and the powers of attorney given to some of these 
to enable them to act as their principals have fallen into our 

hands. 

An important element in Babylonian life, as in that 



xlviii ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

of every ancient nation, was the slave element. These 
formed a portion of every well-to-do household. They 
were freely bought and sold/willed to heirs, and frequently 
given as a part of the ddwry' of brides. A slave could gaiti 
freedom either through the kindness 6f his iriaster or 
through purchase. Not a few were permitted to engage in 
business enterprises on their own account, and thus se- 
cured the opportunity to gain the necessary purchase 
money. The most cbmirion method of emancipation was 
the adoption of the slave by his master; this was often 
done even when the slave bought his freedom, as it was the 
simplest legal process. In the case of women held in 
slavery, marriage with their masters was a pathway to 
freedom. 

The position of Women in ancient Babylonia is clearly 
mirrored in these tablets. They could divorce their hus- 
bands if they chose, but the penalty for so doing was 
heavier than that which in similar cases rested on men. 
Sometimes when slaves they submitted to unequal mar- 
riage contracts, as in VIII, i, on page 269, in order to 
secure emancipation; at times too they were purchased by 
their husbands (see VIII, 2, p. 269), but more often they 
were given dowries upon marriage by their fathers or some 
relative, which placed them in practical independence, and 
made them almost coequal with their husbands in the 
home. They appear with their husbands as joint partners 
in buying and selling, borrowing and loaning. Married 
women appear alone in contracts relating to money, real 
estate, and slaves; they make contracts concerning mer- 
chandise with men not their hiisbatids,' and appear in law- 
suits. In^ spite of centuries of ba'al marriage, some of the 
freedom enjoyed by the primitive Semitic women was still 
retained. ' ' 

No such institution as a modern batik existed in' Baby- 
lon, but for many years its place was supplied by a power- 
ful family of money-lenders, who bofe the name of Egibi, 
or the " Sons of Egibi." They loaned money at high rates 
of interest on good security, and at higher rates when the 



INTRODUCTION xlix 

security was poor. Not infrequently they had to take the 
securities pledged, because the borrowers could' not pay. 
They dealt in real estate,, formed partnerships with various 
men for carrying on different kinds of business, they fur- 
nishing) the, capital while the other partners conducted the 
active parts of the enterprise. The son succeeded the 
father as head of the firm, the younger sons became sub- 
ordinate partners, and the family thus maintained its im- 
portance and power somewhat as the Rothsdiilds have done 
during the present century. ,, The tablets recently ex- 
humed at Nippur, of which some are translated below, re- 
veal the existence of a similar firm there in the reigns of 
Artaxerxes I and DariUs II, known as " Murashu Sons." 

Not the least interesting phase of Babyldriian life, as 
we see it here, was the administration of justice. ■ In most 
of the towns the common Semitic system of judgment by 
the " Elders," familiar to us from the Old Testament, pre- 
vailed. Some of the details of the workings of this system 
are exhibited on page 278 (XIII, i, 2). This was probably 
the ordinary system at Babylon, but during the reign of 
Nabonidus (S 55-538 b. c.) a bench of eight judges was 
organized there for the administration of justice, 'of which, 
as a rule, six only sat at one time. They seem to have tried 
all sorts of cases. The parties to a suit appeared in person, 
and seem to have conducted their own cases without 
counsel. The judges — with no jury^^-^6nsid6red the case 
in a body, and rendered a decision, which was signed by 
all of them and the clerk of the court. By the middle of 
the reign of Nabonidus the business had increased so that 
two clerks were necessary. As the judges usually signed 
their decisions in the order of their seniority, we are able 
from these to Catch glimpses of them at different times 
through a series of years, and to learri something of their 
history. It appears that there was a system of tivil-service 
promotion, or something quite like it. A man who in the 
accession year of Nabonidus was clerk of the court, two 
years later had been promoted to the bench, and risen once 
there, so that he occupied the fifth place; seven years later 



1 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

all his seniors had disappeared, and he was chief justice. 
Other analogous cases could be cited. 

Most of these legal matters have quite a modem air. 
How one man goes bail for another; one, a creditor, gets 
an execution against another — ^are illustrated in the docu- 
ments translated below (pp. 280, 281). Many other cases, 
each illustrating some special point, might have been given 
had space permitted. 

Babylonian Legends. — The two best-known legends of 
Babylonian literature are the " Account of the Creation " 
and the "Story of the Deluge," the latter being incorporated 
in the great national epic, the " Poem of Gilgamesh." In the 
" Account of the Creation " and the " Poem of Gilgamesh " 
we have the Babylonian representations of Hesiodic Theog- 
ony and Homeric heroic narrative. The one, composed in 
honour of Marduk, the chief god of the Babylonian pan- 
theon, and probably recited in public at the great festival 
of the god, the Babylonian New- Year's Day; the other 
written in memory of a great national hero, Gilgamesh, the 
Gilgamos of Greek literature. There were at least two 
independent recensions of the creation account current in 
Babylonia and Assyria during the later period of their his- 
tory — viz., the great Babylonian poem in seven parts, and 
a second shorter version which bears very little resemblance 
to the former. In addition to these two accounts, there 
existed many variants, which, together with the two ac- 
counts, are evident proof of the great age of the legends; 
an evidence strengthened by the traces which these legends 
have left in Babylonian and Assyrian art, as well as by the 
more indirect references to them in early and later histori- 
cal inscriptions. 

The Gilgamesh epic, the Nibelungenlied of Babylonia, 
recounts the deeds, exploits, and sufferings of Gilgamesh, 
the most important heroic figure in Babylonian mythology. 
His name, like that of Odysseus in Greek literature and 
Siegfried in Germanic mythology, has formed a centre 
around which ancient stories and legends of decidedly 
different nature and distinct origin clustered in course of 



INTRODUCTION H 

time. One such legend is the " Story of the Deluge," form- 
ing the eleventh tablet of the whole Gilgamesh series. It 
is a complete tale, related to Gilgamesh by Pernapishtim, 
who, together with his family, was saved from the deluge. 
This story had originally no connection with the rest of the 
poem, whose historic kernel, ais we gather from the fifth 
and sixth tablet, was a great national upheaval, under the 
leadership of an ancient King of Erech, Gilgamesh, by 
means of which an Elamite dynasty was overthrown and 
Babylonian rule again established. It can not be ascer- 
tained what historical foundations underlie the other 
legends told in this great poem of Gilgamesh, but it is 
quite natural to assume that some early ruler did perform 
deeds of valour, and that his name in later time became 
the centre around which stories and legends, describing 
originally the deeds of other heroes, gathered. Like 
the Homeric poems of Greek and the great Nibelun- 
genlied of early German literature, the Gilgamesh epic 
was a poem of composite character. It would be quite 
easy to prove this, would space permit. It is sufficient to 
enumerate, as a partial proof, the principal sections — viz., 
the rule of Gilgamesh over Erech, the strong-walled; the 
story of Uchat, the hunter, and Eabani; the expedition of 
Gilgamesh and Eabani against the Elamite king; the love 
of the goddess Ishtar for Gilgamesh, rejected by him, for 
which the goddess vows vengeance; the slaying of the 
monstrous mountain-bull ; the journey of Gilgamesh to the 
Mountain of the Sunset; the passage of the Waters of 
Death; the Story of the Deluge; the search for the Plant 
of Life, and the recall of Eabani's spirit from the nether- 
world. All or most of these stories were probably asso- 
ciated originally with the names of other heroes; but they 
attached themselves in the course of centuries to the name 
of Gilgamesh. 

Fortunately, this was not the case with all Babylonian 
legends. There have remained some, perhaps later, pos- 
sibly earlier, legends, quite independent of the name and 
fame of Gilgamesh. A few of these have been discovered. 



Hi ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

and, let us hope, more will be found in the course of time. 
Of independent legends there are known to us the Story 
of Zu; of Dibbara, the plague-god; of Adapa and the 
South-wind; and that of Etana, the eagle, and the serpent. 
The nether-world, that mysterious abode of the departed 
shades about which legends of all nations have gathered, 
played an important role in the Gilgamesh poem and the 
legend of the Descent of the goddess Ishtar. But heaven 
was also a mysterious place, and we see that it also finds 
place in ancient mythology to a considerable extent As 
in the mjrthology of other nations, we have in the legends 
of Etana and Adapia stories of daring mortals brought into 
conflict with thc; gods by their presumption; both jour- 
neying to heaven; the one seeking entrance by his own 
devices, the other summoned thither bjr'Anu, the god of 
heaven. In the legend of Zu we learn how one of the 
lesser deities obtained, for a time at least, control of the 
whole assembly of the gods by stealing from Bel the 
tablets of destiny and fleeing away to his mountain abode, 
whither none of the gods dare go. How he was finally pun- 
ished we know not, for the end of the legend is missing. 

The story of Ishtar's Descent into Hades may be 
sketched as follows: Ishtar arrives before the gates of the 
land of No-Retum. After passing through the seventh 
gate she is brought naked and helpless before Allatu, the 
queen of the nether-world, who commands Namtar to 
smite her with plagues in all parts of her body. The ab- 
sence of Ishtar, however, causes all sexual intercourse to 
cease upon the earth. News of this calamity is brought to 
Shamash, the Sun-god, by Papsukal, the messenger of the 
gods. Shamash at once hastens to Sin and Ea to discuss a 
remedy. A mysterious being, named Uddushu-namir, is 
created by Ea and sent to Allatu to demand in the name of 
the great gods the waters of life with which to sprinkle 
Ishtar. Enraged at the request, Allatu curses Uddushu- 
namir with a fearful curse, but nevertheless commands 
Namtar to bring forth the prisoner and to sprinkle her with 
the waters of life. Ishtar is led forth, and as she passes 



INTRODUCTION liii 

through each gate her ornaments are restored to her one 
by one. 

The interpretation of this story depends upon the mean- 
ing of the last few lines, which are somewhat obscure. The 
situation as given by Dr. Alfred Jeremias is ^perhaps the 
most probable. A brother goes to a magician to inquire 
for the spirit of a dead sister. The real issue involved is, 
" Will the dead return? " The magician then relates to 
him the story of Ishtar, the only one who has ever returned 
from the nether-world. In line 47 of the obverse the 
mourner himself is addressed: " If she (i. e., Allatu) does 
not give to thee her release (i.e ., of the dead sister), then 
turn thyself to her (i. e., Ishtar)." He is then commanded 
to secure the good graces of Ishtar and her consort, Tam- 
muz, by a formal lamentation. The reference to Belili, 
seemingly a sister of Tammuz, in lines 53 and 54, is some- 
what obscure. In line 55 the departed sister addresses her 
sorrowing brother, giving directions that on the day of 
Tammuz, as they weep for the departed consort of Ishtar, 
they shall not forget her in their lamentation. It ought to 
be added that this story of Ishtar is not, as was formerly sup- 
posed, a part of the Gilgamesh epic. This legend has been 
ably treated by Jastrow in Chapter XXV, " The Views of 
Life after Death," of his " Religion of Babylonia and As- 
syria." 

It is quite certain that these legends and myths were 
implicitly belieyed by the Babylonians, and had a religious 
import for the people among -whom we find them, where 
they formed a part an the practical religion and worship of 
the Babylonians.: Many of the legends were doubtless sug- 
gested to the early Babylonians by changes in the aspect of 
Nature or widespread plagues and disease. The clearest 
instance of this is preserved in the Dibbara legend, the 
story of the plague-god, whose campaigns and bloody bat- 
tles were thus suggested as the work of, the god and his 
attendant , deity Ishum. - From similar circumstances we 
may safely assume: that tablets containing these accounts 
were hung up at the entrance of houses and served as amu- 



liv ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

lets for keeping off the plague. The Zu legend was prob- 
ably first suggested by a sudden overwhelming of the 
country by storms and clouds. In general we may say that, 
aside from the Creation account, two main elements can be 
observed in' these Babylonian legends — ^viz., echoes from 
the history of the remote past, and the scene of some strik- 
ing phenomenon of Nature. 

Oracles given in Favour of Esarhaddon. — ^These oracles, 
eight in number, are found on a large clay tablet, about 
two thirds of which has been preserved. After each oracle 
and separated from it by a line is given the name of the 
person uttering it. All of them, except the first and the 
last, are by women. Five of the oracles are from Arbela. 
They appear to be part of a more extensive collection made 
by the votaries of the Ishtar cult at Arbela (pp. 414—419). 

They possess the usual characteristics of oracular re- 
sponse — dignity and indefiniteness. The general purpose, 
however, is plainly that of encouragement. They have 
usually been referred to the beginning of Esarhaddon's 
reign, as the time to which they most suitably apply. The 
king is evidently beset by some powerful enemy, and the 
throne itself is in immediate danger of being overthrown. 
This enemy is none other than the two brothers of Esar- 
haddon, who had murdered their father Sennacherib and 
then fled into Armenia, but had now come down to wrest 
the rule from their younger brother. For several months 
the attention of the young king was taken up with fighting 
for his rights to the succession, and it is at this time that 
the majority of scholars date these utterances. 

No. 7, which is addressed to the king's mother, and No. 
3, which is a formal acknowledgment of the kingship of 
Esarhaddon, are clearly from the beginning of his reign. 
As far as the others are concerned, they are in all proba- 
bility from the same period, although some scholars are of 
the opinion that they cover the entire reign of Esarhaddon. 

Magic.— Tht. religious literature of Babylonia is pecul- 
iarly rich in its collection of magical incantations and 
exorcisms, which fact points to a widespread belief in innu- 



INTRODUCTION Iv 

merable spirits, which were supposed to have a certain 
power over men. To control these spirits, to turn aside the 
consequences of their malice, and to insure their good will, 
is in general the object of these texts. 

It was natural that disease should be considered as an 
affliction from some troublesome spirit, either directly 
present in the body or exercising its pernicious influence 
from a distant hiding-place. The cure was brought about 
by exorcising the demon through prescribed formulas, 
whose virtue had been tested, the recital of whi(;h was ac- 
companied by symbolical acts. These symbolical acts 
were usually the burning of images of the witches and 
the loosing of knots which the witches were supposed to 
have tied. 

In all probability the magical texts were among the first 
of the religious texts to be committed to writing. Serv- 
ing the practical purpose that they did, it is not at all 
strange that certain ones which had proved their effective- 
ness would become popular. A desire to preserve such 
would arise early, and they would after a while become 
permanently associated with certain temples, thus forming 
what might be well called a ritual. In this manner they 
would form part of the temple archives. 

Several of such rituals or series of texts have been pre- 
served, some of longer and some of shorter extent. The 
ordinary method was to name a series after the opening line 
of the first tablet. With the magical texts, however, this 
custom was departed from, and instead the series was given 
a title distinctive of its contents. Thus we have a series of 
nine tablets dealing for the most part with diseases con- 
nected with the brain, which is called the " Head-sickness 
Series." Another, comprising at least sixteen tablets, was 
called the " Evil-Demon Series," because its purpose was 
protection against various classes of evil demons. The two 
series of texts, " Shurpu " and " Maqlu " — ^both of which 
signify " burning " — from which a large part of our trans- 
lations have been taken, were so called because both series 
had to do with the burning of the images of the sorcerers 



Ivi ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

and with the incantations which were used in connection 
with this symboHcal act. The latter of these embraced 
eight tablets and contained about fifteen hundred and fifty 
lines. The former, though embracing nine tablets, is some- 
what shorter. 

We have spoken of these series of texts as rituals. With 
reference to their growth Jastrow makes the following in- 
teresting suggestions: " The texts were evidently prepared 
with a practical purpose in view. The efficacy of certain 
formulas having been demonstrated, it was obviously of 
importance that their exact form should be preserved for 
future reference. But a given formula was effective only 
for a given case, or at most for certain correlated cases, and 
accordingly it became necessary to collect as many for- 
mulas as possible to cover all emergencies. The priests, 
acting as exorcisers, would be the ones interested in mak- 
ing such collections, and we may assume, as already sug- 
gested, that each temple would develop a collection of its 
own — an incantation code that served as a guide for its 
priests. The natural tendency would be for these codes to 
increase from generation to generation, perhaps not rap- 
idly, but steadily. New cases not as yet provided for would 
arise, and new formulas with new instructions would be 
produced; or the exorcisers at a certain temple would learn 
of the remedies tried elsewhere, and would embody them 
in their own special code. In short, the growth of these 
incantation * rituals ' was probably similar to the manner 
in which, on the basis of actual practice, religious codes 
grew up around the sanctuaries of ancient Israel, a process 
that terminated in the production of the various codes and 
rituals constituting the legal documents embodied in the 
Pentateuch." 

Concerning the time of the composition of these texts, 
Jastrow proposes as the terminus a quo the union of the 
Babylonian states under Hammurabi, and the necessary re- 
sult, the supremacy of Marduk. The prominence of Ea 
and his favourite seat, the city of Eridu, in the incantation 
texts, gives additional confirmation to the antiquity of such 



INTRODUCTION Ivii 

incantations in Babylonia. But the texts, as we have them, 
are not in their original form. Evidence of various sorts — 
such as catch-lines, duplicates, series, and colophons — 
makes it very clear that they have been subjected to more 
or less editorial work. The language gives evidence that 
the present form of the texts came into existence probably 
not later than 2000 b. c, from which tablets, the copies 
which have been preserved down to our own time, were 
written many centuries later. The exact time of the com- 
position of a series of texts can not, however, be deter- 
mined except within certain wide limits. The copying and 
editing may have gone on at the same time. 

Having spoken of the general character and develop- 
ment of the incantation texts, it remains to discuss briefly 
the three chief elements in this phase of Babylonian re- 
ligion — the demons, the witches, and the exorcisers. 

The names of the demons are very numerous, and, al- 
though in many places they seem merely to have the gen- 
eral connotation " evil spirit," originally indicated some 
distinctive characteristic, such as the moment chosen for 
their work, as lilu, night-spirit; or their method of attack, 
as rabi9U, the one who lies in wait; or ekimmu, the seizer; 
or their chief attribute, as gallu, the strong one. 

There is no place in any corner of the universe where 
these evil spirits can not penetrate. Every manner of evil 
and disaster is ascribed to them, from pestilence, fever, and 
the scorching wind of the desert, down to the trifles of life — 
a quarrel, a headache, a broken dish, or a bad dream. They 
walk the street, slip into the door, get into the food; in 
short, are everywhere, and the danger from their presence 
is always imminent. To be sure, they had their favourite 
haunts in regions difficult of access^ — the lonely desert, 
the silent grove, the mountain wady filled with shadows. 
On the monuments they are always represented by some 
ugly and monstrous form, either animal or human. For a 
long time the Assyrian kings protected the entrances and 
the doorways of their palaces by huge representations of 
these evil spirits — the well-known bulls and lions — ^and 



Iviii ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

some of these colossi are even known by the name shedu, 
which is one of the general terms for demon. 

The dividing line between the demons and the gods is 
frequently hard to trace. The process of the survival of 
the fittest went on even among the spirits as well as else- 
where, and the origin of not a few of the gods can be traced 
back to demons. The opposite process also took place. 
Scores of the old local gods of Babylonia have been per- 
petuated merely through their being evil spirits. The main 
difference between the gods and the spirits is in this: while 
there were a few good spirits, the great majority of them 
were hostile to man and beast; the gods, on the other hand, 
were usually favourably disposed, and though at times 
angry with their followers, could nevertheless be appeased. 

Corresponding to a widespread belief in demons was a 
similar belief in witchcraft. It was not at all strange that 
the demons, who worked in every possible corner of the 
universe, should take possession of human beings. For the 
most part the witches were persons of abnormal appear- 
ance — dwarfs, giants, deformed, insane, possessing the 
" evil eye," etc. As is universally the case, the witch was 
far more common than the male sorcerer. 

These possessed persons had the same power as the 
demons, and often the two are placed in such close juxta- 
position that very little difference can be discerned between 
them. In the same manner as the evil spirit, the witch 
could get inside of a man and work all sorts of mischief. 
From being on an equality and having the same power as 
the demons, it was but natural that the witches should at 
last be conceived of as being superior to the evil spirits, 
and as having full control over them, able to have them 
at their beck and call. 

The methods of control which the witches employed 
were various — the " evil word," consisting of some magi- 
cal formula, the glance from an " evil eye," or potions con- 
cocted from noxious herbs. A very common method of 
control, which rests upon the scientific principle of sym- 
pathetic magic, was the symbolical act of the sorcerer. He 



INTRODUCTION lix 

would perhaps tie knots in a rope, and with each knot re- 
peat a certain formula, and thus in symbol wrench the 
limbs, wrack the arms, or strangle the throat of the victim; 
or perhaps he would make an effigy of his victim out of 
honey, clay, or pitch, and then by burning, torturing, or 
burying it in some out-of-the-way place, would foretell a 
corresponding fate on the part of the one whom it repre- 
sented. 

Life without any protection whatever against the in- 
numerable throng of sorcerers, witches, and demons, must 
have been unbearable. We are not surprised to find, there- 
fore, a wide use of amulets and talismans. Mr. L. W. King 
has described some fragments of the " Pest-god " legend 
on tablets which were evidently intended to be hung up. 
Every one had to have his protection, but the use of such 
charms demanded on the part of the wearer no particular 
acquaintance with the best means of turning aside the evil 
influences which were on every hand. Frequently a more 
potent means was required to effect a cure, and special 
knowledge was necessary for this. Thus a professional class 
arose whose particular work was to cope with these de- 
moniacal powers of the witches and the evil spirits. These 
men were naturally the priests, and early in the develop- 
ment of religion this became one of their main functions. 

The conjurer-priest, or ashipu, as he is called, is in the 
service of Ea and Marduk, and by means of the incantation 
performs various mediatorial services for his people — such 
as the healing of diseases, the atoning for sins that have 
been committed, the loosing from the ban of the sorcerer, 
the driving away of evil spirits, the appeasing of the wrath 
of the angry god or goddess. 

As far as the activity of the exercisers is concerned, it 
differed very little from that of the sorcerers and the 
witches. The method of the latter was more simple. The 
former had brought their art to a system. The latter were 
in the service of evil. The former devoted themselves to 
the good, and thus, under the kindly protection of the 
gods, their activity became, as it were, legalized. A casual 



Ix ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

reading of the incantations shows that one of the prin- 
cipal rules of conjuring was to repay like for like. So the 
conjurer prays that the gods may conjure the sorcerer with 
his own sorcery, the incantation of the witch is counter- 
acted by another incantation of superior power, the sym- 
bolical tying of knots is offset by the symbolical loosen- 
ing of them, the burning of an image of the witch is an 
effective remedy for a similar action on their part. 

It has been said that the activity of the exerciser was 
under the protection of the gods. These gods, opposed to 
the " gods of the night," whose nature it was to work evil, 
were first of all Ea, who occupies a very prominent place 
in the incantation texts, and his sons Shamash, Marduk, 
Gibil, and Nusku. Besides these there were Ishtar and her 
spouse Tammuz, Nana, Belit, and Sin, the Moon-god. By 
far the greatest role, however, is played by the Fire-god. 
We are constantly meeting him. He, together with fire, 
the element which he represents, are the untiring helpers of 
the exorcisers in their battle against the powers of darkness. 

The " Maqlu Series " has been edited by Dr. Tallqvist, 
and the " Shurpu Series " by Professor Zimmem. Mr. 
Leonard W. King has edited " The Prayers of the Lifting 
of the Hand " in his " Babylonian Magic and Sorcery." 
The translations have been based on these editions. Many 
suggestions have been received from Jastrow's admirable 
treatment of " The Magical Texts " in Chapter XVI of his 
" Religion of Babylonia and Ass)Tia." 

Hymns and Prayers. — ^The Hymns and Prayers are 
very closely related to Incantations. To quote Jastrow: 
"The addition to the sacred formulas of prayers directly 
addressed to certain gods may be put down as due to the 
adaptation of ancient texts to the needs of a later age; and, 
on the other hand, the addition of incantations to what 
appear to have been originally prayers, pure and simple, 
is a concession made to the persistent belief in the efficacy 
of certain formulas when properly uttered." 

The Hymns to Ishtar and Sin have been selected for 
translation as rather elaborate examples of this class of 



INTRODUCTION Ixi 

literature. Several of " The Prayers of the Lifting of the 
Hand," and two of "The Prayers to the Sun-god," have 
been added. The former have been edited by Mr. Leonard 
W. King, and the latter by Dr. Knudtzon. 

The " Prayers to the Sun-god " are so peculiar as to 
warrant a few words of introduction. They date from the 
reigns of Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal, and they have 
to do with questions which concern the state and the royal 
house. The opening line is always the same — viz., " O 
Shamash! great lord! As I ask thee, do thou in true mercy 
answer me." Then follows the question, in which the 
priest, acting as mediator, makes inquiry whether certain 
political or warlike operations will be carried out within 
a set period. We then have a request that the Sun-god 
should not heed any imperfections, impurities, or con- 
taminations in the sacrificial lamb, or any failings of the 
priest in the matter of dress, accent, or ritualistic purity. 
The first request is made again by the priest, but in a 
shorter form; the animal is inspected, and in a final prayer 
the Sun-god is asked to send a favourable oracle. These 
so-called "Prayers to the Sun-god " are valuable sources 
of history. They are often accompanied by omens. 
Jastrow places them under " Oracles and Omens," rather 
than prayers. There are several fine prayers in the His- 
torical Inscriptions, the best of which are from Nebuchad- 
rezzar. 

Penitential Psalms. — ^While these Psalms are closely re- 
lated to the other forms of religious literature, they rise 
far above all other forms in spirituality and religious con- 
ception. Zimmem, who has done such excellent work 
in their interpretation, is of the opinion that they owe their 
existence to national misfortunes, and were composed in 
times of national stress. From some historical references 
he is inclined to assign some of them to the time of Ham- 
murabi. 

The idea underlying them is that misfortunes are 
directly due to the wrath of the gods, and hence, in these 
Psalms, great emphasis is placed on the pacification of the 



Ixii ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

deities or deity. The persons concerned in them are: the 
god, whose anger is to be appeased; the priest, who acts 
as mediator; and the penitent. A remarkable degree of 
humility and an almost exaggerated sense of sin permeate 
them. Many of them compare favourably with some of 
the so-called Davidic Collection contained in the Old Testa- 
ment. 

Omens. — ^A large proportion of the tablets found in the 
" Library of Ashurbanipal " belongs to this class of litera- 
ture. Comparatively few have been published, and hence it 
is with great pleasure that scholars will welcome the two 
recent volumes of Mr. R. Campbell Thompson, of the Brit- 
ish Museum, on "The Reports of the Magicians and 
Astrologers of Nineveh and Babylon." Omens were 
eagerly sought in matters pertaining to both public and 
private life, such as the stability of the throne, peace, war, 
pestilence, famine, inundations, drought, disease, death, 
and so forth. They were derived from the appearance, 
movements, and actions of all kinds of animals; from 
human and animal births; from incidents that happened 
to the sick; from the condition of the parts of the body; 
in fact, no occurrence was too trivial to escape notice. 
Astronomy, and especially astrology, played an important 
part. The Omens given in the translations belong to the 
group generally styled "Astrological Forecasts." These 
have been selected from Mr. Thompson's valuable work. 

Robert Francis Harper. 



AN OUTLINE OF 
BABYLONIAN-ASSYRIAN HISTORY 



OF the seats of primitive civilization known to man 
one of the earh'est is the valley of the Tigris and 
the Euphrates. On the alluvial plain at the mouth 
of these rivers, ordinarily called Babylonia, lived peoples 
enjoying settled conditions of government and culture as 
early as 5000 b. c. Who the first settlers .were is quite 
uncertain, and the problem of their racial relations is still 
in dispute. By the time history gains form and consecu- 
tion, however, a type of civilization became dominant and 
universal which represented the supremacy of the Semitic 
race. 

The prevailing form of government was the city state, 
and political progress continued in the varying and suc- 
cessive supremacies of the cities, one after another, and 
their gradual unification. Thus, among others, Shirpurla, 
Kish, Ur, Agade, Erech, Larsa, and Babylon, formed king- 
doms ruling a territory more or less extensive, and yield- 
ing in turn to more powerful rivals. 

A turning point in this earliest period is marked by the 
supremacy of the city of Agade under two famous kings, 
Sargon and his son Naram Sin. By the testimony of a 
later King of Babylon, the date of Naram Sin is fixed at 3750 
B. c, and of Sargon, therefore, about 3800. Both kings 
testify that they ruled as far south as the centre of the 
Babylonian plain, and, if inscriptions coming from a much 
later age and ascribed to them are credible, their empire 

Ixiii 



Ixiv ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

extended to the Mediterranean on the west, into Arabia 
on the south, and eastward into Elam. These later docu- 
ments, as well as the autobiographical fragment ascribed 
to Sargon (see page i), indicate how strong an impres- 
sion was made by these kings upon the imagination of 
other centuries, and suggest, therefore, something of the 
significance and scope of their activities. 

Looking back upon this first great age of Babylonian 
history, three features are prominent: 

1. Religion is the formative element. In the centre of 
each city is the temple, with its ruling and protecting deity. 
Priests are the guardians of culture. The citizens with 
their rulers are servants of the god. All life is founded on 
religion and permeated with its influence. Literature and 
fundamental institutions are occupied with it. Already 
the traditions of a far-distant past have been wrought into 
something like an organized literary form, the outcome 
of which is poetical literature like the Babylonian story of 
creation, and the narrative of the deluge, the latter form- 
ing an episode in an epic poem. Already the Sabbath, " a 
day of rest for the heart," is a fundamental institution 
which, with other equally important elements of religion, 
was later to find its home among the Hebrews. 

2. The energizing element of these communities is the 
ruler. He exercises supreme and unlimited power as serv- 
ant of the ddty and representative of divine authority. He 
is the builder, the general, the judge, the high priest. His 
name is perpetuated upon the building stones of the temple 
and palace. His figure is preserved in the image which 
stands before the god in his temple. 

3. From a civilization rooted in religion and under the 
sway of a ruler limited only by the will of god springs 
the impulse to expansion so characteristic of those early 
Babylonian communities. Circumstances were also par- 
ticularly favourable. Communication between the differ- 
ent cities was made easy by the innumerable water courses 
threading the plain. The Tigris-Euphrates Valley lay in 
a kind of natural centre of commerce, inviting trade from 



BABYLONIAN-ASSYRIAN HISTORY Ixv 

the south and east and sending forth its merchants to the 
north and west along the natural highways made by its 
rivers. Thus, by the twenty-fifth century b. c, Babylonian 
civilization had reached Syria and Palestine, and Babylo- 
nian rulers claimed authority in these regions. 

These larger outlooks with their opportunities for 
wealth and power naturally reacted upon the Babylonian 
states to produce greater political unification. This pro- 
cess came to its culmination in connection with the inva- 
sion of a foreign foe, the Elamites, who, descending from 
the heights to the east, gained possession of the southern 
cities and received the homage of those of northern Baby- 
lonia. But the occupation was only temporary. A move- 
ment of liberation emanating from the city state of Babylon 
succeeded not only in driving out the enemy, but in unit- 
ing all the cities under the sway of the northern capital, 
Babylon. The leader in this struggle and first king of 
united Babylonia was Hammurabi, who reigned, accord- 
ing to the dynastic tablet, fifty-five years, and is the founder 
of the old Babylonian Empire. He drove out the Elam- 
ites and conquered Rim-Sin of Larsa. He united under 
the headship of Babylon the " kingdom of the four re- 
gions " and that of " Shumir and Akkad." This unity he 
sought to make not merely political, but religious and 
social. He shows a statesmanlike ability in the measures 
he undertook, and the national history begins with him. 

The historical material coming from him is not abun- 
dant, but sufficient to reveal some of the details of his 
activity. The ends he aimed at were inner organization 
and restoration in politics, religion, and society. His atten- 
tion was directed not to Babylon alone, but over the whole 
land. A period of prosperity and advance in all spheres 
of life is the result of his work. Unity, nationality, is im- 
pressed on all departments of the national structure. This 
appears in — 

I. The development of national prosperity. A great 
mass of the so-called contract tablets dates from the reign 
of Hammurabi, The evidence of these to a condition of 



Ixvl ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

peace, security, and prosperity is apparent. The king^s 
canal inscription, in which he records the digging of a trunk 
canal, and its effect upon the fertility of the land, illustrates 
another feature of the times. 

2. The growth of a national culture. The inscriptions 
of the king tell of his temple-building and his encourage- 
ment of the architectural advancement of the land. Much 
of the oldest literary material which has come down to 
us dates from his reign. He was also an ardent collector 
of ancient traditions. The great epic poem of Babylonia, 
of which the deluge story forms a part, is thought to come 
from his time. He was the founder of the Semitic national 
culture which flourished so magnificently, and has been so 
widely influential upon succeeding peoples and nations. 

3. The establishment of a national religion. It is not 
without good ground that the organization of the Baby- 
lonian religion is assigned to Hammurabi. Before him it 
was impossible, for local authority meant local religion. 
Only where there was a united Babylonia could there be 
one national religion. The gods of the cities were gathered 
into a pantheon. The magical and astral elements were har- 
monized. 

Babylonia, thus unified, pressed forward yet more vig- 
orously in its career of expansion. An irresistible impulse 
carried it inevitably to the north and west. To the south 
lay the unknown oceans, or the inhospitable deserts. To 
the east the equally impassable mountain ranges of central 
Asia. But the Euphrates and Tigris afforded easy ap- 
proach to the land of upper Mesopotamia and Syria, and 
thither pointed the manifest destiny of the rulers of the 
Babylonian state. Henceforth the history of Babylonia 
is the history of its relation to the western worid. One of 
the kings of the dynasty of Hammurabi proclaims himself 
lord of the west. All of them have long reigns, indicating 
peace, prosperity, and progress. 

The absence of any definite knowledge concerning the 
second Babylonian dynasty (about 2094-1730 b. c.) sug- 
gests that with them weakness and confusion begin to ap- 



BABYLONIAN-ASSYRIAN HISTORY bcvii 

pear in the empire. Judging from later events, it is probable 
that g^ve changes were in operation about Babylon, move- 
ments of peoples pressed upon and pressing in upon that 
land, the outcome of which is seen in the establishment 
of a new dynasty upon the throne and the appearing of a 
new power in the Mesopotamian valley. This new dynasty 
was that of the Kassites, and the new power was Assyria. 

The beginnings of Assyria are unknown, but the com- 
paratively late date of its appearance in history, coupled 
with the fact that language, institutions, and people have 
a Semitic character, and that decidedly Babylonian, sug- 
gests that the new community was an oflfshoot or colony of 
Babylonia, It has also been conjectured with much plausi- 
bility that its appearance and activity at this time are to 
be connected with the ascendency of the new and foreign 
Kassite people in Babylonia. 

The Kassites, if our chronology is reasonably accurate 
here, ruled nearly six hundred years (about 1 730-1 150 B. c.) 
over the Babylonian plain. The non-Semitic character of 
the names and titles which they bear upon the monuments 
has convinced modem scholars that they have come from 
the region of the northeast of Babylonia. They do not 
seem to have established their capital at Babylonia, but to 
have preferred a more central point in the plain, and at the 
old sacred city of Nippur many remains of the dynasty 
have been discovered. 

One of the most important of their inscriptions is that 
of King Agum, in which relations with the Hittites of 
the north, as well as with the peoples of the east, seem to 
be indicated. The later kings of the dynasty entered into 
friendly relations with the kings of Egypt, as the corre- 
spondence of the Tel-el- Amarna tablets indicates. Though 
they were an alien people, yet they were early assimilated 
to the higher civilization of Babylonia, and they con- 
tributed little that is permanent to the language and the 
life of the Semitic empire. 

The chief characteristic of the period of the Kassite 
kings, however, is the almost constant hostility between 



Ixviii ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

the Babylonian and the Assyrian powers. It was this con- 
dition of things which hindered their aggressive activities 
and made it possible for the Egyptians under the Pharaohs 
of the New Empire to extend its boundaries eastward and 
northward to the banks of the Euphrates and into Meso- 
potamia. 

What is known of the almost constant and devastating 
wars of this period is preserved in the so-called synchro- 
nous history of Assyria and Babylonia, which, written from 
an Assyrian point of view, glorifies perhaps too much the 
Assyrian progress. But there can be no doubt but that 
the Kassite dynasty gradually declined in power until at 
last it was overthrown and a native dynasty took its 
place, of which the most important ruler was Nebuchad- 
rezzar I. 

But though the Kassites had disappeared, the struggle 
with Assyria continued, being transformed, as it seemed, 
from a struggle against conquerors of their native Baby- 
lonia into an ambition to recover for themselves and take 
possession of the home land. 

In addition to this complication the Semitic Baby- 
lonians had to contend about this time with a new antag- 
onist. The Kaldi, a warlike people of Arabian brigin, en- 
tered the southern part of the plain, and at first occupying 
the sea-coast, began to press northward to gain possession 
of the gpreat centres of Babylonian life. Henceforth the 
ancient state was harassed from north and south by her 
active enemies. Coincident with this endeavour to pos- 
sess the lower Mesopotamian plain was the Assyrian ambi- 
tion to gain possession of the upper valley, over which 
pass the routes of trade to the west. These movements, 
at times hindered, at other times more successful, under 
kings of whom we know hardly more than their names, 
seemed about to be carried to complete success in the 
person of King Tiglath-pileser I (1120-1100 b. c). His 
long historical inscription testifies to his campaigns in the 
north and east, the west and south, in which he reached the 
Mediterranean and conquered Babylon. With him Assyria 



BABYLONIAN-ASSYRIAN HISTORY Ixix 

began to undertake that task of world conquest in which 
all succeeding kings took their part. 

But this progress was not destined to be constant. The 
two sons of Tiglath-pileser have left only the slightest no- 
tices of their activity, and with their passing a decline 
begins in the fortunes of Assyria, lasting for at least a 
century. The chief reason fpr this seems to be that a 
new and irresistible migration of people from northern 
Arabia spread over the Mesopotamian and Syrian plains, 
forcing the Assyrians back upon their own borders. This 
was the so-called Aramaean migration, the presence of 
which in Syria is testified to in the biblical narrative of 
the wars of David with the kingdom of Zobah and the 
relations of Solomon with the newly founded kingdom of 
Damascus. 

Darkness settles down upon the Assyrian kingdom until 
Ramman-nirari [Adad-nirari] II appears, in whose brief 
inscription are mentioned two of his predecessors, Ashur- 
dan II and Tiglath-pileser II, the latter of whom seems to 
have been the founder of the new dynasty by which As- 
syria's fortunes were to be re-established. Ramman-nirari 
II was succeeded by Tiglath-adar II, and he by Ashur- 
nagirpal (884-860 b. c), with whom Assyria was to take a 
great step forward. 

It has often been remarked, that this decline of Assyria 
(i 100-900 B. c.) was a providential condition of the rise and 
splendid development of the kingdom of David and Solo- 
mon. The Aramaeans weakened rthe great Eastern empires 
and made any movement in northern Syria impossible dur- 
ing this period, while they themselves were not sufiSciently 
organized nor had penetrated deeply enough into southern 
Syria to threaten the Israelite kingdom. But by the year 
884 B. c. all had changed, and on every side the oppor- 
tunity was given for a great advance of Assyria. The 
Aramaeans had settled down into petty kingdoms on either 
side of the upper Euphrates; Babylonia was suffering from 
the invasion of the Kaldi; Egypt, after the brilliant reign of 
Shishak I, had fallen into decay, and the splendid organiza- 



Ixx ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

tion of Solomon had split into the petty kingdoms of Israel 
and Judah. 

Ashumagirpal seems to have devoted himself primarily 
to the recovery of the Mesopotamian plain from the Ara- 
masans, breaking up the kingdoms lying about the upper 
waters of the Euphrates. He made an expedition into 
Syria, the date of which is quite uncertain, possibly about 
875 B. c, in which he reached the Mediterranean. Its 
influence upon Palestine may have been hardly more than 
to weaken the northern Syrian states, and thus to g^ve a 
freer hand to the kingdom of Damascus in its rising hos- 
tility to Israel. No doubt, also, all Syria now began to 
understand that a new development of the military king- 
dom lying on the Tigris had begun. 

Under Shalmaneser II, his son (860-825 b. c), the 
western campaigns were vigorously pursued. First, the 
Aramaean kingdom lying in the great bend of the Eu- 
phrates was demolished. Then the river was crossed and 
the Syrian states attacked. The lesson of Ashumaqirpal 
had been heeded, and Shalmaneser found himself face to 
face with a coalition of kingdoms of the west that met him 
in 854, at the battle of Qarqar. 

That Shalmaneser II, for all his boast of victory in this 
battle, had suffered in the conflict with the west is shown 
by the fact that for five years he did not come into that 
region. Not until 849 do we hear of another meeting 
with the Syrian coalition. Another campaign followed in 
846, another in 842, and another in 839. In the two latter 
campaigns he was confronted by Hazael of Damascus, who, 
according to 2 Kings, viii, 15, had usurped the throne of 
that kingdom. It was shortly after 842 that on the Black 
Obelisk of Shalmaneser, among the tributary kings, men- 
tion is made of " Jehu, the son of Omri," who paid tribute 
to the Assyrian king. 

Shalmaneser II warred also against Babylonia, where 
a dynastic difficulty between two brothers gave him an op- 
portunity of intervening to secure the accession of his can- 
didate in circumstances which emphasized the superiority 



BABYLONIAN-ASSYRIAN HISTORY Ixxi 

of Assyria. His campaigns in the northeast with the moun- 
tain tribes are less significant. 

It was not without serious strain upon the resources of 
the Assyrian Empire that this tremendous series of cam- 
paigns was carried on. To this fact is perhaps attributable 
the revolt led by a son of the king which troubled the last 
years of Shalmaneser II, and which he left to be overcome 
by his son and successor, Shamshi-Ramman II (825-811). 
To him succeeded Ramman-nirari [Adad-nirari] III (811- 
782). He entered the west once more, after it had rested 
from Assyrian invasion since 833. The Eponym Canon 
records a four years' expedition (806-803), ^"^ an inscrip- 
tion from the king mentions the defeat of Damascus and 
the overthrow of its king, Mari, and the extension of As- 
syrian authority over " the land of Omri." The king seems 
to have made his arms supreme even to the border of 
Egypt, though whether he ever entered the land of Israel 
with his army is doubtful. 

With the death of Ramman-nirari III, Assyria falls into 
another temporary decline. This is indicated by the ab- 
sence of documents from the three kings of this period, 
Shalmaneser III (782-773), Ashurdan III (772-755), and 
Ashur-nirari (754-745)- The Eponym list, with its brief 
mention of pestilence and revolts, testifies to the inglorious 
condition of the state. Somfe expeditions, indeed, into the 
west are mentioned — one against Damascus, one against 
Arpad, and three against a city of northern Syria, Hatarika 
— enough, perhaps, to keep down the strength of these 
kingdoms without extending or strengthening the Assyrian 

sway. 

With Ashur-nirari this splendid dynasty of Assyrian 
kings which had ruled for more than a century came to an 
end. One who did not belong to the old royal line suc- 
ceeded to the throne, possibly as the outcome of a suc- 
cessful revolution — ^Tiglath-pileser III. He introduced a 
new period of Assyrian conquest. He is the first Assyrian 
king to obtain in any real sense the title of King of Baby- 
lon. A revolution had taken place there which placed on 



Ixxii ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

the throne a certain Ukinzir, a Kaldu. Tiglath-pileser 
marched against him, and after two campaigns captured 
him and ascended the vacant throne. He seems to' have 
reigned in Babylon under the name of Pulu, which reap- 
pears in the bibHcal narrative of 2 Kings, xv, 19. In the 
west, where Assyria's activity had been intermitted, an 
opportunity had been given for the recovery and re-estab- 
lishment of the local kingdoms. Israel and Judah seem 
to have been able to take advantage of this opportunity. 
Jeroboam II (885-745) brought Israel to the highest point 
of her material development. Similar prosperity on a 
smaller scale attended the long reign of Uzziah (Azariah) in 
Judah. 

Tiglath-pileser III, however, showed himself unwilling 
to remain the nominal head of the west, where Assyria's in- 
activity during the preceding years had given occasion to 
vassal cities to refuse to render lawful tribute. In 743 
he began a four years' campaign against Arpad, a city 
of central Syria. Here he came in contact with the sol- 
diers of the rising kingdom of Urartu or Armenia, which 
was destined to become the rival of the Assyrian Empire. 
In 738 he was again in that region, to overthrow a revolt 
which centred about the city of Hamath. It was in con- 
nection with this campaign, apparently, that mention is 
made in fragments of his annals which have come down to 
us of a certain Azariah of Judah, who is the leader of the 
revolt, and whom he defeats. The mention of this King 
of Judah, apparently the same as Uzziah, has given rise 
to many conjectures and explanations, none of which are 
altogether satisfactory. Among the tributary kings men- 
tioned in the course of this campaign is Menahem of Sa- 
maria, and it is interesting to bring into connection with 
this statement of the Assyrian king the passage in 2 Kings, 
XV, 19, 20. 

Among other tribute-paying kings of this year is Rezon 
of Damascus, who, however, in a similar tribute list of four 
years later, is not mentioned. Between these two dates, 
therefore, he had revolted. Second Kings, xv, 37; xvi, 5, 



BABYLONIAN-ASSYRIAN HISTORY Ixxiii 

tells how he united with Pekah of Israel in a coalition and 
made war upon Joram and Ahaz of Judah because, as has 
been thought, these kings would not unite in the anti-As- 
syrian movement. Judah was brought into great straits, 
and the youthful Ahaz, against the earnest admonition of 
Isaiah, his prophet counsellor, sought a way out of the 
difficulty by offering tribute to Tiglath-pileser. The appeal 
was successful. The Assyrian advanced into the west in 
734, and for two years marched up and down through this 
region. Rezon was shut up in Damascus, Israel was over- 
thrown. The Assyrian army moved southward into Phi- 
listia as far as Gaza. On its return march Pekah was de- 
throned and slain, and Hoshea reigned in his stead as a 
vassal of Assyria. Damascus was captured, Rezon slain, 
and the whole land, with the exception of Israel, was made 
into an Assyrian province. 

It is not certain whether Shalmaneser IV, who followed 
on the Assyrian throne (727-722 b. c), was the son of his 
predecessor, since from his short reign of five years no 
monuments have come down to us. The Eponym Canon is 
also defective for his reign, and our information concern- 
ing him is dependent upon the few statements found in the 
Babylonian chronicle and in 2 Kings, xvii, 1-6. It appears 
that Hoshea paid the Assyrian tribute in the accession year 
of Shalmaneser, being overawed by the presence of Shal- 
maneser's army. But in the second year thereafter he re- 
volted, whereupon the Assyrian ;king invaded Israel, im- 
prisoned him,^ and attacked Samaria, but was compelled to 
besiege it, and died during the siege; 

His successor was Sargon (722-705 b. c), the greatest 
of all the Assyrian kings. He brought the siege of Samaria 
to a successful conclusion in 722. 

, The real cause of the troubles with the western prov- 
inces was the attempt of Egypt to gain influence in these 
regions. The Ethiopians secured control of the Egyptian 
throne with the twenty-fifth dynasty, and its first king, 
Sabako, proceeded immediately to intrigue in the Assyrian 
provinces. Hoshea of Israel seems to have been the first 



Ixxiv ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

victim of these intrigues, but he was not the last. A king 
of Hamath revolted and succeeded in organizing Arpad, 
Damascus, and Samaria in connection with Gaza against 
the Assyrian, in reliance upon promises of assistance made 
by the King of Egypt. Sargon defeated the coalition at 
the battle of Raphia in 720. For nine or ten years the west 
was quiet. In 711 another revolt occurred, the centre of 
which was the city of Ashdod. Sargon sent his Turtan to 
put down the rebels, and the expedition is referred to in 
the twentieth chapter of Isaiah. An inscription fragment 
mentions Judah in connection with this rebellion as though 
it was a tributary state which had joined the alliance against 
Assyria. In view of this fact there is a difference of opinion 
among scholars as to whether Judah was punished when 
the rebellion was put down. No satisfactory evidence on 
this point exists either in the inscriptions or in the Old 
Testament. 

The great achievements of Sargon are connected with 
the east, rather than with the west. It was he who gave 
the death-blow to the kingdom of Urartu. In a series of 
splendid campaigns he cut off the allied tribes east and 
west, and in 714 b. c. attacked the centre of the kingdom. 
Ursa, the king, was defeated and killed himself. Urartu 
was made an Assyrian province. The rising power of the 
Kaldi in Babylonia, as represented by Marduk-bal-iddin, 
was beaten back by him. This Kaldu, from Bit Jakin, had 
entered into a coalition with the Elamites and other neigh- 
bouring peoples, and in 721 b. c, proclaimed himself king 
of Babylonia. Sargon at once gave him battle, but the 
result was indecisive. Twelve years passed before he mo- 
lested the usurper. Then, in 710 B. c, he led his armies 
south, drove out the Elamites, routed Marduk^al-iddin, 
and was crowned king of Babylon in 709 b. c. He fol- 
lowed the Kaldaean into his land and plundered it. He 
spent the last years of his life at Babylon, where he re- 
ceived the homage and tribute of the kings of his immense 
domains. Among them were thirty princes of the Medes, 
who were appearing in the east on Assyria's borders and 



BABYLONIAN-ASSYRIAN HISTORY Ixxv 

were beginning to consolidate into a nation. Assyria was 
never more strong or prosperous than under him. He was 
the first real organizer of the empire. The policy of de- 
portation, the method of Assyrian provincial government, 
was developed by him. He was a great builder, and the 
remains of his palace exhibit the finest examples of As- 
syrian architecture and art. 

Sargon is said to have been murdered by one of his 
soldiers. His son, Sennacherib (705-682 b. c.) succeeded. 
Marduk-bal-iddin seems to have chosen the opportunity for 
the organization of a coalition east and west against the 
Assyrian. The visit of his ambassadors to Hezekiah (2 
Kings, XX, 12) seems to have had this object in view. Sen- 
nacherib, however, proceeded immediately against Babylon, 
and followed up the defeat of the Kaldi by an expedition to 
the west in 701. First the Phcenician states were subdued; 
Askalon was captured; other cities of Philistia were over- 
run; a battle was fought at Altaku with the Egyptian army, 
which was driven into Egypt. Sennacherib then turned 
to Judah, overran the country, took the cities, captured 
two hundred thousand one hundred and fifty people, car- 
ried oflf great booty, and shut Hezekiah up in Jerusalem. 
The King of Judah submitted and paid tribute to save 
himself and his capital. Sennacherib had advanced to 
Lachish, where he received the tribute. But as Sennach- 
erib advanced farther, he feared to leave behind him this 
citadel in possession of the King of Judah, and sent a de- 
tachment, in violation of his agreement, to demand its sur- 
render. His attempt failed. The detachment retired, and 
shortly after that strange calamity befell the Assyrian army 
(2 Kings, xix, 35) concerning which the inscriptions are 
naturally siknt. It is doubtful whether Sennacherib ever 
came into the west again, though the reason for this was 
probably not so much the unhappy issue of this campaign 
as the fact that the western tributaries had no more spirit to 
revolt. 

The first expedition of Sennacherib against Babylonia 
did not have any lasting result. In 700 b. c. he entered it 



Ixxvi ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

again, pressed the Kaldaean back to the sea-coast, and fol- 
lowed him with a fleet. During his absence the Elamites 
entered the land, only to be driven back on his return. 
All elements of opposition united finally against him in 
the battle of Halule (691 b. c), and though the immediate 
result was undecided, when he came again in 689 b. c. he 
was unopposed. Irritated by the constant opposition, Sen- 
nacherib determined to destroy the ancient city of Babylon, 
and so remove the cause of the trouble. The city remained 
in ruins till the reign of his son. 

Sennacherib fell a victim to the ambition of two of his 
sons, who slew him, according to the biblical account, while 
he was worshipping in a temple. His third son, Esarhaddon, 
took vengeance upon the murderers, and succeeded to his 
father's throne (681-668). He altered his father's policy 
with regard to Babylon, rebuilt the city, and made it the 
centre of his empire. He seems to have been one of the 
best of the Assyrian rulers. Egyptian intrigues induced 
the western states, especially Sidon, to revolt, and a three 
years' campaign (680-678) was necessary before they were 
subdued. The king took a cruel vengeance upon his re- 
bellious subjects, perhaps with the design of making other 
revolts unadvisable. In an inscription of Esarhaddon dated 
about 675 there appears in the tribute list of the kings of the 
west the name of Manasseh, King of Juda'h. The King 
of Egypt, the vigorous Taharka, was unwilling to leave the 
western cities in peace, and, after a time succeeded in in- 
citing Baalu of Tyre to revolt. Esarhaddon perceived that 
for the security of these Mediterranean cities he must re- 
duce Egypt to submission, and in 674 and 671 he advanced 
against the empire upon the Nile. In the latter campaign, 
after besieging Tyre, he crossed the desert and entered 
Egypt, fought three battles ^in quick succession, captured 
Memphis, and drove Taharka into Ethiopia. Another ex- 
pedition was made in 669, but Esarhaddon seems to have 
died before it was completed. 

A brilliant series of campaigns was made by the king 
in the mountains to the east and northeast of his empire. 



BABYLONIAN-ASSYRIAN HISTORY Ixxvii 

It was a time in which these tribes were being pushed for- 
ward by migrations of peoples behind them like those of the 
Kimmerians in the north and the Medes in the east. 
Esarhaddon determined to crush them in their own fast- 
nesses and prevent them forever from harassing his do- 
mains. The years 674-672 b. c. were thus occupied. 

His son and successor, Ashurbanipal (668-626), con- 
tinued the aggressive activity of the father. On the death 
of Esarhaddon, Taharka had returned and re-entered Mem- 
phis. The advancing Assyrian army drove him out. A 
conspiracy was formed among the Egyptian princes to re- 
store him, led by Necho of Sais, but it completely failed. 
Finally, in 662, the Ethiopians were driven out of Egypt 
and the Assyrian authority there was supreme. In a tribute 
list of Ashurbanipal, from about the year 667, the name 
of Manasseh of Judah occurs again. It is evident that 
Judah was a submissive vassal of the Assyrian Empire. As- 
syrian culture followed in the wake of Assyrian armies, and 
the gradual incorporation of the western states into the 
empire brought with it the adoption of Assyrian civiliza- 
tion, the recognition of Assyrian religion, and interest in 
Assyrian literature. A specific instance of this is seen in 
the biblical references to the presence of Assyrian culture 
and religion in the kingdom of Judah in the times of Ahaz, 
Hezekiah, and Manasseh. The altar which the former saw 
at Damascus, and copied, was in all probability Assyrian. 
The sun dial of the same king is an Assyrian invention, and 
the idolatries which are ascribed to Manasseh bear an As- 
syrian stamp, and suggest how the supremacy of the armies 
of Assyria formed a strong argument in favour of the su- 
periority of her gods. Some writers have held that this 
period probably saw the introduction of much of that Baby- 
lonian mythology so like those narratives which are pre- 
served in a purified form in the early chapters of Genesis. 

Ashurbanipal did not follow the example of his father in 
establishing his seat of government at Babylon, but re- 
moved it to Nineveh, placing his brother, Shamashshum- 
ukin, on the throne as vice-king in Babylon. After some 

F 



Ixxviii ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

fifteen years the brother organized a formidable conspiracy, 
embracing the King of Elam, the Kaldaeans, and the cities 
of the west. For two or three years Ashurbanipal bent all 
his energies to the suppression of the revolt, and when it 
was finally overcome in 648 b. c, and the subjugation of 
Elam followed, Ashurbanipal stood at the height of his 
power. Just what punishment was inflicted upon the kings 
of the west for their share in the rebellion we do not know, 
but the explicit narrative of 2 Chron. xxxiii, 11-13, as to 
the Assyrian attack upon Manasseh, his removal to Baby- 
lon, and his restoration to his kingdom, has led some 
scholars to place this event in connection with the great re- 
volt set in motion by the brother of the Assyrian king. 
Treatment parallel to that of Manasseh is recorded by 
Ashurbanipal in the case of Necho, prince of Egypt. 

In the north the glory of Assyria under Ashurbanipal 
seemed to reach the climax. Gyges, King of Lydia, hard 
pressed by the Kimmerians, sought the aid of the Assyrians, 
and proffered his submission. Ashurbanipal could thus 
claim to have extended the boundaries of the empire to a 
region which his fathers had not known, and when he died 
Assyria seemed never before so great and its power so 
imposing. 

Yet brilliant as were the reigns of both Esarhaddon and 
Ashurbanipal, they mark in fact the period of Assyria's 
decline. The conquest of Egypt was a necessity for the 
preservation of the fidelity of the western provinces. It 
was never incorporated into the empire. Esarhaddon's vic- 
tories in the northeast really broke down the power of those 
tribes that stood as a barrier against the Medes. Ashur- 
banipal's conquest of Elam likewise opened the way for the 
Persians to reach the Babylonian border. Therefore hardly 
was Ashurbanipal in his grave when Assyria hastened rap- 
idly to her fall. Of these last years we are very imperfectly 
informed. Two sons of the great king followed him — the 
one, Ashuretililani; the other, Sinsharishkun. A great 
Scythian invasion swept down into western Asia. The 
Medes appeared upon the heights above Nineveh. The 



BABYLONIAN-ASSYRIAN HISTORY Ixxix 

Kaldi reached the summit of their ambition in gaining pos- 
session of Babylonia. The two joined against Assyria 
under the leadership of Cyaxares the Mede and Nabopol- 
assar the Kaldsean. Against these united forces Nineveh 
made no long resistance. The honour of the final assault 
seems to belong to the Medes. The last king, his court, 
and his people perished in the destruction of the capital — 
even the date is not known, though it was probably about 
606 B. c. 

During these three hundred years Assyria had a great 
career, and its service in forwarding the progress of the 
world was important and indispensable. It was the first 
real world empire that had thus far existed. It worked out 
the necessary though crude beginnings of political organi- 
zation on a large scale — the government of subject peoples, 
the unity of a great state. In this empire it distributed the 
elements of its civilization. Along the roads under its 
control trade and commerce advanced from east to west, 
and with trade, art, and culture. Thus it passed on the 
torch of civilization to Asia Minor and Greece. Cruel as 
were its wars, they served the interests of civilization in 
that they broke down and annihilated the various petty and 
contending nationalities of western Asia, welding all into 
a rude sort of unity which prepared the way for that next 
attempt of man to realize a world empire which was under- 
taken under the leadership of another family of peoples, the 
Aryans. The Persian Empire would not have been had not 
Assyria done its work. 

The conquerors of the Assyrian Empire were the heirs 
to its possession. Babylonia under its King Nabopolassar 
(625-605 B. c.) received the southern and western prov- 
inces from the Tigris to the Mediterranean. The task of 
taking possession of this region and uniting it under his 
sway fell to his famous son, Nebuchadrezzar II (604-562 
B. c), the founder of the new Babylonian Empire. The 
years that had marked the downfall of Assyria had seen a 
vigorous endeavour on the part of the Egyptian Empire 
to recover its position in the life of the Oriental world. 



Ixxx ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

This took the form of an attack upon the provinces of Syria. 
Pharaoh Necho II, taking advantage of the decay of As- 
syria, set out upon his northern march in 608, and for sev- 
eral years campaigned in this region up to the Euphrates, 
in the course of which movement he defeated and killed 
Josiah of Judah, and made his kingdom an Egyptian de- 
pendency. But Nebuchadrezzar, who went against him, 
utterly defeated him in the battle of Carchemish in the year 
604 B. c, drove him out of Syria, and took possession of 
the whole region down to the border of Egypt. 

A rebellion of Jehoiakim of Judah in 598 b. c. was fol- 
lowed by the capture of Jerusalem and the deportation of 
the leading Jewish citizens. A second revolt by Zedekiah 
of Judah, entered into at the instigation of the King of 
Egypt and in reliance upon his help, was followed by the 
siege of Jerusalem by a Babylonian army, its capture in 
586 B. c, and the annihilation of the kingdom. The city 
of Tyre, which had joined in the rebellion, after a siege 
of thirteen years was compelled to acknowledge Babylo- 
nian supremacy. The punishment of Egypt followed in 
568 B. c. Nebuchadrezzar entered the valley of the Nile, 
and, while he did not make Egypt a Babylonian province, 
he so weakened it as to make it unable henceforth to inter- 
fere in Syria. 

More important than the wars which Nebuchadrezzar 
waged were the measures he took for the organization and 
building up of Babylon and the Babylonian state. His task 
in this respect was primarily that of restoration and con- 
solidation. Babylonia came into his hands shattered by 
years of external and internal conflict. It had suffered in 
struggles with foes without and warring factions within. 
In bringing about its recovery and reorganization he de- 
voted himself first of all to works of defence. Babylon had 
already a double wall. He seems to have built about it a 
third greater wall. He improved and elevated the streets, 
lined the canals, and built a palace which was at the same 
time a citadel. It is not improbable that the so-called Me- 
dian wall built across the narrow neck of land between the 



BABYLONIAN-ASSYRIAN HISTORY Ixxxi 

Euphrates and the Tigris north of Babylon goes back to 
him. 

He devoted himself to securing the industrial and com- 
mercial prosperity of Babylonia. Now as never before was 
the Euphrates from its mouth to the upper waters and the 
roads beyond to the Mediterranean under one government. 
The contract literature of his age is a speaking witness of the 
successful results of this activity. His inscriptions reveal 
his care for the canals and his attention to the inundations 
of the rivers. 

He was above all a worshipper of the gods, especially of 
Marduk and his son Nebo. He rebuilt temples in Babylon 
and other cities, and in every way showed himself anxious 
for the religious welfare of his land. His purpose in this 
as in others of his activities seems to have been the unifica- 
tion of the people. There are good reasons to believe that 
with Nabopolassar the Kaldi became definitely lords of 
Babylon. Nebuchadrezzar was a Kaldasan. But his aim 
was to make Semitic Babylonians and Kaldaeans one nation, 
having one religion. That he succeeded in this the pros- 
perity of his kingdom proves, but the unity did not have 
time to establish itself in strength and vigour under his 
weaker successors. 

The personal character of Nebuchadrezzar is one which 
compares favourably with any of the Assyrian monarchs. 
He was a warrior; here his Kaldaean descent distinguished 
him from the Semitic Babylonians, whose conquests made 
his empire as great as that of many an Assyrian conqueror. 
He was a statesman in his conquests, all of which had a 
purpose in forwarding the security of his empire. He knew 
how to unify and give prosperity to his own land. He was 
not free from the cruelty inseparable from an Oriental war- 
rior, but he was a pious worshipper of the gods, and some 
of the utterances in his own inscriptions, if not written, yet 
sanctioned by him, are lofty and spiritual, " and show," 
says Tiele, " so deep and true a religious feeling that a 
devotee of Israel, by substituting Jahveh and Jerusalem for 
Marduk and Babylon, could take them upon his own lips." 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Legend concerning the Birth and Boyhood of Sargon I 

Translated by Robert Francis Harper i 

A Letter from Hammurabi to Sinidinnam* 

Translated by L. W. King 2 

Inscription from a Cylinder of Hammurabi, King of 
Babylon 
Translated by Robert Francis Harper 2 

The Inscription of Agumkakrime 

Translated by William Muss-Arnolt 3 

Inscription of Ramman-Nirari I, King of Assyria 

Translated by Robert Francis Harper 6 

Inscription of Nebuchadrezzar I, King of Babylon 

Translated by Clifton Daggett Gray 8 

Inscription of Tiglath-pileser I, King of Assyria 

Translated by William Muss-Arnolt 11 

Introduction to the Annals of Ashurnacirpal, King 
of Assyria 
Translated by Robert Francis Harper 28 

A Votive Inscription of Ashurnacirpal 

Translated by Robert Francis Harper 29 

Inscription of Nabupalidin 

Translated by Preston P. Bruce 30 

The Monolith Inscription of Shalmaneser II 

Translated by Robert Francis Harper 33 

Ixxxv 



Ixxxvi ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

rACB 

Fragment of the Annals of Shalmaneser II 

Translated by Robert Francis Harper 44 

Inscription over the Bas-Reliefs on the Black Obelisk 
OF Shalmaneser II 
Translated by Robert Francis Harper 45 

Inscription of Shamshi-Ramman 

Translated by Robert Francis Harper 45 

Inscription of Ramman-Nirari III 

Translated by Robert Francis Harper 50 

Inscription of Ramman-Nirari III 

Translated by Robert Francis Harper 51 

The Nimrud Inscription of Tiglath-pileser III 

Translated by John M. P. Smith 52 

The Cylinder Inscription of Sargon 

Translated by Alois Bdrta 59 

The Merodachbaladan Stone in Berlin 

Translated by Robert Francis Harper 64 

The Taylor Cylinder of Sennacherib, King of Assyria 

Translated by Robert Francis Harper 68 

The Murder of Sennacherib 

Translated by Robert Francis Harper 80 

Esarhaddon's Accession to the Throne, and the Battle 
of Hanigalbat 
Translated by Robert Francis Harper 80 

Cylinder A of the Esarhaddon Inscriptions 

Translated by Robert Francis Harper 81 

Inscription of Esarhaddon from the Black Stone 
(Aberdeen) 
Translated by Robert Francis Harper 88 

Inscription of Esarhaddon on the Monolith in Berlin 

Translated by Robert Francis Harper 90 



CONTENTS Ixxxvii 

PACK 

Short Inscriptions of Esarhaddon 

Translated by Robert Francis Harper 93 

Annals of Ashurbanipal 

Translated by John M. P. Smith 94 

Building Operations of Ashurbanipal in Babylon 

Translated by John M. P. Smith 1 27 

An Inscription of Ashurbanipal from Aboo-Habba 

Translated by John M. P. Smith 129 

Inscription of Shamash-shum-ukin 

Translated by John M. P. Smith 130 

Inscription of Nabopolassar (Hilprecht) 

Translated by Preston P. Bruce . . . . .131 

Inscription of Nabopolassar (Winckler A) 

Translated by Preston P. Bruce 133 

Inscription of Nabopolassar (Winckler B) 

Translated by Preston P. Bruce 134 

East India House Inscription of Nebuchadrezzar II 

Translated by Clifton Daggett Gray 134 

The Winckler Inscription of Nebuchadrezzar II 

Translated by Clifton Daggett Gray 143 

The Grotefend Inscription of Nebuchadrezzar II 

Translated by Clifton Daggett Gray 147 

The Borsippa Inscription of Nebuchadrezzar II 

Translated by Clifton Daggett Gray 150 

The Babylon Inscription of Nebuchadrezzar II 

Translated by Clifton Daggett Gray 152 

The Senkereh Inscription of Nebuchadrezzar II 

Translated by Clifton Daggett Gray 153 

The Canal Inscription of Nebuchadrezzar II 

Translated by Clifton Daggett Gray 154 



Ixxxviii ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

PACK 

The New York Inscription of Nebuchadrezzar II 

Translated by Clifton Daggett Gray 15S 

Inscription from the Four Clay Cylinders of 
Nabonidus 
Translated by Robert Francis Harper 157 

The Stele of Nabonidus 

Translated by Robert Francis Harper 158 

Inscription on a Clay Cylinder of Nabonidus 

Translated by Robert Francis Harper 163 

The Annals of Nabonidus 

Translated by Robert Francis Harper 168 

The Cylinder of Cyrus 

Translated by Robert Francis Harper 171 

Brick of Cyrus 

Translated by Robert Francis Harper 174 

The Large Inscription of Darius from Behistun 

Translated by Preston P. Bruce 174 

The Smaller Ach^menian Inscriptions 

Translated by Preston P. Bruce 187 

Inscription of Antiochus-Soter 

Translated by Robert Francis Harper 194 

The Synchronous History of Assyria and Babylonia 

Translated by Alois Birta 196 

The Babylonian Chronicle 

Translated by Alois Birta 200 

The Assyrian Eponym-List 

Translated by Alois Bdrta 206 

Assyrian Eponym-List, with Notes 

Translated by Alois Birta 209 

The Tel-el-Amarna Letters 

Translated by Ira Maurice Price 217 



CONTENTS Ixxxix 

FAGS 

Assyrian and Babylonian Letters* 

Translated by Christopher Johnston 241 

Contracts 

Translated by George Aaron Barton ... . 256 

The Babylonian Account of the Creation 

Translated by William Muss-Amolt 282 

A Second Babylonian Account of the Creation 

Translated by William Muss-Amolt 299 

Another Account of the Fight between Marduk and 

TiAMAT 
Translated by William Muss-Amolt 300 

Shorter Babylonian Legends 

Translated by William Muss-Arnolt 304 

The Gilgamesh Narrative, usually called the Baby- 
lonian NiMROD Epic 
Translated by William Muss-Amolt 324 

Some Other Accounts of and References to the Deluge 

Translated by William Muss-Amolt 369 

The Magical Texts (Maqlu and Shurpu) 

Translated by Clifton Daggett Gray 372 

A Ritual Tablet 

Translated by Clifton Daggett Gray 399 

Ishtar's Descent to Hades 

Translated by Clifton Daggett Gray 408 

Oracles given in Favour of Esarhaddon 

Translated by Clifton Daggett Gray 414 

Prayers and Hymns 

Translated by Robert Francis Harper 420 

Penitential Psalms 

Translated by Robert Francis Harper 433 



XC ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

PAGB 

Some Babylonian Laws 

Translated by William Muss-Amolt 445 

Some Proverbs and Sayings 

Translated by William Muss-Amolt 448 

The Reports of the Magicians and Astrologers of 
Nineveh and Babylon* 
Translated by R. Campbell Thompson 45' 

Chronological Table 

By George Stephen Goodspeed 461 



Note. — All except those marked with an asterisk were translated 
specially for this work, and the translations are protected by D. Apple- 
ton and Company's copyright, igoo. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



FACING PAGE 



Sir Henry RAWLINSON Frontispiece 

Photogravure from an engraving 

Assault of a City by Tiglath-Pileser II (III) ... 54 

A sculptured slab from the ruins of his palace at Nimrud, the 
ancient Calah 

The Eastern World in the Middle of the Reign of 

Ashurbanipal 196 

Babylonian Account of the Creation .... 284 

Bilingual tablet from Abu-Habbah, the ancient Sippara 

Monolith with Sculptured Portrait of Esarh addon . 418 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN 
LITERATURE 



LEGEND CONCERNING THE BIRTH 
AND BOYHOOD OF SARGON I 

Corresponding to the Moses story in the Old Testament 

SARGON, the powerful king, King of Agade, am I. 
My mother was of low degree, my father I did not 
know. 

The brother of my father dwelt in the mountain. 

My city was Azupirani, situate on the bank of the Eu- 
phrates. 

(My) humble mother conceived me; in secret she brought 
me forth. 

She placed me in a basket-boat of rushes; with pitch she 
closed my door. 

She gave me over to the river which did not (rise) over me. 

The river bore me along; to Akki, the irrigator, it carried 
me. 

Akki, the irrigator in the * * * brought me to land. 

Akki, the irrigator, reared me as his own son. 

Akki, the irrigator, appointed me his gardener. 

While I was gardener, Ishtar looked on me with love 
[and] * * * 

* * * four years I ruled the kingdom. 

[Remnants of five lines too badly mutilated for trans- 
lation.] 



2 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

A LETTER FROM HAMMURABI TO 
SINIDINNAM 

This is the letter in which Scheil and Hommel found the name Ku- 
durlaggamar, the Chedorlaomer of the Old Testament. Mr. King has 
shown that their copies of the text and translations are incorrect. 

To Sinidinnam from Hammurabi. 

The goddesses of Emytbalim, which are assigned to 
thee, will bring to thee in safety the troops under the com- 
mand of Inuhsamar. When they reach thee, with troops 
that are in thy hand, destroy the people, and let them 
bring the goddesses in safety to their dwellings. 



INSCRIPTION FROM A CYLINDER OF 
HAMMURABI, KING OF BABYLON 

(about 2 200 B. C.) 

Hammurabi, the mighty king. King of Babylon, king 
of the four quarters of the world, the founder of the land, 
the king, whose deeds are pleasing to Shamash and Mar- 
duk, am I. 

I raised the battlements of the wall of Sippara like a 
great mountain, with a swamp (moat) I surrounded it. I 
dug the canal of Sippara to Sippara, and supported it with 
a wall of safety. 

Hammurabi, the founder of the land, the king, whose 
deeds are pleasing to Sha!mash and Marduk, am I. 

I settled Sippara and Babylon as peaceful habitations 
for all time. 

Hammurabi, the favourite of Shamash, the beloved of 
Marduk, am I. 

That which from days of old no king had built for 
his (?) king, for Shamash, my lord, I have gloriously 
accomplished. 



INSCRIPTION OF AGUMKAKRIME 



THE INSCRIPTION OF AGUMKAKRIME 

I AM Agumkakrime, the son of Tasshigurumash; the 
illustrious descendant of god Shukamuna; called by Anu 
and Bel, Ea and Marduk, Sin and Shamash; the powerful 
hero of Ishtar, the warrior among the goddesses. 

I am a king of wisdom and prudence; a king who 
grants hearing and pardon; the son of Tasshigurumash; 
the descendant of Abirumash, the crafty warrior; the first 
son among the numerous family of the great Agum; an 
illustrious, royal scion who holds the reins of the nation 
[and is] a mighty shepherd. 

I am king of the country of Kasshu and of the Ak- 
kadians; king of the wide country of Babylon, who settles 
the numerous people in Ashnunak; the King of Padan and 
Alman; the King of Gutium, a foolish nation; [a king] 
who makes obedient to him the four regions, and has 
always been a favourite of the great gods. 

When the great gods with their lofty command ordered 
[of me?] the return of Marduk, the lord of Esagila and 
Ezida, I induced Marduk to turn his face toward Babylon 
* * * I heeded and obeyed [this command?], induced Mar- 
duk to betake himself to Babylon, and went by the side 
of Marduk and ^arpanit. I consulted Shamash by means of 
the lamb of an haruspex and sent [him?] to the far-oflf 
country of Hani. He took the hands of Marduk and Qar- 
panit, who favour my government, and brought them back 
to Esagila and Babylon. I put them into the rear shrine 
of the house of Shamash, when he brought them back, and 
ordered my workmen to place them there securely. A 
goldsmith [I then commanded to make splendid robes for 
Marduk and Qarpanit] ; I gave for these robes of Marduk 
and Qarpanit four talents of fine gold, and clothed the gods 
with a stately robe, a garment made of fine gold. I also 
gave for [the decoration of] the shrines of Marduk and 
^arpanit mountain-crystals, rnarhashu-stones of greenish 
hue, hulal-ini-stones, mushgarru-stones, utru- and uthal- 



4 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

Stones, pearls (?) of Meluhha, alabaster (?), precious, shin- 
ing stones, and brilliant stones, of great renown, and be- 
decked therewith the robes of the great gods. I placed 
upon their heads high turbans, of the shape of horns; tur- 
bans indicating the royal rule, as befitted their divinities, 
and decorated them with the majestic splendour produced 
by crystal and gold. The top of the turban(s) I orna- 
mented with ini-mushgarru- and menishutu-stones; and I 
decked the whole turbans with hulalu-, mushgarru-, pi- 
marhashi-stones, with crystals and utru-stones. 

The dragon upon which the divine majesties rode I 
decked with [a covering] of gold. [Lacuna of fourteen 
lines.] I surrounded and ornamented [with the same ma- 
terial] its stall; I constructed a sea (for the dragon); I 
ornamented its breast with hulalu-, hulal-inu-, and utru- 
stones, and put around its gills (?) a wreath of gold, crystal, 
ka-stone, and hulalu-stones. I also deposited in the r[ear 
shrine?] a precious treasure, a fine treasure of pearls, hu- 
lalu-stone, pi-marhashi-stones of greenish hue, hulalu 
and other precious stones * * * I placed them above his 
habitation, built of cedar-wood, and, in order that (?) I 
might let them occupy places suitable for their great divini- 
ties, and that the workmen might finish (the work?), I 
sent [men?] to the cedar and cypress districts * * * to a 
splendid mountain, whose odour is fragrant; and from 
these splendid mountains they brought cedars and cy- 
presses * * * I made also large gates, gates of cedar-wood, 
swinging doors; and I placed them at the chambers of 
Marduk and ^arpanit, and [fitted them out] with bands 
of [shining?] bronze. Their * * * I inclosed with fas- 
tenings of shining bronze. I filled in [pictures of?] a ser- 
pent, a dragon, a ram, a storm-goat, a mad hound, a fish- 
man, a goatfish, made of crystal, of dushu- and samtu- 
stones, and of alabaster. I made them resplendent, and 
set up these fine beautiful gates in the chambers of Mar- 
duk and garpanit. I also had a priest (literally, a snake- 
charmer) purify Esagila. After I had purified (and dedi- 
cated) the habitations (of the gods?) * * * i brought 



INSCRIPTION OF AGUMKAKRIME 



S 



them through the Kasushi-gate into the chamber dedi- 
cated to Marduk. I arranged gfreat festivals for them; I 
filled with splendour the house of [their] joy (?), and 
gave it as a present to my lord and my lady. 

I sacrificed unto Marduk a great [offering?] of gold, 
a great [offering?] of crystal, a great offering of silver. 
Unto the gods, (residing) in Esag^la I gave presents of silver 
and gold. After I had thus appointed unto Esagila (all 
that was) good and splendid * ♦ * [Lacuna of sixteen 
lines] * * * 

Nur-ilu, together with his house, his field, and his 
forest; Ikisha-ilu, the priest, together with his house, his 
field, and his forest, as well as Mardukmuballit, the metal- 
worker, with his house, his field, and his forest [I made 
servants of the temple] . 

To Agum, who built the shrine of Marduk and reno- 
vated Esagila, who led Marduk into his abode, and as a 
service (for him) released from every obligation those 
workmen, with their houses, fields, and forests, so that they 
might serve Marduk and Qarpanit [be merciful?] ! 

May the days of Agum be long, and may his years 
be many; may his rule be filled with (all that is) good! 

May the brightness of the wide heavens shine upon 
him, and may the clouds grant (abundant) rain unto him! 

May Marduk cause the orchards to bear good fruit 
always! 

May Anu and Antum, who live in heaven, send a 
blessing upon Agum, the good king, who built the 
sanctuaries of Marduk and freed from obligations the 
workmen! 

May Bel and Belit, who reside in Ekur, cast for him 
the lot of his life! 

May Ea and Damkina, residing in the great ocean, 
grant him life for many days! 

May the great goddess, the mistress of wide countries, 
make perfect his lot! 

May Sin, the luminary, grant him royal seed for future 
days! 



-6 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

May the lord Shariiash, th6 lord of heaven and earth, 
lay firmly the foundations of his royal throne for future 
days! 

May Ea, the lord of the deep, perfect his wisdom! 

May Marduk, the lord of wells, who loves his reign, 
make his rich blessings complete! 

Tablet [of the library] of Ashurbanipal, king of the 
world, King of Assyria, who puts his trust in Ashur and 
Belit, and in the lord that knows the light (?), the king of 
the gods, Ashur. Whosoever removes the tablet, or sub- 
stitutes his name' for mine, may Ashur and Belit overthrow 
him in anger and wrath, blot out his name and his family 
from off the land! 



INSCRIPTION OF RAMMAN-NIRARI I, 
KING OF ASSYRIA (about 1325 b. c.) 

From a. stone tablet found at Kileh Shergat 

Ramman-NirAri, the illustrious prince, the pride of 
God, the master, the viceroy of the gods, the founder of 
cities, the destroyer of the mighty hosts of the Kassites, 
the Kuti, the Lulumi and the Shubari, annihilator of all 
foes above and below, who trampled under foot their lands 
from Lupdu and Rapiku as far as Eluhat, who took pos- 
session of all men, who enlarged boundary and frontier; 
the king for whom the gods Anu, Ashur, Shamash, Ram- 
man, and Ishtar have brought all rulers and princes to 
submission at his feet, the exalted priest of Bel, the son of 
Puduilu, governor of Bel, the representative of Ashur, the 
conqueror of Turuki and Nigimti to their entire extent, all 
of (their) rulers, (their) mountains and highlands, the 
boundary of the wide-spread Kuti, the district (?) of the 
Ahlami and the Suti, the Yauri and their lands, who en- 
larged boundary and frontier; the grandson of Bel-Nirari, 
priest of Ashur, who destroyed the hosts of the Kassites, 



INSCRIPTION OF RAMMAN-NIRARI I 7 

and whose hand conquered all his enemies, who enlarged 
boundary and frontier; the great-grandson of Ashur- 
uballit, the mighty king, whose priesthood was all-power- 
ful in the temples and whose royal prosperity was estab- 
lished unto distant (lands) as firmly as a mountain, who 
broke up the forces of the wide-spread Shubari, who en- 
larged boundary and frontier. 

When the muq-la-la of the Temple of Ashur, my lord — 
which is [opposite] the gate (called) " The invocation of 
the god of the land " and the gate (called) " The god of 
judges," which had been built in former days — had fallen 
into decay, had collapsed and was in ruins, I strengthened 
that place, I reached its base, I (re)built (it) with granite 
and earth from Ubase, I restored (it) to its place and I 
set up my tablet. In future days, let a future prince, 
when that place shall have grown old and fallen into decay, 
repair its ruins; my tablet, the record of my name, let him 
restore to its place, that Ashur may hearken to his prayers. 
But whosoever blots out the record of my name and in- 
scribes his own name, or conceals my tablet, or consigns 
it to destruction, or casts it into the stream, or burns it 
in the fire, or throws it into the water, or covers it with 
earth, or brings and places it in a dark (?) house, where 
it can not be seen; or if (any one) because of these curses, 
a foreign foe, an evil enemy, a (man of) hostile tongue, or 
any other man sends and causes (him) to seize it, or if 
he makes any scheme and carries it out: 

May Ashur, the exalted god, who dwells in Eharsag- 
kurkura, Anu, Bel, Ea, and Ishtar, the great gods, the 
Igigu of heaven, the Anunnaku of earth, all of them, look 
upon him in anger and 

May they curse him with an evil curse in wrath! 

May they destroy his name, his seed, his relatives, and 
his family in the land! 

May the ruin of his land, the destruction of his people 
and of his territory at their weighty command be decreed! 

May Ramman with a terrible rainstorm overwhelm 
him! 



8 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

May flood, destructive wind, rebellion, revolution, 
tempest, want (and) famine, drought (and) hunger be con- 
tinuous in his land! 

May he come down upon his land like a flood! 

May he turn (it) into mounds and ruins! 

May Ramman strike his land with a destructive bolt! 

The month of Muhur of the gods, twentieth day, epon- 
ymy of Shulmanu-Karradu. 



INSCRIPTION OF NEBUCHADREZZAR I, 
KING OF BABYLON (about 1140 b. c.) 

At the time that Nebuchadrezzar, the lofty and majes- 
tic prince, King of Babylon, pre-eminent among kings, 
the warlike patesi, the governor of Babylon, the sun of 
his country, who makes his people to prosper, who pre- 
serves boundaries and establishes land-marks (?), the just 
king, who pronounces righteous judgment, the warlike 
hero, whose resources are devoted to battle, the bearer of 
the mighty bow, who fears no battle, who overthrew the 
mighty land of the Lullubi with his weapons, the conqueror 
of the west-land, the plunderer of the Kassites, who sets 
up kings, the prince beloved of Marduk — ^the king of the 
gods, Marduk, commissioned him, and he advanced his 
weapons to avenge Akkad. From Der, the city of Anu, 
he spread slaughter for thirty double-miles. In the month 
of Tammuz he set out upon a campaign; the * * * burned 
like fire, and the sand (?) of the road scorched like a flame; 
there was no water for * * * and the supply of drink- 
ing-water was cut oflf; the splendid mighty steeds stood 
still, and the nerve of the brave heroes failed. The majes- 
tic king advances, the gods urging him on, Nebuchad- 
rezzar marches forward, who has no rival, who does not 
fear the difficult country * * * Ritti-Marduk, the head of 
the house of Karziyabku, his charioteer, did not remain (?) 



INSCRIPTION OF NEBUCHADREZZAR I g 

at the right hand of the king, his lord, but pushed forward 
his chariot. The mighty king hastened and came to the 
bank of the Ula. Then the kings took their stand round 
about to make battle, fire flashed forth in their midst, the 
face of the sun was darkened by the dust, the hurricane 
broke loose, the storm raged. In the storm of their 
battle, the charioteer does not see the man by his side. Ritti- 
Marduk, the head of the house of Karziyabku, his chariot- 
eer, did not remain (?) at the right hand of the king, his 
lord, but pushed forward his chariot. He did not fear 
battle, but proceeded against the enemy, and entered against 
the enemy of his lord * * * By the command of the gods, 
Ishtar and Ramman, the lords of battle, he spread disaster 
broadcast, and overthrew the country of the King of Elam, 
and the King Nebuchadrezzar remained the victor, seizing 
Elam and carrying away its possessions. As soon as he 
had turned back to Akkad, victorious and joyful of heart, 
Nebuchadrezzar, the king, his lord, gave direction to Ritti- 
Marduk, the head of the house of Karziyabku, whom the 
king, his lord, had put to the test among the enemies and 
hostile warriors, concerning the cities of the house of 
Karziyabku, a district of Namar, as much as there was of 
it, which under former kings had been independent, but 
through enemies had illegally come under the dominion of 
Namar; and the king rendered a decision, and the cities 
(received) their freedom as in former times: within the 
entire dominion of Namar, the servants of the king, as well 
as the governor of Namar (and) the commandant, are not 
to enter a city; the master of the horses is to bring neither 
stallions nor mares into the cities; revenue of oxen or 
sheep for the king or the governor of Namar is not to be 
taken; a * * * or an homer of balsam is not to be given; 
an homer is not to be given to the tax-gatherer; the master 
of the riding-horses is not to enter the cities; nor is he 
to take therefrom mares for the riding-horses; nor is any 
one to cut down the hedges of the parks or date-palm 
groves; along the wall of Bit-Shamash or Shanbasha no 
one is to build a bridge or make a road; neither are the 



lO ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

soldiers of Nippur or Babylon, nor any of the soldiers of 
the king, as many as reside in the cities of the house of 
Karziyabku, to cause the arrest of any one either in city 
or in field. 

From the entire dominion of Namar, Nebuchadrezzar, 
the king of the world, freed the cities of Ritti-Marduk, the 
son of Karziyabku, the territory belonging to Namar, as 
much as there was of it, for all time, and he appointed th^ 
soldiers, who dwelt in these cities, for the special support 
of the governor of Namar and the commandant. 

At the declaration of freedom of these cities there were 
present Nazi-Marduk, the son of Kurkame, the kalu of 
Akkad; Arad-Nana, the son of Mudammiq-Ramman, the 
secretary of state; Marduk-kuduri-ugur, the minister of 
Bel; Tubia-enna, an officer; Muqqut-gish-ge, the son of 
Qapri, the keeper of the palace-gate; Shamash-nadin-shum, 
the son of Atta-iluma, the governor of Ishin; Bau-shum- 
iddin, the son of Hunna, the governor of Babylon; Balatsu- 
Gula, the son of Arad-Ea, the prefect; Marduk-kin-apli, 
the son of Himile, the keeper of the treasure (?); Arad- 
Gula, the son of Kalbi, the governor of Ushti; Tab-ashab- 
Marduk, the son of Esaggilzir, the governor of Halman; 
Bel-nadin-shum, the son of Habban, the governor of Na- 
mar; and Nabu-kuduri-uqur, the commandant of Namar. 

The scribe who wrote this tablet was Bel-tabni-bullit, 
the seer. 

Whenever in after time, be it by the sons of Habban, 
or any one else who is placed in the governorship of Na- 
mar, be it the mayors of Namar, small or great, as many 
as there are of them, of the cities of the house of Karzi- 
yabku, which the king has freed from the dominion of 
Namar, there is one who does not reverence the king or 
his gods and turns and establishes a dominion, and obHtef 
ates the name of the god and the king, as it stands written, 
and writes in another (name), or employs a fool, a deaf 
man, a blind man, or a knave to destroy this tablet with a 
stone, or to burn it in the fire, or to cast it into the river, 
or to hide it in a field where it can not be found: 



INSCRIPTION OF TIGLATH-PILESER I n 

May the great gods, as many as are mentioned in 
heaven and earth, curse that man with fury; may god and 
king cover him deep with disgrace! 

May Ninib, the king of heaven and earth, and Gula, the 
mistress of E-sharra, destroy his boundaries and blot out 
his seed ! 

May Ramman, the chief one in heaven and earth, the 
lord of canals and rains, fill his rivers with obstructions, 
bring upon him hunger and want, and bind upon him dis- 
tress, frailty, and mischief! 

May frailty fasten its grip (?) upon the inhabitants of 
his city! 

May Shumalia, the mistress of the snow-capped moun- 
tains, who dwells upon the summits and traverses the 
peaks; may Ramman, Nergal, and Nana, the gods of Na- 
mar; may Shir, Shubu, the son of the temple of Der, Sin, 
and the Lady of Akkad, the gods of the house of Habban 
— may these great gods in the anger of their heart medi- 
tate evil against him! 

May another acquire the house which he has built! 

With a dagger in his neck and a * * * in his eyes, 
may he cast himself upon his face before his captor, and 
may he, unmindful of his pleading, cut off his life! 

In the overturning of his house may his hands roll in 
mire! 

As long as he lives may he drag sorrow after him, and 
as long as heaven and earth stand may his seed be blotted 
out! 



INSCRIPTION OF TIGLATH-PILESER I, 
KING OF ASSYRIA (about iioo b. c.) 

AsHUR, great lord, ruler of the divine host, 
who bestows sceptre and crown, and establishes the (legiti- 
mate) dominion; 
Bel, lord, and king of all the spirits of the deep, 
father of the gods, and lord of the countries; 



12 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

Sin, the wise, lord of the (moon) disk, 
rich in splendour; 

Shamash, judge of heaven and earth, who 
thwarts the plotting of the enemies and protects the good; 
Adad, the powerful, who rains destruction upon the hos- 
tile regfions, 
rendering them ruined and desolate (?) ; 
Ninib, the hero, who crushes the wicked and the enemy 
and lets me attain my heart's desire; 
Ishtar, princess among the gods, mistress of destruction, 
who unchains the terrors of war: 
Ye great gods, guardians of heaven and earth, 
whose onset brings fight and battle; 
who have enlarged the dominion 
of Tiglath-pileser, the beloved prince, 
the desire of your heart, the lofty shepherd; 
whom in your faithful heart, ye have called; 
whose head ye have crowned with a lofty crown, 
whom ye have solemnly appointed to the dominion over 

the country of Bel; 
to whom, for the sake of power, ye have granted 
supremacy, majesty, and valour, the prerequisites of 
his lordship, and whose priestly seed 
ye have called to a seat 
forever in E-har-sag-kur-kur-ra. 

Tiglath-pileser, the powerful king, king of hosts, who 
has no rival, king of the four quarters (of the world), king 
of all rulers, lord of lords, king of kings; the lofty prince, 
to whom, in the name of Shamash, a pure sceptre was 
given, and who rules over the nations, the subjects of Bel, 
in their entirety; the legitimate shepherd whose name is 
exalted above all rulers; the lofty judge, whose weapons 
Ashur has sharpened, and whose name, as ruler over the 
four quarters (of the world), he has proclaimed forever; 
the conqueror of distant lands, which form the boundaries 
on north and south; the brilliant day, whose splendour 
overthrows the world's regions; the terrible, destroying 
flame, which like the rush of the storm sweeps over the 



INSCRIPTION OF TIGLATH-PILESER I 13 

enemy's country; who, in the name of Bel, has no adver- 
sary, and overthrows the foes of Ashur. 

Ashur and the g^eat gods who have enlarged my king- 
dom, who have given me strength and power as my por- 
tion, commanded me to extend the territory of their (the 
gods') country, putting into my hand their powerful weap- 
ons, the cyclone of battle. I subjugated lands and moun- 
tains, cities and their rulers, enemies of Ashur, and con- 
quered their territories. With sixty kings I fought, 
spreading terror (among them), and achieved a glorious 
victory over them. A rival in combat, or an adversary in 
battle, I did not have. To Assyria I added more land, to 
its people I added more people, enlarging the boundaries 
of my land and conquering all (neighbouring?) territories. 

In the beginning of my government, five kings of the 
Moschi with an army of twenty thousand men, whose an- 
cestors had, for fifty years, conquered Alzi and Purukuzzu 
— the latter formerly tributaries and vassals of Ashur, my 
lord — and whose power no king had ever broken and over- 
come in battle — trusting to their strength rushed down 
and conquered the land of Qummuh (Commagene). With 
the help of Ashur, my lord, I gathered my war chariots and 
assembled my warriors; I made no delay, but traversed 
Kashiari, an almost impassable region. I waged battle in 
Qummuh with these five kings and their twenty thousand 
soldiers and accomplished their defeat. Like the Thun- 
derer (the storm god Adad) I crushed the corpses of their 
warriors in the battle that caused their overthrow. I made 
their blood to flow over all the ravines and high places of 
mountains. I cut off their heads and piled them up at the 
walls of their cities Hke heaps of grain. I carried oflF their 
booty, their goods, and their property beyond reckoning. 
Six thousand, the rest of their troops, who had fled before 
my weapons and had thrown themselves at my feet, I took 
away as prisoners and added to the people of my country. 

At that time I marched also against the people of Qum- 
muh, who had become unsubmissive, withholding the tax 
and tribute due to Ashur, my lord. I conquered Qummuh 



14 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

to its whole extent, and carried off their booty, their goods, 
and their property; I burned their cities with fire, de- 
stroyed, and devastated. The rest of the people of Qum- 
muh, who had fled before my weapons, crossed over to 
Seresse, on the farther bank of the river Tigris; and they 
selected this city for their stronghold. I assembled my 
chariots and warriors. I crossed steep mountains and cut 
my way through their difficult paths with the help of pick- 
axes of bronze (?). I constructed a road for the passage of 
my chariots and of my troops. I then crossed the Tigris 
and conquered Seresse, their stronghold. In the thickest 
of the mountain forests I scattered their soldiers over the 
ground like sheaves (?), and made their blood to flow into 
the Tigris and over the heights of the mountains. At that 
same time I overthrew also the troops of the Kurteans who 
had come to save and to assist the people of Qummuh, 
in addition to those of Qummuh (as easily) as one pours 
out water. I heaped the bodies of their warriors in great 
numbers on the mountain peaks, and let the river Name 
carry off the corpses of their soldiers into the Tigris. I 
captured in this same battle their king, Kilianteru, son of 
Kilianteru — people called him also Sarupi — ^his wives and 
his children, the offspring of his loins, and the rest of his 
relatives. I carried off one hundred and eighty bronze 
unguentaries, five bowls of copper, along with their idols 
of gold and silver, the choicest of their property, and took 
away their booty and their goods. The city itself and its 
palace I burned with fire, destroyed, and devastated. 

As for the city of Urartinash, their stronghold, situated 
on the mountain of Panari, fear, the awful splendour of 
Ashur, my lord, overwhelmed its inhabitants, and, to save 
their lives, they carried off their idols and goods and fled 
like birds to the peaks of the high mountains. I brought 
my war chariots and my troops across the Tigris. Shadi- 
anteru, son of Hattuhi, the King of Urartinash, without 
ever attempting to fight, embraced my feet in his own 
country. I took as hostages his sons, the offspring of his 
loins, and his relatives. He brought to me sixty bronze. 



INSCRIPTION OF TIGLATH-PILESER I 



IS 



unguentaries, large bowls and sacrificial dishes of copper, 
together with one hundred and twenty slaves, and cattle 
large and small; and I accepted these as taxes and tribute; 
spared his life, but placed upon him for the remainder of 
his days the heavy yoke of my lordship. I conquered 
and subjugated the immense country of Qummuh to its 
whole extent. From the spoil and tribute of Qummuh 
I gave one sacrificial dish of copper and one bowl, likewise 
of copper, to Ashur, my lord, as a votive-offering; and 
to Adad, my protector, I gave the sixty bronze unguen- 
taries together with the idols (of the people of Qummuh). 

Relying upon the fierceness of my mighty weapons to 
which Ashur, my lord, had given power and supremacy, 
I marched, with thirty war chariots going at the side of 
my veterans, swift warriors — may they always be strong 
against the shock of an overthrow! — to the haughty and 
unsubmissive country of Mildish. I traversed mighty 
mountains and difficult territory in my chariot where the 
country was good, and afoot wherever it was bad. On 
Mount Aruma, a rough territory, impassable for the mov- 
ing of my chariots, I left them behind and placed myself 
at the head of my soldiers; wormed myself through like a 
lizard (?) and advanced victoriously to the rough and 
troublesome mountain peaks. I reduced the country of 
Mildish to a rubbish-heap, as if tossed together by a hur- 
ricane. I laid low their soldiers in battle in large num- 
bers (?), carried away their booty, their goods, and their 
property, burned all their cities with fire, and imposed on 
them hostages, taxes, and tribute. 

Tiglath-pileser, the valiant hero, who opens up the 
mountain paths, subdues the unsubmissive, and sweeps 
away all the haughty. 

I subjugated the rebellious and unsubmissive people of 
Shubari, and laid the heavy yoke of my lordship upon 
the countries Alzi and Purukuzzu, which had withheld 
their taxes and tribute. I ordered them to bring, year 
after year, taxes and tribute before me to my city Asshur. 

Inasmuch as Ashur, my lord, had intrusted to me the 



l6 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

mighty weapons to subdue in my valour the unsubmis- 
sive, so he now commanded me to extend the bounda- 
ries of my country; I marched against an army of four 
thousand Kaskeans and Urumeans, Hittite soldiers, who 
had become unsubmissive and, trusting to their strength, 
had captured cities of Sumashtu, vassals of Ashur, my lord. 
They heard of my advance toward Sumashtu. The splen- 
dour of my valour overwhelmed them; they feared to join 
battle with me, and embraced my feet. Together with 
their belongings, and one hundred and twenty chariots 
and their teams, I took them away with me and added 
them to the people of my country. 

In my fierce valour I marched a second time against 
the people of Qummuh; conquered all their cities; carried 
off their booty, their goods, and their property (beyond 
reckoning), and burned their cities with fire; destroyed 
and devastated them. The survivors among them, being 
afraid of my powerful weapons and fearing the approach 
of my mighty battle array, betook themselves, to save their 
lives, to the inaccessible peaks of the mountains, a most 
difficult and rough territory. I ascended in pursuit of 
them to the heights of these lofty mountain forests and 
to the peaks of the steep mountains, which were really not 
suitable for man to tread. They essayed against me a 
trial of weapons, combat and battle; but I accomplished 
their defeat. I heaped, like the Thunderer, the corpses of 
the warriors upon the mountain peaks, and made their 
blood to flow over the ravines and the high places of the 
mountains. I brought down their booty, their goods, and 
their property, from these steep mountain heights. I sub- 
jugated Qummuh throughout its whole extent, and incor- 
porated it into the territory of my country. 

Tiglath-pileser, the powerful king, the snare for the un- 
submissive, who sweeps away the resistance of the wicked. 

With the mighty forces given me by Ashur, my lord, 
I marched against the country of Haria and the wide- 
spread Kurteans. Ashur, my lord, commanded me to 
ascend lofty mountains, which no king had ever before 



INSCRIPTION OF TIGLATH-PILESER I 



17 



reached. I assembled my war chariots and my troops, and 
marched between the mountains of Idni and Aia, an in- 
tractable region. High mountains, which were as sharp 
as the point of a dagger, made impossible the advance of 
my war chariots. These I left in the plain (?) and ascended 
the difficult mountains afoot. All the Kurteans had assem- 
bled their numerous troops, and had fortified themselves 
on Mount Azutabgis, to make trial with me in combat and 
battle. I fought with them on that mountain and — al- 
though the battlefield was most unfavourable for me — 
I accomplished their overthrow. I heaped up on the 
mountain heights the corpses of their warriors, and made 
their blood to flow over the ravines and high places of the 
mountains. I pressed forward fiercely against the cities 
situated on the mountain peaks; conquered twenty-five 
cities of the country of Haria, situate at the foot of the 
mountains Aia, Shuira, Idni, Shezu, Shelgu, Arzanibiu, 
Urusu, and Anitku; carried off their booty, their goods, 
and their property, and burned the cities themselves with 
fire, destroyed and devastated them. 

The people of Adaush, fearing the approach of my 
mighty army, had forsaken their homes, and had fled, like 
birds, to the lofty mountain peaks. The splendour of 
Ashur, my lord, overwhelmed them; they left their moun- 
tains and embraced my feet. I imposed on them taxes and 
tribute. The countries of Sharaush and Aramaush, which 
never before were known to have suffered defeat, I over- 
threw and reduced to a rubbish-heap, as if tossed together 
by a hurricane. I fought with their mighty, valiant troops 
on Mount Aramu and accomplished their defeat. I scat- 
tered the corpses of their soldiers like sheaves over the 
ground; I conquered their cities, carried off their idols, 
and brought away their booty, their goods, and their prop- 
erty. Their cities I burned with fire, destroyed and dev- 
astated, reducing all to mounds and arable land; placed 
upon them the heavy yoke of my lordship, and made them 
subjects and vassals of Ashur, my lord. 

I conquered the powerful people of Isua and Daria who 



1 8 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

had shown disobedience; imposed on them taxes and 
tribute, and made them subjects to Ashur, my lord. 

In my present supremacy over my enemies whom I had 
thus defeated, I took my war chariots and troops, crossed 
the Lower Zab, and conquered Murattash and Saradaush, 
cities situate in the mountains of Asaniu and Atuma, a 
most difficult and rough territory. I cut down their troops 
like swaths (?), and conquered the city of Murattash, their 
stronghold, in less than one third of a day. I carried off 
their idols, their goods, and their property; sixty bronze 
unguentaries, thirty loads of copper, and the beautiful, 
small furniture of their palace, as well as prisoners. The 
city itself I burned with fire, destroyed and devastated. 
The bronze articles I then presented to Adad, the great 
lord, who loves me. 

In the fulness of the lofty power of Ashur, my lord, I 
marched against the Sugi, in the land of Kilhi, who had 
not become submissive to Ashur, my lord. I fought on 
foot with six thousand of their troops and with those of the 
countries of Hime, Luhi, Arirgi, Alamun, Nimni, as well as 
with the army of the Kurteans — a vast array — on Mount 
Hiriha, a most difficult territory, all its peaks being as 
sharp as the point of a dagger, and accomplished their de- 
feat. I heaped the corpses of their soldiers upon the moun- 
tain peaks in high heaps, and with the blood of their war- 
riors I dyed Mount Hiriha like red wool. I conquered the 
whole land of Sugi, and carried off twenty-five of their 
idols, their booty, their goods, and their property. I 
burned with fire all their cities, destroyed and devastated 
them. The rest of their troops embraced my feet and I 
granted them pardon, but imposed upon them taxes and 
tribute and added them to the number of those who belong 
to Ashur, my lord. Thereupon I dedicated the twenty-five 
idols of those countries, which I had captured with my 
hand and had taken away, as a gift to the Temple of Belit, 
the lofty consort and beloved of Ashur, my lord; and to the 
Temple of Anu, Adad, and Ishtar the Assyrian, the gods 
of my city Asshur, and the goddesses of my country. 



INSCRIPTION OF TIGLATH-PILESER I 



19 



Tiglath-pileser, the mighty king, conqueror of the lands 
of the enemies, rival of kings, one and all. 

Thereupon, in the lofty power of Ashur, my lord, under 
the faithful protection of Shamash, the warrior, and with 
the assistance of the great gods, Ashur, my lord, sent me — 
who over all the world has ruled in truth and in justice, who 
in battle and war has never met a victorious rival, nor in 
combat has seen his equal — ^to the countries of far-ofi kings 
on the shores of the Upper Sea, who never knew subjec- 
tion. I travelled over rough roads, and through difficult 
mountain passes whose interior in the past no king had 
ever penetrated. I opened paths unbeaten and roads un- 
opened. I crossed the mountains of Elama, Amadana, and 
Ushish, Sherabeli and Tarhuna, Tirkahuli and Kisra, Tar- 
hanabe and Elula, Hashtarae and Shahishara, Ubera and 
Miliadruni, Shulianzi and Nubanashe, and Seshe — in all 
sixteen immense mountains. I advanced in my chariot 
where the country was good, and where it was rough I 
made headway with pickaxes (?) of bronze. I cut down 
the stems and trunks of forest trees, built bridges for the 
advance of my troops, and crossed the river Euphrates. 
The kings of Nimme, of Tunube and Tuali, of Kidari and 
Uzula, of Unzamuni and Andiabe, of Paliqini and Aturgini, 
of Kulibarzini and Shinibirni, of Himua and Paiteri, of 
Uiram and Shururia, of Abaeni and Adaeni, of Kirini and 
Albaia, of Ugina and Nazabia, of Abarsiuni and Daiaeni; 
in all, twenty-three kings of the countries of Nairi, assem- 
bled their war chariots and their troops in their own coun- 
tries and advanced to give me combat and battle. With 
the fury of my mighty weapons I pressed them hard, and, 
like the destructive flood of Adad, I brought about the 
annihilation of their large armies. Like sheaves I spread 
and scattered the corpses of their warriors upon the tops 
of the mountain heights and at the side of their cities. One 
hundred and twenty of their war chariots, the steeds with 
their trappings I captured in that battle. I pursued, with 
spear in hand, sixty kings, those of the countries of Nairi 
together with those who had come to their help and assist- 



20 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

ance, as far as the Upper Sea (Black Sea?); conquered their 
great cities, carried off their booty, their goods, and their 
property; and burned with fire their cities, destroyed and 
devastated them, reducing them to mounds and arable 
land. Herds of fine chargers, swift mules and the cattle 
of their pastures I brought home in countless numbers. 
I captured alive all the kings of the countries of Nairi; 
granted mercy and pardon to them and spared their lives; 
captive and bound I set them free in the presence of Sha- 
mash, my lord, and compelled them to swear the oath of 
my great gods in fealty and allegiance for the future and 
forever. I took away their royal offspring as hostages; 
imposed upon them, as a tribute, twelve hundred horses 
and two thousand head of cattle, and then sent them away 
to their own countries. 

Sieni, the King of Daiaeni, who had not submitted him- 
self to Ashur, my lord, I brought captive and bound to my 
city Asshur; I granted him mercy and pardon, and dis- 
missed him from my city Asshur as a servant and vassal of 
the great gods, granting him life, but making him a slave. 
I subdued the far-extending lands of Nairi throughout 
their whole extent, and made all their kings subject to me. 

In the course of this same campaign I marched to the 
city of Milidia, in the land of Hanirabbat, which was re- 
bellious and unsubmissive. The people feared the ap- 
proach of my mighty battle array, embraced my feet, and 
I granted them pardon. I did not storm that city, but 
accepted hostages from them; and imposed upon them 
as a yearly tribute forever one homer of magnesite (?) for 
sacrificial purposes. 

Tiglath-pileser, the fiery, fierce flame, the mighty battle- 
storm. 

In the strength of Ashur, my lord, I took my war 
chariots and warriors, and marched into the desert, into 
the very midst of the Achlamean hordes, Arameans, en- 
emies to Ashur, my lord. I made a razzia in one day from 
the country of Suhi to the city of Carchemish in the land 
of the Hittites; destroyed their army and brought home 



INSCRIPTION OF TIGLATH-PILESER I 21 

their booty, their goods, and their cattle in countless num- 
bers. I pursued the survivors of their troops, who had fled 
before the mighty weapons of Ashur, my lord, and had 
crossed the river Euphrates, crossing the river Euphrates 
on boats supported by inflated sheep-skins. I stormed six 
of their cities, that were situated at the foot of Mount 
Beshri, and burned them with fire, destroyed and devas- 
tated them. I brought their booty, their goods, and their 
cattle to Asshur, my city. 

Tiglath-pileser, who tramples down the proud and the 
haughty, who overthrows the unsubmissive, and humbles 
all those who deem themselves powerful. 

When Ashur, my lord, sent me to conquer the land 
Musri, I took the road leading between the mountains 
Elamuni, Tala, and Harusa. I conquered all the land of 
Musri, overpowered their warriors, and burned their cities 
with fire, destroyed and devastated. I fought on the 
mountains with the troops of the Qumaneans, who had 
come to the assistance of Musri, and accomplished their de- 
feat; drove them into one city — ^viz., Arini, at the foot of 
Mount Aisa — and shut them up. They embraced my feet 
in fear and trembling; the city I spared, but exacted from 
its inhabitants hostages, taxes, and tribute. 

At that time all the Qumaneans who had rallied to the 
support of Musri assembled the troops from all their lands 
and made a stand to give me battle and combat. With the 
help of my mighty weapons I fought on Mount Tala with 
twenty thousand of their numerous troops and brought 
defeat upon them. I scattered their large and numerous 
forces, and pursued them in their defeat as far as Mount 
Harusa on the east side of Musri. I scattered the bodies of 
their warriors upon the mountain peaks like the flow of 
water, and made their blood to flow over the ravines and 
high places of the mountains. I stormed their large cities, 
burned them with fire, destroyed and devastated, so that 
they became mounds and arable land; and I ruined 
Hunusa, their fortress, so that now it appears like a rub- 
bish-heap tossed together by a hurricane. I fought fiercely 



22 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

against their numerous troops in city and on mountain, 
and completely defeated them. I poured out the corpses 
of their warriors in the mountain forests like the flow of 
water; cut of? their heads like swaths; and made their 
blood to flow over the ravines and high places of the 
mountain. The city itself I stormed, carried off their idols, 
brought away their goods and their property, and then 
burned the city with fire. I destroyed and ruined its three 
strong city walls, built with burned brick, and the enceinte 
of the city, reducing all to mounds and arable land; threw 
ashes (?) upon its ruins, and erected a memorial slab (?) 
of copper, inscribing on it the spoil I had gathered from 
the countries which with the help of Ashur, my lord, I had 
taken; and directing never to build anew that city, nor to 
erect its walls again. I built over it (the slab) a house 
made of brick and placed in it that memorial slab of copper. 

In the strength of Ashur, my lord, I took my war 
chariots and troops, and besieged Kibshuna, their capital 
city. The Qumaneans, fearing the approach of my mighty 
battle array, embraced my feet and I spared their lives. I 
ordered them to pull down their city's great wall and its 
towers built of brick. They destroyed these from their 
foundations to their roofs, and reduced the city to mounds 
and arable land. The inhabitants also drove away three 
hundred rebellious families living among them and not 
submissive to Ashur, my lord, who had been implicated in 
the revolt. I accepted this deed, and took hostages as a 
pledge for the future. I also imposed on them taxes and 
tribute more than before, and brought to submission the 
wide country of the Qumaneans throughout its extent. 

I conquered, in all, from the beginning of my rule to 
the fifth year of my reign, forty-two countries and their 
princes, from the other side of the Lower Zab, the bound- 
ary of far-off mountain forests, unto the other side of the 
Euphrates to the land of the Hittites and the Upper Sea 
toward the west. I made them one nation and amalga- 
mated them; took hostages from them and imposed on 
them taxes and tribute. 



INSCRIPTION OF TIGLATH-PILESER I 



23 



I also conducted many other campaigns against en- 
emies who could not approach my military superiority, 
covering good country in my war chariot and on bad roads 
pursuing the enemy afoot. Thus I always prevented an 
inroad of my enemies into my country. 

Tiglath-pileser, the valiant hero, who holds a sceptre 
that has no rival, and who is perfect in the deeds of the 
battlefield. 

The gods Ninib and Nergal had presented my majesty 
with their mighty weapons and their lofty bow; and at the 
bidding of Ninib, who loves me, I killed with my mighty 
bow, my sharp lance of iron, and my arrow, four huge and 
powerful male wild oxen, in the prairies of the country of 
Mitani and near the city of Arazigi, situated east of the land 
of the Hittites. I brought home to my city Asshur their 
hides and their horns. 

I hunted and killed ten powerful male elephants in the 
country of Harran and on the banks of the Chaboras. I 
also captured alive four elephants; and brought the hides 
and the tusks of the ten, together with the live elephants, 
to my city Asshur. At the bidding of Ninib, who loves 
me, with a stout heart, I killed on foot one hundred and 
twenty lions with courageous attack. From my chariot 
I slew as many as eight hundred lions; and also laid low 
as trophies (? of my chase) all kinds of beasts of the field 
and of winged birds soaring aloft. 

After I had thus successfully overcome all the enemies 
of Ashur, I erected a temple to my lady Ishtar of Asshur; 
also a temple to Martu, and Bel-Dibbarra; and renovated 
temples to deities and to gods in my city Asshur, which 
had become dilapidated, and completed their restoration. 
I constructed the gateways to these temples and led the 
great gods, my lords, into them, thus gladdening their 
divine heart. I rebuilt and restored palaces, my royal resi- 
dences, in the outlying districts of my country — palaces 
which in the course of many years during the reign of my 
fathers had been forsaken, had fallen into decay and were 
now heaps of ruins. I also rebuilt the crumbling walls of 



24 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

cities in my country; repaired the storehouses and grana- 
ries throughout the whole of Assyria and unloaded into 
them more grain than my fathers had done, heaping it 
high. Herds of horses, cattle, and asses I collected, which 
in the strength of Ashur, my lord, my hand had captured 
as spoil in the lands which I had conquered. I also caught 
in the high mountain forests herds of hinds and stags, 
gazelles and steinbocks — ^which Ashur and Ninib, the gods 
who love me, had given unto me as the result of my chase. 
I brought together whole troops of them, and reckoned 
their number like a large herd of small cattle. I sacrificed 
to Ashur, my lord, from year to year, kids and Iambs, their 
offspring, together with the more splendid sacrifices, ac- 
cording to my heart's desire. 

I brought from the countries which I had conquered, 
cedars, oaks, and other foreign woods, such as among the 
kings, my forefathers, none had ever planted, and I planted 
them in the parks of my country. I imported also for 
orchards rare, choice fruits, which were not found in my 
country and planted them in the orchards of Assyria. 

Chariots and their yoked horses I increased in number 
more than ever before, so as to strengthen the power of my 
country. I enlarged the land of Assyria in territory and 
increased its people in number. I enhanced the welfare 
of my nation, and made them live and dwell in peaceful 
homes. 

Tiglath-pileser, the lofty prince, to whom Ashur and 
Ninib give everything according to his heart's desire; who 
has followed up all the enemies of Assyria, wherever they 
happened to be, overpowering all who deemed themselves 
powerful. 

The son of Ashur-resh-ishi, the mighty king, conqueror 
of his enemies' lands, subduer of all the haughty. 

The grandson of Mutakkil-Nusku, for whom Ashur, 
the great lord, following the dictates of his true heart, 
longed, and whom he called to the legitimate dominion 
over Assyria. 

The legitimate scion of Ashur-dan, who wielded a 



INSCRIPTION OF TIGLATH-PILESER I 



25 



splendid sceptre and ruled the people of Bel; whose handi- 
work and sacrificial g^fts were pleasing to the great gods, 
and who thus reached old age and hoary years. 

The descendant of Ninib-pal-ekur the royal ruler, the 
favourite of Ashur, whose lightning fire, like the light of 
day, was spread over the whole country, and who led the 
troops of Assyria with a firm hand. 

In those days I rebuilt the Temple of Anu and Adad, 
the great gods, my lords, a temple which long ago Sham- 
shi-Adad, a high priestly official of Ashur, son of Ishme- 
Dagan, likewise a high priestly official of Ashur, had built; 
but it had been decaying for six hundred and forty-one 
years, until the time of Ashur-dan, King of Assyria, son of 
Ninib-pal-ekur, King of Assyria, who had pulled down that 
temple, without rebuilding it, so that for sixty years its 
foundation had not been laid. 

In the beginning of my government Anu and Adad, 
the great gods, my lords, who love my priestly dignity, de- 
manded of me the restoration of this their sacred dwelling. 
I made bricks, and I cleared the ground, until I reached 
the artificial flat terrace upon which the old temple had 
been built. I laid its foundation upon the solid rock and 
incased the whole place with brick like a fireplace, over- 
laid on it a layer of fifty bricks in depth, and built upon 
this the foundations of the Temple of Anu and Adad of 
large square stones. I built it from foundation to roof 
larger and grander than before, and erected also two great 
temple towers, fitting ornaments of their great divinities. 
The splendid temple, a brilliant and magnificent dwelling, 
the habitation of their joys, the house for their delight, 
shining as bright as the stars on heaven's firmament and 
richly decorated with ornaments through the skill of my 
artists, I planned, devised and thought out, built and com- 
pleted. I made its interior brilliant like the dome of the 
heavens; decorated its walls, like the splendour of the ris- 
ing stars, and made it grand with resplendent brilliancy. I 
reared its temple towers to heaven and completed its roof 
with burned brick; located therein the upper terrace con- 



26 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

taining the chamber of their great divinities; and led into 
its interior Anu and Adad, the great gods, and made them 
dwell in this their lofty home, thus gladdening the heart 
of their great divinities. I also cleared the site of the 
treasure-house of Adad, my lord, which the same Shamshi- 
Adad, priest of Ashur, son of Ishme-Dagan, likewise priest 
of Ashur, had built and which had fallen into decay and 
ruins, and rebuilt it from foundation to roof with burned 
brick, making it more beautiful and much firmer than be- 
fore. I slaughtered clean animals therein as a sacrifice to 
Adad, my lord. 

At that time I also imported various kinds of precious 
stones from the mountains of the country of Nairi which 
with the help of Ashur, my lord, I had conquered. I de- 
posited these in the treasure-house of Adad, my lord, to 
remain there for the future and forever. 

As I have planned the bright and brilliant house, the 
lofty dwelling for the habitation of Anu and Adad, the 
great gods, my lords; and as I persevered in building it, 
untiringly and unceasingly, completing it with the utmost 
speed and thus gladdening the heart of their great divini- 
ties; may, therefore, Anu and Adad turn to me truly and 
faithfully, accept graciously the lifting up of my hand, 
hearken unto my devout prayers, grant unto me and my 
reign abundance of rain, years of prosperity and fruitfulness 
in plenty! May they bring me back safely from battle and 
from flight; may they reduce to submission all the coun- 
tries of my enemies, mountain regions that are powerful, 
and kings who are my adversaries! May they come nigh 
unto me and my priestly seed with friendly blessings; may 
they establish my priesthood as firm as the rocks before 
Ashur and the great deities for the future and forever! 

I inscribed upon my memorial slab and on my brick 
cylinder the glory of my valiant prowess, the victories 
achieved in battle, the subjection of the enemies who hated 
Ashur and whom Anu and Adad gave unto me as a pres- 
ent ; and I placed them in the comer stones of the Temple 
of Anu and Adad, the great gods, my lords, for the future 



INSCRIPTION OF TIGLATH-PILESER I 27 

and forever. I also cleansed the memorial slab of Shamshi- 
Adad, my predecessor, with oil, offered a sacrifice, and re- 
stored the slab to its former resting-place. 

For eternal days and forever, for always (be it said): 
When some future prince — when the Temple of Anu and 
Adad, the great gods, my lords, and these temple towers 
shall have become old and fallen into ruins — rebuilds their 
ruins, may he cleanse with oil my memorial slab and the 
foundation cylinder, offer a sacrifice, and restore both to 
their lawful resting-place, writing his name unto my name! 
As Anu and Adad, the great lords, have dealt with me, 
may they deal with him and lead him to the attainment of 
glory and victory! 

But he who wantonly breaks to pieces my memorial 
slab and my foundation cylinder, and throws them away, 
casts them into water or burns them in fire, covers them 
with dust or heaps them up as rubbish in some dark place 
where they can not be seen, blots out my signature, sub- 
stituting his own in place of mine, or plans any other form 
of evil, thus injuring this my memorial slab: 

May the great gods Anu and Adad, my lords, look 
upon him with wrath and with anger! 

May they curse him with a baneful curse! 

May they break up his kingdom! 

May they uproot the foundations of his throne! 

May they ruin the offspring of his lordship! 

May they break to pieces his weapons! 

May they bring defeat upon his army! 

May they place him bound as prisoner before his en- 
emies! 

May Adad strike his country with disastrous lightning! 

May he bring need and want, famine and pestilence 
over his country and not permit him to live one day longer! 

May he blot out his name and his family from off the 
land! 

Written in the month Siwan, the month of the Gemini, 
on the 29th day of the month, the eponymy of Ina-iliia- 
allak, the chief of the musicians. 



28 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

INTRODUCTION TO THE ANNALS OF 

ASHURNAgiRPAL, KING OF ASSYRIA 

(884-860 B. c.) 

To Ninib, the powerful, the strong, the exalted, the 
chief of the gods, the valiant, the mighty, the perfect, 
whose onslaught in battle can not be equalled; the son of 
highest rank, the destroyer of opposition, the first-born of 
Nudimmud, the hero of the Igigi, the strong, the coun- 
sellor of the gods, the offspring of Ekur; who holds the 
reins of heaven and earth, who opens the depths, who 
treads the broad earth, the god without whom the deci- 
sions of heaven and earth are not decided; the destroyer, 
the strong, the command of whose mouth can not be 
changed, the chief of the four quarters of the world, the 
giver of sceptre and decision unto all cities, the ruler, the 
violent, the command of whose lips can not be altered, 
the strong, the broad, the leader of the gods, the ex- 
alted, the great storm, the lord of lords, whose hand con- 
trols the ends of heaven (and) earth, the king of con- 
tests, the strong, who has conquered (all) opposition, the 
triumphant, the perfect, the lord of the depths and the 
seas; the terrible, the unsparing, whose onslaught is a 
cyclone, who overwhelms the land of the enemies, who 
overthrows the wicked, the powerful god, whose counsel 
can not be changed; the light of heaven (and) earth, who 
gives light to the abyss, who annihilates the wicked, who 
brings to subjection the disobedient, who destroys foes, 
whose name in the assembly of the gods no god can 
humble; the giver of life, the merciful god to whom it 
is good to pray, who dwells in Calah, the great lord, my 
lord — Ashurna9irpal, the powerful king, king of the world, 
a king without equal, king of all of the four quarters, the 
sun of the hosts of men, well-beloved of Bel and Ninib, 
beloved of Anu and Dagan, darling of the great gods, 
submissive, beloved of thy heart, the prince, the favourite 
of Bel, whose priesthood is pleasing unto thy great divinity 



INSCRIPTION OF ASHURNA^IRPAL 29 

and whose reign thou hast established; the valiant hero, 
who under the protection of Ashur, his lord, marches here 
and there and among the princes of the four quarters has 
no rival; the shepherd looked upon with wonder, fearless 
of opposition, the massive flood, who has no opponent; 
the king who has brought to subjection the unsubmissive, 
who rules over all the hosts of men; the strong man, who 
tramples on the neck of his foe, who treads under foot 
all enemies, who breaks the strength of the powerful, who 
under the protection of the great gods, his lords, marches 
here and there, and whose hand has conquered all coun- 
tries, who has subdued the mountains in all their extent, 
and has received their tribute; the taker of hostages, who 
has established his power over all lands. 



A VOTIVE INSCRIPTION OF 
ASHURNAgiRPAL 

From the Temple of Balawat. 

AsHURNAfiRPAL, the great king, the powerful king, 
king of the world. King of Assyria; son of Tukulti-Ninib, 
the great king, the powerful king, king of the world. King 
of Assyria; son of Ramman-nirari, the great king, the pow- 
erful king, king of the world. King of Assyria; the brave 
hero, who, under the protection of Ashur, his lord, has 
marched here and there and, among the princes of the 
four quarters of the world, has found no rival; the king, 
who from beyond the Tigris to Lebanon and the great sea, 
Laqe, in its extent, and Suhi as far as the city of Rapiqu, 
brought to submission; from the head- waters of the Sub- 
nat to the passes of Kirruri, to Gilzani, from beyond the 
Lower Zab to the city of Til-bari, which is above Zaban, 
from the city Tilshabtani to the city Tilshagabtani, the city 
of Hirimu, the city of Harutu, the fortresses of Karduniash 
to the territory of my country I restored and the broad 



30 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

lands of Nairi throughout its whole extent I conquered. 
That city I took anew (and) I called its name Imgur-Bel. 
I built the temple with the brick of my palace; I set up 
therein an image of Mahir, my lord. I went to Lebanon. 
I cut down logs of cedar, of cypress (and) of juniper. I 
placed beams (logs) of cedar over the .temple; I made 
doors of cedar, bound them with copper straps, and set 
them up in its gates. I adorned (and) decorated that tem- 
ple. I seated Mahir, the great lord, therein, and I placed 
an inscribed tablet in his temple. 

O later prince of the kings, my sons, whom Ashur may 
call, (if) this temple decay and thou see the tablet and 
read (it), repair its damages, write thy name with mine 
(and) restore it to its place. May Ashur, the great lord, 
and Mahir who dwells in this temple, look on him con- 
tinuously with love! May they establish his name (and) 
his seed in their land! Whoever sees this tablet and speaks 
any evil, may Ishtar, the mistress of contest and battle, 
break in pieces his weapons (and) may she deprive him 
of his throne! Whoever sees this tablet and reads (it), 
cleanses it with oil, offers sacrifices, (and) restores (it) to 
its place, Ashur, the great lord will hear his prayers (and) 
in the battle of kings, in war, he will let him attain his 
heart's desire. 



INSCRIPTION OF NABUPALIDDIN 
(883-852 B. c.) 

Shamash, the great lord, who dwells in Ebabbara which 
is in Sippar, which, during the uprisings and disturbances 
in the land of Akkad, the Sutu, a hostile foe, had over- 
turned, (and) had destroyed (its) reliefs — his law was for- 
gotten and his image and insignia had disappeared, and 
no one knew where they were. Simmasshihu, King of 
Babylon, made inquiry for his statue, but he (Shamash) 
did not reveal himself. He (the king) did not find his 



INSCRIPTION OF NABUPALIDDIN 



31 



image and his insignia, and he erected an inclosure before 
Shamash and established his regular offering; and placed 
them in charge of Ekurshumushabshi, the priest of Sippar, 
the seer. 

During the distress and famine in the time of King 
Kasshunadinahi, this regular offering was stopped, and the 
drink offering fell into disuse. As for King Eulbursha- 
kinshum, Ekurshumushabshi, the priest of Sippar, the 
seer, came into the presence of the king, his lord, and said, 
" The dues (i. e., established offerings) of Shamash have 
ceased " ; and he provided for Shamash one qa of food and 
one qa of date wine, as the support of the director of Esagila, 
from the dues of Bel, and he presented it to Ekurshumu- 
shabshi, the priest of Sippar, the seer. He (also) dedi- 
cated to Shamash a garden in the addition of Alu-esshu 
(the new city) which is in the midst of Babylon, and 
intrusted (it) to Ekurshumushabshi, the priest of Sippar, 
the seer. 

Later on Nabupaliddin, King of Babylon, the elect of 
Marduk, the beloved of Anu and Ea, who makes glad the 
heart of Qarpanit, the manly warrior, well fitted for rule, 
bearer of a mighty bow, who overthrew the hostile foe, 
the Sutu — whose misdeeds were great — ^whom Marduk, 
the great lord, had invested with a righteous sceptre with 
which to rule the people, to avenge Akkad, to people cities, 
to found shrines, to chisel reliefs, to preserve laws and ordi- 
nances, to establish regular offerings, to look after free- 
will offerings — Shamash, the great lord, who for a long 
time had been incensed against Akkad, (and) had turned 
away his neck in anger, in the reign of Nabupalid- 
din, the King of Babylon, relented and showed favour. 
The relief of his image, cut in clay, his statue and in- 
signia were found on the other side of the Euphrates 
toward the west; and Nabunadinshum, the priest of Sip- 
par, the seer, of the seed of Ekurshumushabshi, the priest 
of Sippar, the seer, showed Nabupaliddin, the king, his 
lord, that relief of the image; and Nabupaliddin, the King 
of Babylon, who had commanded and intrusted him to 



32 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



replace that image, saw that image,* and his countenance 
was glad and his spirit exultant; he directed his attention 
to replace that image, and with the wisdom of Ea, the 
co-operation of Nin-igi-nan-gar-bu, Gush-gin-ban-da, Nin- 
kur-ra, (and) Nin-za-dim, with pure gold (and) brilliant 
lapis lazuli, he carefully prepared the image of Shamash, 
the great lord. He washed his mouth according to the 
purification rite of Ea and Marduk, in the presence of 
Shamash in Ekarsaginna, which is on the bank of the Eu- 
phrates, and he (Shamash) took up his residence. He 
made ofiferings to his heart's content, consisting of im- 
mense oxen and large sheep, and with honey, wine, and 
upuntu in abundance he filled the granaries (?). 

At that time, the heart of Nabupaliddin, King of Baby- 
lon, rejoiced, and his countenance became bright; he 
turned his face toward Nabunadinshum, the priest of Sip- 
par, the seer, and with his shining face, his noble counte- 
nance, he looked upon him with favour in his gracious eyes. 
One qa of food and one qa of drink, the ancient dues of Sha- 
mash, together with the garden which Eulbarshakinshum, 
the king, had presented to Ekurshumushabshi, the priest 
of Sippar, the seer, altogether six fine garments for the 
whole year, a gift from the king for Shamash, A, and 
Bunene * * * * Such did Nabupaliddin, the King of 
Babylon, present to Nabunadinshum, the priest of Sippar, 
the seer, his servant; and, that there might not be a suit to 
recover, he sealed it and gave it for all time. At the sealing 
of this tablet, Mardukshumukin, the son of Habban the 
priest; Ibashilu, the son of Earimanni, the messenger; 
Marduktabikzer, the son of Tu-bal-lat-Ishtar, the mayor 
(?); and Mardukbalatsuiqbi, the son of Arad-Ea, the pre- 
fect, were present. At Babylon, on the 20th of Nisan, in 
the thirty-first year of Nabupaliddin, King of Babylon. 
Duplicate of the royal tablet regarding the disposition. 

' That is, the relief, cut in clay, which had been found and was now 
presented by Ekurshumushabshi. 

' The inscription continues with a list of offerings and presents, many 
of which are still unknown. The enumeration would be of little interest 
to the general reader. 



INSCRIPTION OF SHALMANESER II 33 

Whoever in the future enters this palace as ruler and ren- 
ders null the gift of the King Nabupaliddin, or presents it 
to another, or cuts down the allowance, or reckons it as 
belonging to the prefect, or appropriates it to himself, or 
by some evil act destroys this tablet, as for that man, by the 
command of Shamash, A, and Bunene, lords of fates, the 
great gods, may his name pass away, may his seed perish, 
in distress and want may his life go out, may his corpse 
be cast out, and may he not be granted burial! 



THE MONOLITH INSCRIPTION OF 
SHALMANESER ^11-^ (860-824 b. c.) 

AsHUR, the great lord, the king of all the great gods; 
Anu, the king of the Igigi and Anunnaki, the lord of lands; 
Bel, the father of the gods, the decider of fates, who fixes 
the boundaries of heaven and earth; Ea, the wise, the 
king of the deep, the patron of the arts; Nanir of heaven 
and earth, the majestic; Shamash, the judge of the (four) 
quarters of the world, who leads mankind aright; Ishtar, 
the mistress of contest and battle, whose pleasure is (in) 
war; the great gods, who love my sovereignty, have en- 
larged my lordship, might and rule; my important name, 
my exalted fame in the presence of (?) the lords they have 
firmly established for me. Shalmaneser, the king of all 
people, the prince, the priest of Ashur, the powerful king, 
King of Assyria, the king of the whole of the four quarters 
of the world; the sun of all people, who holds dominion 
over all countries; the king, chosen of the gods, the be- 
loved of Bel, the viceroy of Ashur, the watchful, the lofty 
prince, who discovers roads and difficult (ways); who 
treads the tops of the mountains (and) all the mountain 
forests, who receives the tribute and presents of all re- 
gions, who opens up roads above and below; before his 
powerful battle attack the regions (i. e., the world) become 
alarmed and the foundations of the countries tremble at 



34 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



the power of his bravery; the manly, the powerful, who 
under the protection of Ashur and Shamash, the gods, his 
helpers, marches and among the princes of the four quar- 
ters of the world has no rival; the king of countries, the 
strong (one), who marches over steep roads, traverses 
mountains and seas; the son of Ashumagirpal, governor 
of Bel, priest of Ashur, whose priesthood was pleasing to 
the gods, and to whose feet they subjected all countries; 
the brilliant descendant of Tukulti-Ninib, who subjugated 
all his foes and overwhelmed them like a cyclone. 

At the time when Ashur, the great lord, in the fidelity 
of his heart, with his clear eyes recognised me, and called 
me to the rule of Assyria, a powerful weapon, bringing 
destruction to the insubordinate, he intrusted to me all 
countries, and with a lofty crown he adorned my lordship, 
?»: * * he gave me stern orders to subjugate and to sub- 
due the enemies of Ashur. 

At that time, at the beginning of my rule, in the first 
year of my reign, (as) with pomp I took my seat upon 
the royal throne, I assembled my chariots (and) forces, I 
entered into the pass of Simesi. To the city Aridi, the 
stronghold of Ninni, I approached. I besieged and cap- 
tured the city.^ I slew many of his warriors. I carried 
off his spoil- A pyramid of heads in front of his city I 
erected. Their young men (and) women I burned in a 
bonfire. While I was quartered in the city Aridi, I re- 
ceived the tribute of the Hargeans, the Harmaseans, the 
Simeseans, the Simereans, the Sirisheans, the Ulmane- 
ans, horses trained to the yoke, oxen, sheep, wine. 

I departed from Aridi. Steep roads, difficult moun- 
tains, which, like the point of an iron dagger, raised their 
peaks to the skies, with axes of bronze (and) copper I 
battered down. Chariots (and) forces I brought through. 

I advanced to Hupushkia. Hupushkia, together wth 
one hundred neighbouring cities, I burned with fire. 
Kakia, King of Nairi, and the rest of his forces, became 
afraid before the brilliancy of my weapons and betook 
themselves to the mighty mountains. I ascended the 



INSCRIPTION OF SHALMANESER II 



35 



mountains after them. A great battle I fought in the 
mountains (and) I accomplished their overthrow. Chari- 
ots, forces, horses trained to the yoke, from the moun- 
tains I brought back. The fear of the splendour of Ashur, 
my lord, overwhelmed them; they came down (and) seized 
my feet. Taxes and tribute I placed on them. 

From Hupushkia I departed. To Sugunia, the 
stronghold of Aramu of the land of Urartu, I advanced; 
the city I besieged, I captured. I slew many of their 
warriors. I carried off his spoil. A pyramid of heads in 
front of his city I erected. Fourteen of his neighbouring 
cities I burned with fire. 

From Sugunia I departed. To the sea of the land of 
Nairi I descended. I washed my weapons in the sea. 
I offered sacrifices to my gods. At that time, I made 
a life-size image of myself; the glory of Ashur, the lord, the 
prince, my lord, and the might of my power I wrote upon 
it and I set it up above the sea. On my return from the 
sea, I received the tribute of Asu of Guzana, horses, oxen, 
sheep, wine, two double-humped dromedaries; to my city 
Ashur I brought (them). 

In the month lyyar, on the 13th day I departed from 
Nineveh, I crossed the Tigris (and) passed over the moun- 
tains Hasamu (and) Dihnunu. To the city Lalate, of 
Ahuni, the son of Adini, I advanced. The fear of the splen- 
dour of Ashur, my lord, overwhelmed them. They went 
up to the [mountains]. The city I destroyed, devastated 
(and) burned with fire. 

From Lalate I departed. To the city of Kira(?)qa, 
of Ahuni, the son of Adini, I advanced. Ahuni, the son 
of Adini, trusted to the mass of his forces, and [to offer] 
engagement and battle [he advanced against me]. Under 
the protection of Ashur and the great gods I fought with 
him (and) accomplished his overthrow. I shut him up in 
his city. 

From Kira(?)qa I departed. To the city Burmarana, 
of Ahuni, the son of Adini, [I went. The city] I besieged 
and captured. Three hundred of their fighting men I 



36 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

brought low with my weapons. A pyramid of heads in 
front of his city I erected. * * * I received the tribute 
of Hapini, of the city Til-abna, of Gauni, of the city Sa- 
ru * * * Giri-Ramman, * * * silver, gold, oxen, sheep, 
wine. 

From Burmarana I departed. In ships of lamb-skins 
I crossed the Euphrates. I received the tribute of Katazilu, 
of the land of Qummuhu, silver, gold, oxen, sheep, wine. 

To the land of [Paqarrujhbuni, the cities of Ahuni, 
the son of Adini, on the other side of the Euphrates, I ad- 
vanced. The overthrow of the land I accomplished, his 
cities I brought to destruction, (and) with the overthrow of 
his warriors I filled the broad plain. One thousand three 
hundred of his fighting men I brought low with (my) 
weapons. 

From Paqarruhbuni I departed. To the cities of Mu- 
talli of Gamgumu I advanced. I received the tribute of 
Mutalli, of Gamgumu, silver, gold, oxen, sheep, wine, and 
his daughter with her large dowry. 

From Gamgumu I departed. To Lutibu, the strong- 
hold of Hanu of Samala, I advanced. Hanu of Samala, 
Sapalulme, the Patinian, Ahuni, the son of Adini, 
Sangara of Carchemish, trusted to each other's help, and 
they joined forces. They advanced to make battle, and 
they attacked me. With the splendid forces of Ner- 
gal, who goes before me, with the powerful weapons 
which Ashur, the lord, presented, I fought with them, ac- 
complished their overthrow (and) I brought low their 
fighting men with (my) weapons. Like the god Ramman 
I rained destruction upon them. I cast them into the 
ditches. With the corpses of their warriors I filled the 
broad plain. With their blood I dyed the mountain like 
wool. Many chariots, horses trained to the yoke I took 
away from him. I erected a pyramid of heads in front of 
his city. I destroyed, devastated (and) burned his cities 
with fire.. 

At that time I was obedient to the greatness of the 
great gods, and the bravery of Ashur and Shamash I cele- 



INSCRIPTION OF SHALMANESER II 



37 



brated for the future. I made a large royal image. The 
course of my bravery and the deeds of my victory I wrote 
thereon. At the head-waters of the Saluara, which is at 
the foot of the mountains of Hamani, I set it up. 

From Hamani I departed. I crossed the Orontes. To 
Ali^ir, the stronghold of Sapalulme, the Patinian, I ad- 
vanced. Sapalulme, the Patinian, to save his life, Ahuni, 
the son of Adini, Sagara of Carchemish, Hanu of Samala, 
Kateshu * * * of Que, Pihiri(?) of Hiluku, Buranate of 
Yasbuqu, Ada(?) ***lca***I broke, the city I be- 
sieged, I captured * * * his numerous chariots, horses 
trained to the yoke * * * I carried off. [His numerous 
fighting men] I brought low with (my) weapons. In the 
same battle, my hands captured Buranate [of Yasbuqu]. 
The large cities of the Patinians * * * The upper [cities] 
of the west-land and of the western (?) Sea like the tell 
of a cyclone I overwhelmed. The tribute of the kings of 
the sea-coast I received. On the coast of the broad sea 
righteous and triumphant I marched. An image of my 
lordship, establishing my name for all time, I made and 
set up above the sea. To the mountains of Hamani I 
went up. Beams of cedar (and) cypress I cut. To the 
mountains of Atalur, where an image of Ashur-irbi was 
erected, I went. An image with his I set up. From the 
sea I went down. Taya, Hazazu, Nulla, Butamu of the 
Patinians, I captured. Two thousand eight hundred of 
their fighting men I killed. Fourteen thousand six hun- 
dred I carried away as prisoners. The tribute of Arame, 
the son of Gusi, silver, gold, oxen, sheep, wine, a bed of 
gold and silver I received. 

In my eponymy, in the month lyyar, on the 13th day 
I departed from Nineveh; I crossed the Tigris and passed 
over the mountains Hasamu and Dihnunu; to Til-bursip, 
the stronghold of Ahuni the son of Adini I advanced. 
Ahuni, the son of Adini, trusted to the mass of his forces 
and he attacked me. I accomplished his overthrow; in 
his city I shut him up. 

From Til-bursip I departed. In ships of lamb-skins I 



38 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

crossed the Euphrates during high water. The city of 
* * * aqa(?), the city of Tagi * * * Surunu, Paripa, Til- 
bashere, Dabigu, six large cities of Ahuni, son of Adini, 
I captured. His numerous fighting men I killed, (and) 
their spoil I carried off. Two hundred neighbouring cities 
I destroyed, devastated (and) burned with fire. 

To Dabigu, to Sazabu, the stronghold of Sangara of 
Carchemish, I advanced. The city I besieged, I captured. 
Their numerous fighting men I killed, (and) their spoil 
I carried off. The neighbouring cities I destroyed, devas- 
tated (and) burned with fire. The kings of the land * * * 
to their extent, before the brilliancy of my powerful weap- 
ons and my raging battle, became terrified and seized my 
feet * * * from the land of Patina three talents of 
gold, one hundred talents of silver, three hundred talents 
of copper, three hundred talents of iron, one thousand 
vessels of copper, one thousand (pieces) of variegated 
cloth, linen, his daughter with her large dowry, twenty 
talents of purple cloth, five hundred oxen, five thousand 
sheep, I received from him. One talent of silver, two 
talents of purple cloth, * * * hundred beams of cedar as 
tribute I laid upon him. Yearly in my city Asshur I re- 
ceived it. 

As for Hayanu, son of Gabbaru, at the foot of Mount 
Hamanu, ten talents of silver, ninety talents of copper, 
thirty talents of iron, three hundred (pieces) of variegated 
cloth, linen, three hundred oxen, three thousand sheep, 
two hundred beams of cedar, two * * * of cedar, his 
daughter, with her dowry, I received from him. Ten mana 
of silver, one hundred beams of cedar, one hundred * * * 
of cedar as tribute I laid upon him. Yearly I received (it). 

As for Aramu,son of Agusi,ten mana of gold, six talents 
of silver, five hundred oxen, five thousand sheep, I received 
from him. As for Sangara, of Carchemish, three talents of 
gold, seventy talents of silver, thirty talents of copper, one 
hundred talents of iron, twenty talents of purple cloth, 
five hundred weapons, his daughter with (her) dowry and 
one hundred daughters of his nobles, five hundred oxen. 



INSCRIPTION OF SHALMANESER II 



39 



five thousand sheep, I received from him. Sixty mana of 
gold, one talent of silver, two talents of purple cloth, I 
laid upon him. Yearly I received (it) from him. From 
Katazilu, of Qummuhu, twenty mana of silver, three hun- 
dred beams of cedar, yearly I received. 

In the eponymy of Ashurbelkain, in the month Tam- 
muz, on the 13th day, I departed from Nineveh. The river 
Tigris I crossed and I passed over the mountains Hasamu 
(and) Dihnunu. At the city Til-barsip, the stronghold of 
Ahuni, the son of Adini, I arrived. Ahuni, the son of 
Adini, before the brilliancy of my mighty weapons and 
my raging battle, in order to save his life, crossed the 
Euphrates during its high water, and passed over to other 
lands. By the command of Ashur, the great lord, my lord, 
Til-barsip, Aligu * * * Shaguka as my royal city I seized. 
The men of Assyria I settled within (it). Palaces for my 
royal residence I built in its midst. Til-barsip, Kar-Shal- 
maneser, the name of Nappigu, Lita-Ashur, the name of 
AUigu, Agbatlakuna, the name of Rugulitu, Ku(dur)bit, 
I called their names. 

At that time, to the city Ashurutiraqbat, which the 
Haiti call Pitru, which is on the river Sagur, beyond the 
Euphrates, and Mutkinu, which is on this side of the 
Euphrates, which Tiglath-pileser, the father, the prince, my 
predecessor, had taken by force, (which) in the time of 
Ashur-kirbi(?), King of Assyria, the King of Aramu had 
taken away by force; these cities I restored to their place, 
(and) I -settled Assyrians therein. 

While I was quartered in Kar-Shalmaneser, the tribute 
of the kings of the sea-coast, and the kings along the banks 
of the Euphrates, silver, gold, lead, copper, vessels of cop- 
per (and) iron, oxen, sheep, variegated cloth and linen, I 
received. 

From Kar-Shalmaneser I departed and crossed over 
the mountain Sumu. To the land of Bit-zamani I de- 
scended. 

From Bit-zamani I departed. The mountains Nam- 
danu (and) Meirsu(?) I crossed over. Steep paths, dif- 



40 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

ficult mountains, which like the point of a dagger raised 
their peaks to the skies, with axes of bronze I broke down. 
Chariots (and) forces I brought through. 

To the land of Enzite of the land of Ishua I descended. 
My hands captured Enzite to its whole extent. Their 
cities I destroyed, devastated (and) burned with fire. 
Their spoil, their possessions and property without num- 
ber, I carried off. I made a large image of my royalty. 
The majesty of Ashur, the great lord, my lord, and the 
might of my power I wrote (described) thereon. In Sa- 
luria, at the foot of Mount Kirequ I set it up. 

I departed from Enzite (and) crossed the river Arzania. 
I advanced to Suhme. Uashtal, its stronghold, I captured. 
Suhme, to its whole extent, I destroyed, devastated (and) 
burned with fire. Sua, the lord of their cities, I took with 
my hand. 

From Suhme I departed. To the land of Dayaeni I 
descended. Dayaeni, to its whole extent, I captured. 
Their cities I destroyed, devastated and burned with fire. 
Their spoil, possessions, large property, I took away. 

I departed from Dayaeni. To Arzashku, the royal city 
of Arramu, of Urartu, I advanced. Arramu, of Urartu, 
before the brilliancy of my mighty weapons, and my raging 
battle, became afraid. He abandoned his city and went 
up to the mountains of Adduri. I climbed the mountains 
after him and brought about a hard battle in the moun- 
tains. Three thousand four hundred of his fighting men 
I brought low with (my) weapons. Like Ramman I rained 
destruction upon them. With their blood, like wool, I 
dyed the mountain. His camp equipment I took away 
from him. His chariots, riding horses, horses, bulls, 
calves, his property, spoil, his large possessions, from the 
mountain I brought back. Arramu, in order to save his 
life, climbed the difficult mountains. In the strength of my 
manhood, like a wild bull, I trampled his land (and) his 
cities I turned into ruins. Arzashku, together with its 
neighbouring cities, I destroyed [devastated and burned 
with fire]. Pyramids of heads in front of his city-gate I 



INSCRIPTION OF SHALMANESER II 



41 



erected. Some in the midst [of the pyramids I walled in]. 
Others round about the pyramids I impaled on stakes. 

From Arzashku I departed. To the mountains of the 
land of Eritia [I went.] A large [image of my royalty] I 
made. The excellence of Ashur, the great lord, my lord 
and the might of my power, which I had exercised in 
Urartu, I wrote (described) thereon. In Eritia I set (it) up. 

From Eritia I departed. To * * * Aramale I ad- 
vanced. His cities I destroyed, devastated (and) burned 
with fire. 

From Aramale I departed. To Zanziuna I advanced 
* * * he avoided battle and seized my feet. Horses 
trained' to the yoke, oxen, sheep, I received from 
him. I granted him favour. * * * [On my return] to 
the sea of Nairi I descended. The powerful weapons of 
Ashur I washed in the sea. I [offered] sacrifices. [A 
large image of my royalty] I made. The excellence of 
Ashur, the great lord, my lord, the course of my bravery 
and the deeds of my victory I wrote (described) thereon. 

From the sea I departed. To the land of Gilzani I 
advanced. Asau, King of Gilzani, with his brothers (and) 
his sons came forth against me. * * * Horses trained to 
the yoke, oxen, sheep, wine, seven two-humped drome- 
daries, I received from him. A large image of my royalty 
I made. The excellence of Ashur, the great lord, my lord, 
and the might of my power, which I had exercised in 
Nairi, I wrote (described) thereon (and) in his city, within 
his temple, I set (it) up. 

From Gilzani I departed. To Shilaya, the stronghold 
of Kaki, King of Hupushkia, I advanced. I besieged 
(and) captured the city (and) killed many of their fighting 
men. Three thousand prisoners, their oxen, their sheep, 
horses, bulls, calves, without number, I carried off (and) 
brought to my city Asshur. In the passes of Enzite I en- 
tered. In the passes of Kirruru, above Arbela, I came out. 

As for Ahuni, the son of Adini, who since the time 
of the kings, my fathers, had exercised authority and 
power, in the beginning of my sovereignty, in the epon- 



42 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

ymy of the year of my name, I departed from Nineveh. 
Til-bursip, his stronghold, I besieged. With my warriors 
I surrounded (it) and joined battle within it. I cut down 
its parks and rained the destruction of javelins upon it. 
Before the brilliancy of my weapons, the splendour of my 
lordship, he became afraid, he deserted his city (and) to 
save his life he crossed the Euphrates. In (my) second 
year, in the eponymy of Ashurbanauqur, I followed after 
him. The peak of the mountain Shitamrat, on the bank 
of the Euphrates, which hung suspended from the skies 
like a cloud, he had made his stronghold. By the com- 
mand of Ashur, the great lord, my lord, and Nergal, who 
goes before me, I advanced to Shitamrat, into whose 
midst among the kings my fathers, no one had approached. 
In three days the warrior had control of the mountain, 
his strong heart was for war, he climbed the mountain 
on foot, (and) destroyed (it). Ahuni trusted to the mass 
of his forces and came forth against me. He formed a line 
of battle. The weapons of Ashur, my lord, I directed 
against them, and their overthrow I accomplished. I cut 
off the heads of his contestants and with the blood of his 
fighting men I dyed the mountain. Many of his (men) 
fled helter-skelter to the rocks of the mountains. A hard 
battle in his city I brought about. The fear of the splen- 
dour of Ashur, my lord, overwhelmed them, they came 
down and seized my feet. Ahuni with his forces, chariots, 
riding horses, the large property of their palace, whose 
weight was not taken, I brought back before me. caused to 
cross the river Tigris, brought to my city Asshur, and 
reckoned them with the people of my land. 

In that year I went to Mazamua. Into the pass of Bu- 
naislu I entered. I advanced to the cities Nikdime (and) 
Nikdera. Before the brilliancy of my powerful weapons 
and my raging battle they became afraid. In ships of 
wickerwork they put to sea. In ships (rafts) of lamb-skins 
I followed them. I forced a hard battle on the sea (and) 
accomplished their overthrow. I dyed the sea with their 
blood like wool. 



INSCRIPTION OF SHALMANESER II 43 

In the eponymy of Dan-Ashur, in the month lyyar, on 
the 14th day, I departed from Nineveh. I crossed the 
Tigris and to the cities of Giammu on the river Balich I ad- 
vanced. They were afraid of the terror of my lordship 
(and) the briUiancy of my powerful weapons, and with their 
own weapons they killed Giammu, their lord. The cities 
Kitlala and Tilshaturahi I entered. I brought my gods 
into his palaces, and I made a festival in his palaces. I 
opened his store-house, inspected his treasure,, carried off 
his property and possessions, and brought (them) to my 
city Asshur. 

I departed from Kitlala (and) advanced to Kar-Shal- 
maneser. In ships of lamb-skins, for the second time, I 
crossed the Euphrates during its high water. The tribute 
of the kings beyond the Euphrates, (viz.) Sangar of Car- 
chemish, Kundashpi of Qummuhu, Arame, son of Gusi, 
Lalli of Melitu, Hayani, son of Gabari, Kalparuda of Pa- 
tinu, Kalparuda of Gamgumu, silver, gold, copper, ves- 
sels of copper, in the city of Ashuruttiraqbat, beyond the 
Euphrates, on the Sagur, which the Hatti call Pitru, I re- 
ceived. 

I departed from the Euphrates (and) advanced to Hal- 
man. They avoided battle (and) seized my feet. Silver, 
gold, their tribute, I received. Sacrifices to Ramman of 
Halman I offered. 

From Halman I departed (and) to the cities of Irhuleni 
of Hamath I advanced. Adenu, Barga, Argana, his royal 
city, I captured. His spoil, possessions, the property of 
his palaces, I brought forth (and) his palaces I set on fire. 

I departed from Argana (and) advanced to Qarqara. 
Qarqara, his royal city, I destroyed, devastated (and) 
burned with fire. One thousand two hundred chariots, 
one thousand two hundred riding-horses, twenty thousand 
soldiers of Benhadad of Damascus; seven hundred chariots, 
seven hundred riding-horses, ten thousand soldiers of 
Irhuleni of Hamath; ten thousand soldiers of Ahab, of 
Israel; five hundred soldiers of the Guians; one thousand 
soldiers of the Egyptians; ten chariots, ten thousand sol- 



44 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



diers of the Irqanateans; two hundred soldiers of Ma- 
tinu-bale of Arvad; two hundred soldiers of the Usana- 
tians; thirty chariots, ten thousand soldiers of Aduni-balu 
of the Shianians; one thousand camels of Gindubu, the 
Arbean * * * ten thousand soldiers of Basa, son of 
Ruhubi, the Amanean; these twelve (?) kings came to his 
aid. To make war and battle they came against me. With 
the splendid forces which Ashur, the lord, had g^ven, with 
the powerful weapons, which Nergal, who goes before me, 
had presented, I fought with them. From Qarqara to 
Gilzan I accomplished their overthrow. Fourteen thou- 
sand soldiers, their fighting men, I brought low with (my) 
weapons. Like Ramman I rained destruction upon them 
(and) I scattered their corpses. I filled the ruins with their 
numerous soldiers; with my weapons I made their blood 
to flow down the ravines of the district. The plain was 
too small for their complete overthrow; the broad stretch 
was used for their graves. With their bodies I dammed 
the Orontes like tiri. In that battle, their chariots, their 
riding-horses, their horses trained to the yoke, I took 
away from them. 



FRAGMENT OF THE ANNALS OF 
SHALMANESER II 

Containing an account of his western campaign in the eighteenth 
year of his reign 

In the eighteenth year of my reign, for the sixteenth 
time, I crossed the Euphrates. Hazael of Damascus 
trusted to the mass of his troops and mustered his troops 
in large numbers. He made Saniru, a mountain peak 
fronting Lebanon, his stronghold. I fought with him 
(and) accomplished his overthrow. I brought low six 
thousand soldiers, his fighting men, with (my) weapon(s); 
one thousand one hundred and twenty-one of his chariots, 
four hundred and seventy of his riding-horses, with his 



INSCRIPTION OF SHAMSHI-RAMMAN 



45 



camp baggage, I took away from him. In order to save his 
life, he retreated. I followed after him (and) I shut him up 
in Damascus, his royal city. I cut down his parks, I went 
as far as the mountains of the Hauran. Cities without 
number I destroyed, devastated (and) burned with fire. 
Their spoil beyond reckoning I carried away. I went 
as far as the mountains of Bali-rasi by the sea. I set 
up my royal image thereon. At that time, I received the 
tribute of the Tyrians, the Sidonians, (and) of Jehu, son 
of Omri. 



INSCRIPTION OVER THE BAS-RELIEFS 

(II) ON THE BLACK OBELISK 

OF SHALMANESER II 

Referring to the tribute of Jehu of the Omri Dynasty 

I HAVE received the tribute of Jehu, the son of Omri: 
silver, gold, bowls of gold, chalices of gold, cups of gold, 
buckets of gold, lead, a sceptre of the hand of the king 
(and) spear-shafts(?). 



INSCRIPTION OF SHAMSHI-RAMMAN 
(825-812 B. c.) 

To Ninib, mighty lord, potentate, great (and) exalted, 
hero of the gods, who holds the reins of heaven and earth, 
universal ruler, chief of the Igigi, powerful, strong, whose 
might can not be equalled, first in rank among the Anun- 
naki, strongest of the gods, brilliant, who can not be 
rivalled, stalwart, the storm cloud, the exalted lord, who 
rides on the cyclone, who like Shamash, the light of the 
gods, oversees the quarters (of the world), mightiest of the 
gods, who pours forth brilliancy, full of terror, perfect 



46 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

in physical strength, first-bom of Bel, supporter of the 
gods, his creators, product of Esharra, victorious son, who 
makes the heavens brilliant, destructive weapon, offspring 
of Kutushar, mistress of the ordinances (?) of Anu and 
Dagan, whose word can not be altered, all-powerful, ex- 
alted, great, possessed of strength, with well-developed 
muscles, of liberal understanding, clever in diplomacy, 
most stalwart of the gods, exalted, who dwells in Calah, 
the splendid shrine, the large place, the dwelling-place of 
the storm cloud Shamshi-Ramman, the powerful king, 
king of the world, without a rival, protector of shrines, who 
wears a righteous sceptre, who has dominion over all 
lands, who rules everything * * * whose name from time 
immemorial the gods called, pure priest, who restored 
Esharra, the tireless one, who upheld the temple cult, who 
turned his heart and directed his attention to the aflairs 
of Eharsagkurkurra (and) the temples of his land, son of 
Shalmaneser, king of the four quarters (of the world), the 
rival of all princes, who tramples under foot the lands, 
the grandson of Ashurnaqirpal, who receives taxes and 
gifts from every quarter (of the world). 

When Ashurdaninpal, in the time of Shalmaneser, his 
father, had acted in a hostile manner, incited sedition (and) 
rebellious speech, instigated the land to revolt, gathered 
his forces, won over to his side the people of Assyria, above 
and below, had become bold of speech, had alienated the 
cities, and was determined on war and battle, Nineveh, 
Adia, Shibaniba, Imgur-Bel, Ishshibri, Bit-imdira, Shimu, 
Shibtinish, Udnuna, Kibshuna, Kurban, Tidu, Nabulu, 
Kapa, Asshur, Urakka, Amat, Huzirina, Dur-balat, Dariga, 
Zaban, Lubdu, Arrapha, Arbailu, together with Amedi, Til- 
abni, and Hindanu, in all twenty-seven cities, with their 
fortifications, which had alienated themselves from Shal- 
maneser, king of the four quarters (of the world), my 
father, (and) had made common cause with Ashurdaninpal, 
by the command of the great gods, my lords, I brought to 
submission. 

In my first campaign, in which I went up to Nairi, 



INSCRIPTION OF SHAMSHI-RAMMAN 



47 



tribute (in the form of) horses spanned to the yoke, I re- 
ceived from all the kings of Nairi. At that time, I swept 
over Nairi, throughout its whole extent, as with a net. 
The territory of Assyria from Paddira in Nairi to Kar-Shal- 
maneser which is over against Carchemish; from Zaddi 
on the border of Akkad to Enzi; from Aridi to Suhi, 
by the command of Ashur, Shamash, Ramman, Ishtar, 
the gods, my helpers, like * * * became submissive 
to me. 

In my second campaign, Mutarrig-Ashur, the rab-shak, 
wise (and) skilled in war, a man of resources, with my 
army and camp-baggage I ordered and sent to Nairi. He 
marched to the Western Sea. Three hundred cities of 
Hirgina, son of Miqtiara, eleven strong cities together 
with two hundred cities of Ushpina, he conquered, their 
fighting men he killed, their spoil, possessions, property, 
gods, sons (and) daughters he carried away; their cities he 
destroyed, devastated (and) burned with fire. On his re- 
turn, he killed the fighting men of the Sunba; and he 
received tribute (in the form) of horses spanned to the 
yoke of all the kings of Nairi. 

In my third campaign I crossed the river Zaban, passed 
over the mountain ^ilar, (and) went up to Nairi. I re- 
ceived the tribute of Dadi of Hubushkia, of Hirqina, son of 
Miqtiara, of the Sunba, the Mana, Parsua, Taurla — (in 
the form) of horses spanned to the yoke. As for the Misa, 
the fear of the brilliancy of Ashur, my lord, overwhelmed 
them. They became afraid of the terror of my powerful 
weapons, and abandoned their cities. They seized an im- 
passable mountain. Three mountain peaks, which, like a 
cloud, hung suspended from the heavens, which no bird 
could reach in flight, they made their strongholds. I fol- 
lowed in pursuit of them (and) surrounded those moun- 
tain peaks. On the first day, I pounced upon them like a 
vulture. I killed many of their fighting men. Their spoil, 
possessions, property, oxen, asses, sheep, horses spanned 
to the yoke, two-humped dromedaries, without number, 
I brought down from the mountain. Five hundred of their 



48 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

neighbouring cities I destroyed, devastated and burned 
with fire. 

To the land of Gizilbunda I marched. Kinaki I cap- 
tured, destroyed, devastated (and) burned with fire. I 
passed over the Bishbizida Mountains (and) received 
tribute from Titamashka, of Sasiasha, Kiara of Karsibuta 
(in the form) of horses spanned to the yoke. The bril- 
liancy of my lordship and the attack of my terrible battle 
overwhelmed the whole of Gizilbunda. They abandoned 
their numerous cities (and) entered into Urash, their 
stronghold. I stormed and captured this city (and), like 
red wool, I dyed the chief street of their city with the blood 
of their warriors. I killed six thousand of their fighting 
men. Pirishati, their king, with twelve hundred of his 
soldiers, I captured alive with my own hands. Their spoil, 
possessions, property, oxen, sheep, horses, vessels of silver, 
unalloyed gold, copper, without number, I carried away, 
destroyed, devastated (and) burned with fire. I received 
the tribute of Engur of Qibara. A life-size image of my 
royal person, which I had made, I inscribed with the deeds 
of Ashur, my lord, the splendour of my bravery, and what- 
ever my hands had accomplished in Nairi, (and) I set it 
up in ^ibara, the stronghold of the Gizilbunda. I marched 
to Mata. They became afraid of the mighty weapons of 
Ashur and my terrible battle attack, which could not be 
withstood, and they abandoned their cities (and) ascended 
the snow-capped mountains. I followed in pursuit of 
them. I killed twenty-three hundred fighting men of 
Hanagiruka of Mata and took away one hundred and 
twenty of his riding-horses. His possessions (and) prop- 
erty, which could not be reckoned, I carried away. Sag- 
bita, his royal city, with twelve hundred of his cities, I de- 
stroyed, devastated (and) burned with fire. 

On my return I crossed over the Muqi Mountains. 
Munsuarta, of Araziasha, with ten hundred and seventy of 
his warriors, I brought low with my weapons. With their 
corpses I filled the ravines and slopes of the mountains. 
Their sons, daughters, possessions, property, oxen (and) 



INSCRIPTION OF SHAMSHI-RAMMAN 



49 



sheep, the troops of my land plundered as tribute (?). 
Their cities I destroyed, devastated (and) burned with fire. 
At that time, the tribute of 

[Lines 45 to 63 contain a list of kings who paid tribute] 
kings of Najri, all of them, by command of Ashur, Sha- 
mash, Ramman, the gods, my protectors, taxes and tribute, 
(in the form) of horses spanned to the yoke, for all future 
time I imposed on them. At that time from ^ilar the 
great mountain to the Western Sea, like Ramman, the 
thunderer, I thundered over them. The fear of my bril- 
liancy I poured out over them. 

In my fourth campaign, in the month Slwan, on the 
fifteenth day, (I ordered) the march to Karduniash. I 
crossed the river Zaban. Between Zaddi and Zaban I 
passed over the slopes of the mountains. I killed three 
fierce lions. I passed over Ebih (and) besieged Me- 
Turnat. The fear of the brilliancy of Ashur and Marduk, 
the great gods, my lords, overwhelmed them (and) they 
embraced my feet. I brought these people forth with their 
possessions (and) gods. I settled them in my country and 
reckoned them with the people of my country. I crossed 
the river Turnat at high water. Karne, his royal city with 
two hundred cities round about, I destroyed, devastated 
(and) burned with fire. I passed over Yalman (and) be- 
sieged Dibina. The terror of Ashur overwhelmed them 
(and) they embraced my feet. Three thousand * * * 
along with their people, possessions (and) property I took 
away from that city. Datebir (and) Izduia which are situ- 
ated by the side of Gananati, with two hundred cities round 
about I captured. I killed three hundred and thirty of 
their fighting men. Their spoil, possessions, property 
(and) gods I carried away. I cut down their parks. Their 
cities I destroyed, devastated (and) burned with fire. 
Those who had fled before my mighty weapons entered 
Kiribti-alani their stronghold. I stormed (and) captured 
that city. I killed five hundred of its fighting men. Their 
spoil, their possessions, property, gods, oxen (and) sheep 
I carried away. The city I destroyed, devastated (and) 
4 



50 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

burned with fire. All Akkad, which had become afraid of 
the terror of my powerful weapons and strong battle at- 
tack, which can not be withstood, fled to Dur-Papsukal — 
the royal city of BaU-ahiddin, which is situated in the 
river, in the mass of water, (and) was not well adapted 
to the attack of my soldiers — (and) with the people of four 
hundred and forty-seven other cities they entered into it. 
I captured this city in the course of my campaign and 
brought low with my weapons thirteen thousand of its 
soldiers. I made their blood to .flow along the chief 
street of their city like water. I piled the corpses 
of their warriors in heaps. I captured three thousand 
alive with my own hands. His royal couch and seat, the 
treasure of his palace, the women of his palaces, his pos- 
sessions, property, gods, and all things necessary to his 
palace, without number, I carried away from this city. 
The booty of his warriors, like grasshoppers, they gave 
to the troops of my land. This city I destroyed, devas- 
tated (and) burned with fire. Marduk-balatsu-iqbi trusted 
to the mass of his troops, and in addition to his numerous 
troops he summoned Kaldu, Elam, Namri, Arumu — which 
were without number — ^and he came against me for war 
and battle. Above the river Daban, over against Dur- 
Papsukal, he had drawn up his troops in battle array. I 
fought with him and brought about his overthrow. I 
slaughtered five thousand of his people (and) took two 
thousand alive with my own hands; one hundred of his 
chariots, two hundred of his riding-horses, his royal tent, 
his bed (and) camp baggage I took away from him. 



INSCRIPTION OF RAMMAN-NIRARI III 

(812-783 B. C.) 

The palace' of Ramman-Nirari, the great king, the 
powerful king, king of the world. King of Assyria, the king 
whom, as a child, Ashur, king of the Igigi, called and to 



INSCRIPTION OF RAMMAN-NIRARI III 



51 



whom he intrusted a kingdom without a rival. From the 
great sea of the rising of the sun to the great sea of the 
setting of the sun his hand conquered and brought every- 
thing under his rule. The son of Shamshi-Ramman, the 
great king, the powerful king, king of the world, King of 
Assyria, the king without a rival. The son of Shalmaneser, 
king of the four quarters (of the world), who destroyed 
all of his foes and overwhelmed them like a cyclone. 
Grandson of Ashurnaqirpal, the manly warrior who estab- 
lished garrisons on all sides — Ramman-Nirari, the exalted 
prince, to whose aid Ashur, Shamash, Ramman, and Mar- 
duk went and extended his country. Descendant of Tu- 
kulti-Ninib, King of Assyria, King of Sumer and Akkad, 
descendant of Shalmaneser, the great king, who enlarged 
E-har-sag-kur-kur-ra the mountain of the lands; descend- 
ant of Bel-kap-kapi, a former king, a predecessor, of the 
ancient kingdom of Sulili, whose fate, from time imme- 
morial, Ashur had proclaimed. 



INSCRIPTION OF RAMMAN-NIRARI III 

The palace of Ramman-Nirari, the great king, the pow- 
erful king, the king of the world, King of Assyria, the king 
whom, as a child, Ashur, king of the Igigi, called and to 
whom he intrusted a kingdom without a rival; whose rule 
he (Ashur) made beneficent like pasture-ground over the 
people of Assyria and whose throne he founded; the pure 
priest, who restored Esharra, the tireless, who upheld the 
temple cult, who marched under the protection of Ashur, 
his lord, and brought to submission the princes of the four 
quarters (of the world); who conquered from the moun- 
tain Siluna, toward the rising sun, Qab, Ellipi, Harhar, 
Araziash, Misu, Mada, Gizilbunda throughout its extent, 
Munna, Parsua, Allabria, Abdadana, Nairi, to its whole 
extent, Andiu, which is afar oflf, the slope of the mountain, 
to its w^iole extent, as far as the great sea of the rising of 



52 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



the sun; from above the Euphrates, Hatti (the Hittite 
Land), Aharri, to its whole extent, Tyre, Sidon, the coun- 
try of Omri, Edom, Palastu as far as the great sea of 
the setting of the sun, I brought to submission, (and) taxes 
and tribute I placed on them. To the country of Damascus 
I went. Mari, king of the land of Damascus in Damascus, 
his royal city, I shut up. The fear of the brilliancy of 
Ashur, his lord, overwhelmed him, and he seized my feet 
(and) became my servant. Twenty-three hundred talents 
of silver, twenty talents of gold, three thousand talents of 
copper, five thousand talents of iron, variegated and linen 
clothing, an ivory bed, a seat inlaid with ivory * * * his 
possessions (and) property which could not be reckoned, 
in Damascus, his royal city, in his palace I received. The 
kings of Kaldu, all of them, became servants. Taxes (and) 
tribute for the future I placed on them. Babylon, Borsippa 
(and) Kutha supported the decrees of Bel, Nabu (and) 
Nergal. Pure sacrifices * * * 



THE NIMRUD INSCRIPTION OF 
TIGLATH-PILESER III (745-727 b. c) 

The palace of Tiglath-pileser, the great king, the mighty 
king, king of the whole world. King of Assyria, King of 
Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, king of the four quar- 
ters of the world; the hero, the warrior, who under the pro- 
tection of Ashur, his lord, dashed to pieces like pots all 
those who were disobedient to him, swept over them like 
a cyclone, and gave them to the winds; the king who at 
the call of Ashur, Shamash, and Marduk, the great gods, 
marched here and there and ruled over lands from the Salt 
Sea of Bit-Yakin to Mount Bikni in the east, and from the 
Western Sea' to Egypt, and from the horizon to the 
zenith," and exercised kingship over them. 

From the beginning of my kingship until the seven- 
> That is, the Mediterranean. • That is, from north to south. 



INSCRIPTION OF TIGLATH-PILESER III 



53 



teenth year of my reign I conquered the peoples of Itu, 
Rubu Hamarani, Luhuatu, Harilu, Rubbu, Rapiqu, Hi- 
ranu, Rabilu, Na<;iru, Gulusu, Nabatu, Rahiqu, Na[kru], 
Rummulutu, Adili, Kipri, Ubudu, Gurumu, Bagdadu, 
Hindiru, Damunu, Dunanu, Nilqu, Radi, Da * * *, 
Ubulu, Karma, Amiatu, Rua, Qabi, Litau, Marusu, Amatu, 
Hagarariu, the cities of Dur-Kurigalzi, Adidu (?), the 
fortresses of Sarragiti, Labbanat, Kar-belmatati, all of the 
Arameans living in the valleys of the Tigris, Euphrates, and 
Surappi as far as the river Uknu on the coast of the Lower 
Sea^; I killed their warriors and carried away their spoil. 
I added the Arameans, as many as there were, to the ter- 
ritory of Assyria, and I set my military governor over them 
as ruler of the province. 

Upon Tel-Kamri, which is called Humut, I built a 
city and called its name Kar-Ashur, and placed in it the 
inhabitants of lands conquered by my hands. In Sippar, 
Nippur, Babylon, Borsippa, Kutu, Kish, Dilbat, and Uruk 
— cities without equals, I offered pure sacrifices to Bel, 
^arpanit, Nabu, Tashmetu, Nergal, and Laz, the great 
gods, my lords, and they looked with love upon my priest- 
hood. I took possession of the broad land of Karduniash 
throughout its entire extent and exercised kingship over 
it. I overthrew the Puqudu as with a net, slew their war- 
riors and carried away great spoil from them. These Pu- 
qudu and the cities Lahiru of Idibirina, Hilimmu and Pil- 
lutu, which is on the border of Elam, I added to the terri- 
tory of Assyria, and placed them under the administration 
of my military governor, the ruler of the city of Arrapha. 

I carried away the Kaldudu, as many as there were 
of them, and settled them in Assyria. Chaldea through- 
out its entire extent I overthrew as with a bird-net. I 
killed the warriors of Nabushabshi, son of Shilani, close by 
Sarrabanu, his city, and I impaled him before the gate of 
his city, and reduced his country to submission. I cap- 
tured Sarrabanu by means of earthworks and battering- 
engines; and I carried off as spoil fifty-five thousand in- 

> That is, the Persian Gulf. 



54 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

habitants together with their possessions, his spoil, his 
goods, his property, his wife, his sons, his daughters, and 
his gods. That city together with the cities round about 
it I laid waste, destroyed, burned with fire and reduced to 
mounds and plough-land. 

I captured the cities Tarbagu and Yaballu; and I car- 
ried away as spoil thirty thousand of their inhabitants to- 
gether with their possessions, their goods, their property, 
and their gods. Those cities together with the cities round 
about them I destroyed, so that they were like a ruin of 
the flood. 

Zaqiru, son of Sha'alli, violated the compacts sworn 
to by the great gods and made common cause with my 
enemies. I captured him together with his great men, put 
iron chains on them and took them to Assyria. The in- 
habitants of Bit-Sha'alli became afraid and took possession 
of Dur-[ilu Illat-ai], their [capital] for their fortress. 
I captured that city by means of mines and battering-en- 
gines and razed it to the ground. I carried away as spoil 
fifty thousand four hundred inhabitants together with their 
possessions, their spoil, their goods, his * wife, his sons, 
his daughters, and his gods. I captured the city Amlilatu; 
its inhabitants together with their possessions, its spoil and 
its property I carried away as spoil. I swept over Bit- 
Sha'alli throughout its entire extent like a cyclone and 
laid waste its dwellings. I added those lands to the ter- 
ritory of Assyria. I shut up Ukin-zir of Amukkani, in 
Sapia, his capital, and killed his many warriors before its 
gate. I cut down the palm-groves which were close by 
its wall and I left not a tree standing. I destroyed his date- 
palms which were in his land, plucked off their fruit, and 
filled the fields with it. All of his cities I laid waste, de- 
stroyed and burned with fire. I devastated the lands of 
Bit-Shilani, Bit-Amukkani, and Bit-Sha'alli throughout 
their entire extent so that they were like a ruin of the 
flood, and I reduced them to mounds and plough-land. I 
received tribute of Balasu of Dakkuri, and of Nadin, of 

' That is, Zaqlru's wife. 



ASSAULT OF A CITY BY TIGLATH- 
PILESER II {III). 

A sculptured slab from the ruins of his palace at Nimrud, 
the ancient Calah. 



INSCRIPTION OF TIGLATH-PILESER III 



55 



Larak, consisting of silver, gold, and precious stones. Fear 
of the brilliance of Ashur, my lord, overcame Merodach- 
baladan, of Yakin, king of the sea (-land), who had not 
come into the presence of any of the kings my fathers nor 
kissed their feet, and he came to Sapia, into my presence, 
and kissed my feet. Gold — the dust of his land — in abun- 
dance, vessels of gold, necklaces of gold, precious stones, 
the product of the sea, beams of ushu-wood, ellutu-wood, 
* * * party-coloured clothing, spices of all kinds, cattle 
and sheep, I received as his tribute. 

The lands of Namri, Bit-Sangibuti, Bit-Hamban, Su- 
murzu, Barrua, Bit-Zualzash, and Bit-Matti; the city Niqu, 
of the land of Umliash; the lands of Bit-Taranzai, Parsua, 
Bit-Zatti, Bit-Abdadani, Bit-Kapsi, Bit-Sangi, Bit-Tazzak- 
ki, and Bit-Ishtar; the city Zakruti; the lands of Gizinikissi 
and Nissha; the cities of Qipur and Urimzan; the lands 
of Rausan, [Nijparia, Bustus, Ariarmi, Tarsharranihu, 
Saksukni, Araquttu, Kar-Zibra, Gukinnana, Bit-Sagbat, 
Silhazi, which men call the strength of the Babylonian; the 
mountain Ruadi; the lands Bit-tabti, Ushqaqqana, and 
Shikraki, (a land) of gold; districts of the mighty Medes, 
throughout their entire extent I covered as with a bird- 
net and I slew their warriors in great numbers. I carried 
away as spoil sixty-five thousand people, together with 
their possessions, their horses, their mules, their drome- 
daries, and their cattle and sheep without number. Their 
cities I laid waste, destroyed and burned with fire, and re- 
duced them to mounds and plough-land. The lands of 
Namri, Bit-Sangibuti, Bit-Hamban, Sumurzu, Bit-Barrua, 
Bit-Zualzash, and [Bit-] Matti; the city Niqu, of the land 
of Umliash; the lands of Bit-Taranzai, Parsua, Bit-Zatti, 
Bit-Abdadani, Bit-Kapsi, Bit-Sangi, and Bit-Tazzakki; 
and the cities of Bit-Ishtar and [Zakjruti, of the land of 
the mighty Medes, I added to the territory of Assyria. I 
built anew the cities which were in them, established the 
authority of Ashur, my lord, therein and placed in them 
people from the lands Which my hands had conquered. 
I set my military governor over them as ruler of the prov- 



56 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

ince. I erected an image of my lordship in the land of 
Tikrakki, in the cities of Bit-Ishtar and ^ipur, in the 
lands of Ariarmi and Tarsharranihu, and in the city Silhazi, 
which are called the strength of the Babylonian. I re- 
ceived tribute of Media, Ellip, and the rulers of all the 
cities of the mountains as far as Bikni [which is in the 
east], consisting of horses, mules, dromedaries, cattle, and 
sheep * * * The might and majesty of Ashur, my lord, 
which I had exercised in all the mountains [he heard of 
and] fear of the brilliance of Ashur, my lord, overwhelmed 
him, and to the city Dur-Tiglath-pileser * * * into my 
presence he came and kissed [my feet]. [Horses], mules, 
cattle and sheep, weapons, * * * [I received as his trib- 
ute]. I sent my military governor Ashurdaninani to the 
land of the mighty Medes which is in the east; [he seized 
five thousand horses, people, cattle and sheep without 
number]. I conquered the lands of UUuba and Kilhu in 
their entirety and added them to the territory of Assyria. 
[I built a city in the land of Ulluba and called its name 
Ashur-iqi-sha] . I founded a palace therein as the abode 
of my kingship; I established there the authority of Ashur, 
my lord; I settled therein people from the lands that my 
hands had conquered; and I set my military governor over 
them as ruler of the province. [Sardurri] of Urartu, Su- 
lumal of Milid, Tarhulara [of Gurgum] * * * and Kush- 
tashpi of Kummuh, [made common cause] for conquest 
and plunder * * * between Kishtan and Halpi, districts 
of Kummuh [I brought about their defeat]. * * * [with 
the blood of] their [slain I coloured] the Sinzi canal like 
dyed wool * * * I seized them in the midst of * * * 
royal beds * * * 

[About one hundred lines missing here] 
* * * her [heavy tribute she brought] to me [and I set a 
prefect over] her. [The people of Birai I subdued be- 
neath my feet.] [The people of Mas]ai, Tema, Saba, 
Haiappa, Badana, [Hatte, Idibaila] * * * on the border 
of the lands [of the setting] sun, whom no one knows and 
whose location is far off, heard of the majesty of my lord- 



INSCRIPTION OF TIGLATH-PILESER III 



57 



ship and * * * [gold, silver,] camels, she-camels, and 
spices of all kinds as one man [they brought] to [me] as 
their tribute [and kissed my feet]. I made Idibi'il prefect 
over Egypt. In all the lands which [I had overthrown 
I established the authority of Ashur]. [The tribute] of 
Kushtashpi, of Kummuh; and of Urik, of Que; and of 
Sibittibi'il, [of Gebal] * * * [and of In]il, of Hammat; 
and of Panammu, of Samal; and of Tarhulara, of Gurgum; 
and of Sul[umal, of Melid]; * * * and of Uassurme, of 
Tabal; and of Ushhitti, of Tuna; and of Urballa, of Tuhan; 
and of Tuhamme, [of Ishtunda] ; * * * and of Matanbi'il 
of Arvad; and of Sanipu, of Beth-Ammon; and of Sala- 
manu, of Moab; * * * and of Metinti, of Askelon; and 
of Jauhazi, of Judah; and of Kaushmalaka, of Edom; and 
of Muqri * * * and of Hanno, of Gaza; gold, silver, lead, 
iron, tin, party-coloured clothing, linen, the purple robes 
of their land * * * [whatever] was precious, products of 
sea and land, the desirable things of their land, the treas- 
ures of royalty, horses, mules, yoked teams, * * * [I re- 
ceived]. Uassurme, of Tabal, sought to rival the deeds 
of Assyria and did not come into my presence. My mili- 
tary governor, the chief officer,^ * * * HuUi, the son of a 
nobody, I placed on his royal throne; ten talents of gold, 
one thousand talents of silver, two hundred horses, * * * 
I sent my military governor, the chief officer, to Tyre; 
from Mitenna, of Tyre, [I received] one hundred and fifty 
talents of gold * * * 

With the understanding, skill, and far-reaching thought 
which the messenger of the gods, the prince Nugimmut 
had given me, a palace of cedar * * * and a porch, like a 
palace in the land of the Hittites, I built for my enjoyment 
in the city of Kalhi * * * I increased the area of ground 
more than that of the former palaces of my fathers from 
the middle of the Tigris * * * I employed the archi- 
tectural skill (?) of all the clever workmen * * * Twenty 
great cubits below the mighty waters I piled up strong 
granite like a mountain-pile and * * * [on right] * * * 

• Literally, the Rab-shak, cf. Isaiah, xxxvi, 2, 4, etc. 



58 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

I laid out their terraces, made their foundations firm and 
reared their turrets aloft. One half gar, two thirds cubit 
the house * * * l joined together and I set up their 
gates on the north side. With ivory, ushu-wood, urkarinu- 
wood, palm-wood * * * [cypress,] * * * [pistachio,] 
juniper, the tribute of the kings of the Hittites, the princes 
of Aram and Chaldea, whom by the might of my strength 
I had brought to my feet * * * I filled. Five and a half 
gar, four cubits from the bottom of the water to the battle- 
ments I bound their structure together and made their 
work greater than that of the palaces of the lands. I cov- 
ered them with long beams of cedar, which like the fra- 
grance of hashurri-wood are good for their perfume, and 
are the product of Amanus, Lebanon, and Ammanana, and 
I joined them firmly. In order to make the decorations 
splendid * * * with stones hewn by the stone-cutter I 
built and adorned the gate. Doors of cedar and cypress, 
in pairs, whose entrance brings blessing and whose fra- 
grance arouses the heart, I bound with a rim of zahalu- 
metal and bright metal and hung in the gateway. Lions 
and bull-colossi, whose forms were exceedingly artistic and 
clothed with splendour, I made to hold the entrances and 
set them up as objects of wonder. I laid thresholds of 
Im-tu stone and alabaster beneath them and made the en- 
trance bright. I also built a statue to keep guard over 
the great gods; I surrounded the sides with the product 
of the ocean depths and I invested it with terror. I sur- 
rounded them with braces (?) of gold, silver, and copper 
for their completion and I made their forms resplendent. 
For my royal dwelling, a habitation of sassu precious 
stones, the work of * * * I built therein. " Palaces of 
joy, yielding abundance, bestowing blessing upon the king, 
causing their builder to live long," I called their names. 
"Gates of righteousness, guiding the judgment of the 
prince of the four quarters of the world, making the tribute 
of the mountains and the seas to continue, causing the 
abundance of the lands to enter before the king, their lord," 
I named their gates. 



CYLINDER OF SARGON 59 

THE CYLINDER INSCRIPTION OF 
SARGON (722-705 B. c) 

Sargon, the governor of Bel, the exalted priest of 
Ashur, the darling of Anu and Dagan, the great king, the 
powerful king, the king of the world, the King of Assyria, 
the king of the four quarters (of the world), the favourite 
of the great gods, the legitimate ruler, to whom Ashur and 
Marduk granted a kingdom without equal and the fame of 
whose name they sent forth to the ends of the earth; who 
exercised watchful care over Sippar, Nippur, and Babylon, 
who protected their weak points and restored their ruins; 
who preserved the supremacy of (the city) Asshur, which 
had ceased; ^ who imposed servitude on Dur-ilu and paci- 
fied its people by force. 

The strongest of all princes, who extended his pro- 
tection over Harran and, in accordance with the will of 
Anu and Dagan, wrote its charter. The manly, the pow- 
erful, clothed with (awe-inspiring) splendour, who sent 
forth his weapons for the overthrow of (his) enemies. 

The king, who from the day of his accession had no 
rival prince and in contest and battle did not find a supe- 
rior, who dashed to pieces all the lands like pots and en- 
slaved (?) the four quarters (of the world); who explored 
mighty mountains without number — ^though their passes 
were steep — and found a way through them, who marched 
over inaccessible (and) difficult paths — terrible regions — 
and crossed the sources of streams; who held sway from 
Rashi on the border of Elam, the people of Puqudu, the 
people of Damunu, the cities Dur-Kurigalzu and Rapiqu, 
over all the wilderness to the brook of Egypt, over the 
broad west-land, the land of the Hittites to its whole ex- 
tent, whose strong hand conquered from the land of Hash- 
mar to the land of Qimashpatti, the far-off land of the 
Medes in the east, the land of Namru, the land of Ellip, 

■ Delitzsch : who removed servitude from Dur-ilu and gave peace to 
its people. 



6o ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

Bit-Hamban, Parsua, Manna, Urartu, Kashku, Tabal to 
Muski; who placed his miHtary officers as governors over 
them and imposed on them taxes and tribute, as if they 
were Assyrians. 

The courageous hero, who measured his strength in 
the open street of Dur-ilu with Humbanigash, King of 
Elam, and brought about his overthrow, who took away 
by force the Kurtesa, who had raided (?) his territory (?); 
who led into captivity the people of Tumuna, who had 
bound (?) their prince and had brought him before the 
Chaldean king; who devastated the broad Bit-Humri 
(land of Israel), who brought about the overthrow of 
Egypt at Raphia and brought Hanno, King of Gaza, bound 
to the city of Asshur; who conquered the tribes Tamud, 
Ibadidi, Marsiman, and Haiapa, who punished (?) the rest 
of them and settled them in colonies in Bit-Humri. 

The strong one in battle, who caught the lonians in the 
midst of the sea like fish in large numbers (?); who pacified 
by force Que and Tyre. The powerful king, the royal 
protector, who broke the palisades of Shinuhtu, laid its 
site in ruins and burned Kiakku, their king, like stubble; 
who transplanted the people of Bit-Burutash ,whose prince 
had forgotten the favours of Sargon and put his trust in 
the kings of Urartu and Musku, strong powers; who drove 
out Meta, King of Musku, and restored the fortresses of 
Que, which had been taken, and enlarged their territory. 

A man of courage, fearless of opposition, who uprooted 
Hamath, who dyed the skin of Ilubidu, the usurper (?), 
like red wool; who seized Carchemish in the hostile Hit- 
tite country; whose strong hand captured Pisiri, their sub- 
ject, who had planned a revolt; who made desolate the 
land of Urartu, despoiled the Mu^agiru; before whom 
Ursa, King of Urartu, in his great fear took his life with 
his own weapon; who changed the sites of Papa, Laluknu, 
Sukkia, Bala, Abitikna, who had intrigued openly against 
the land of Kakmu; who swept over Andia and Zikirtu, 
who killed all their young men like wild animals and 
sprinkled over all enemies deadly poison. 



CYLINDER OF SARGON 6l 

The powerful one, perfect in might and strength, who 
subjugated the stubborn Medes; who destroyed the people 
of Harhar and enlarged the territory of Assyria; who re- 
united the disorganized Manna, who brought about order 
in EUip, which had been in disorder, who established (his) 
dominion over all the lands round about and made his 
name famous; who trampled under foot the land of Kirhu, 
plundered (?) the mountain-country of the strong enemy; 
who drove out Itti, the Allabrian robber, from his city; 
who destroyed Karalla, who decorated the skin (?) of 
Ashur-leu, their city prefect, like a garment (?) and im- 
posed the yoke of Assyria upon Ada of Shurdu. 

The prudent king, full of noble plans, who directed his 
attention to the colonizing of ruined sites, to the opening 
up of the land and the planting of qippat-cane; who turned 
his energy to make the high mountains, on which from 
time immemorial nothing green had sprouted, to bear prod- 
uce; who planned to make the broad, waste land, which 
under former kings had not been irrigated, to bring forth 
grain and to resound with rejoicing, to reconstruct reser- 
voirs (?), which had fallen in (?), and dams, and to furnish 
water in abundance to all parts of the country like a mighty 
flood. 

The king open to suggestion, with a clear insight 
* * * who grew up in wise counsel and matured in di- 
plomacy. To fill the granaries of the broad country of As- 
syria with food in rich abundance and with provisions in 
plenty (?), as becomes royalty, to protect the firstlings of 
admu (?) against hunger and want and to guard against the 
lack of grain and such things as the heart desires, so that — 
in spite of the destruction of wine — no needy one be found; 
in order that oil, the boon of men, which heals ulcers, 
may not be too dear in my land, to make sesame-corn 
of the same price with com, to order my banquets as be- 
comes the table of god and king, bill-boards with set prices 
of everything to set upon my boundaries * * * 

I planned day and night to rebuild that city, I gave or- 
ders to build therein a shrine for Shamash, the great judge 



62 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

of the great gods, who helped me to victory. Magganub- 
ba, which stands like a monument at the foot of Mount 
Mugru above the wells and the street of Nineveh, whose 
site among the three hundred and fifty ancient kings, who 
before me exercised authority over Assyria and ruled over 
the subjects of Bel no one had touched, no one had known 
how to colonize it and no one had remembered to dig 
its canal (moat), with my broad understanding, which by 
the command of the king of the deep and lord of wisdom 
was filled with diplomacy and full of clever schemes, and 
with the broad plans of my mind — I, whom the queen of 
the heavenly crown, the mother of the gods, had inspired 
to greater plans than the kings, my fathers, I planned 
and schemed day and night to people that city, to build 
high sanctuaries, the homes of the great gods, and palaces 
for the residence of my lordship, and I gave orders to re- 
build it. 

For the sake of my good name, by which the great 
gods had called me to protect right and justice, to rule 
over the defenceless and not to harm the weak, I paid 
money to the owners in silver, and copper for the fields of 
that city according to the price-list, and to avoid injustice 
I gave to those, who did not wish money for their fields, 
field for field, wherever they desired. For the progress 
of its building before ***(?)! offered a sacrifice (?) 
with fervid prayer to the brothers Damqu and Sharru-ilu, 
the judges of mankind, and I lifted up my hand (in prayer) 
in the chamber of the World-architect to Sha-nit(?)-ka, 
that I might in future days enter it with a joyful heart 
and good spirits. The sincere speech of my mouth like 
the finest oil was very pleasing to the exalted prophets (?) 
my lords, and they gave me orders to rebuild that city and 
to dig its canal (moat). I trusted their word, which no one 
can render void, I mustered my numerous young men 
and made them to carry allu and dupshikku.* 

In the beginning of the month of the son of Dara-gala 

' Allu = basket (?), dupshikku = cap of service ; they were forced to do 
hard service. 



CYLINDER OF SARGON 63 

(Ea), who gives decisions, who warns from snares, of the 
light of heaven and earth, hero of the gods, Sin, which re- 
ceived its name " Month of the Brick-God " by a decree 
of Anu, Bel, and Ea, lord of wisdom, because in it bricks 
are made, and cities and houses built; on the festival day 
of the son of Bel, the all-wise Nabu, writer of all tablets, 
ruler of all the gods, I ordered the making of its bricks; 
to the brick-god, the lord of brick foundations, and the 
chief architect of Bel, I offered a sacrifice and poured out 
libations and lifted up my hands (in prayer). In Ab, 
the month of the servant of the fire-god, who destroys 
fresh vegetation, who lays the platform foundations of city 
and house, I founded it and laid its brick. 

Well-founded shrines, which were founded as if for all 
time, I built therein to Ea, Sin, Ningal, Ramman, Shamash, 
and Ninib. I built a palace of ivory, of ushu-wood, of 
box(?)-wood, of palm(?)-wood, of cedar-, cypress-, juniper-, 
and pistacia-wood for my royal residence; I constructed 
a colonnade after the style of a Hittite palace in front of 
its gates, and I covered it with beams of cedar and cypress. 
Four sar, three ner, one sos, three kane, two cubits,^ the 
(numerical) value of my name, I made the measure of its 
wall, and laid its platform foundation on stones from the 
high mountains. 

In front and behind, on both sides, in the direction 
of the eight winds I opened eight city-gates: " Shamash, 
who granted to me victory," " Ramman, who controls its 
prosperity," I named the gates of Shamash and Ramman on 
the east side; " Bel, who laid the foundation of my city," 
" Belit, who gives riches in abundance," I named the 
gates of Bel and Belit on the north side; " Anu, who gave 
success to the work of my hands," " Ishtar, who causes its 
people to flourish," I made the names of the gates of Anu 
and Ishtar on the west side; " Ea, who controls its 
springs," " Belit-ilani, who grants to it numerous off- 
spring," I ordered to be the names of the gates of Ea and 
Belit-ilani on the south side. (I called) its inner wall 

> 4 X 3,600 +3x600 + 60 + 3x6 + 2 = 16,280 cubits. 



64 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

" Ashur, who granted long reign to the king, its builder, and 
protected his armies " ; and its outer wall " Ninib, who laid 
the foundation of the new building for all time to come." 

The subjects of the four quarters (of the world, speak- 
ing) strange languages and varied dialects, inhabitants of 
mountain and plain, over whom the warrior of the gods, 
lord of all, rules, whom I had carried into captivity in the 
name of Ashur, my lord, with my powerful staff, I made of 
one speech and settled them therein. 

I sent to them Assyrians, men of knowledge and in- 
sight, learned men and scribes, to teach them the fear of 
God and king. The gods, who dwell in heaven and on 
earth and in that, city, looked with favour upon my com- 
mand and granted to me for all time (the privilege of the) 
building of the city and (of) making it permanent. 

Whoever alters the work of my hands, tears down my 
images, covers the bas-reliefs which I make, destroys my 
insignia: may Ashur, Shamash, Ramraan, and the gods 
dwelling therein remove his name and seed from the land 
and set him bound at the feet of his enemy! 



THE MERODACHBALADAN STONE IN 
BERLIN (721-710 B. c.) 

When Marduk, the great lord, the wisest of the gods, 
the king of everything, the autocrat of the Igigi and the 
Anunnaki, the most perfect commander, the herald of all 
heaven and earth, the adviser of the gods, his creators, the 
lord of that which is above and below; the ruler of man- 
kind, whose words can not be made void, whose command 
can not be altered, granted (his) favour to Akkad, from 
which he had turned away in wrath; he looked about 
among all men, he searched the abodes among all the Black- 
headed People, to all habitations, every one, he gave faith- 
ful attention — Merodachbaladan, King of Babylon, who 
was under the guidance of his hand, the governor of Sumer 



THE MERODACHBALADAN STONE 6$ 

and Akkad, who feared his divinity, he looked upon with 
joy, and he gave orders by word of mouth to exalt his 
lordship: "This is the ruler, who collects the scattered." 
He intrusted to his hands a righteous sceptre, a staff lead- 
ing the people aright. He submitted to his order the 
giving of counsel to Sumer and Akkad, the judgment of 
all men. He made the power of his lordship great in the 
assembly of the princes. 

At that time Merodachbaladan, King of Babylon, the 
prince, the adviser, King of Sumer and Akkad, who feared 
Nabu and Marduk, the gods of Esagila and Ezida, who 
filled their granaries (?) with plenty, who made brilliant 
all temples, repaired all shrines, who ruled Sippar, Nip- 
pur, and Babylon aright, who put into effect their laws; 
who built the temples, confessionals (?) and shrines of 
the large cities, who yearly hastened to bring (?) before 
the great gods his rich tribute, the riches of the broad 
sea, plenty in abundance (?), toll and presents, who 
sought out the commands of the lord of the gods, who 
prostrated himself before him (?), who directed his atten- 
tion to the repairing of temples, to the peopling of cities, 
and to the sacred care of the districts (?) of the gods; the 
faithful governor, who, under the protection of the great 
gods, marches here and there and attains his goal, who 
gathers together the inhabitants of the countries, who were 
scattered, and returns them to their abodes; the exalted 
prince, who in power and strength (?) does not have his 
like; the powerful hero, at the mention of whose name his 
enemy is cruelly driven out befoi-e him, the firmest (?) 
foundations (?) are torn down; who, with the mighty 
power of Bel, attained whatever his heart desired; clothed 
with power, of ancient royal seed, who holds unstained 
the name of his father, his begetter; the offspring of Erba- 
Marduk, King of Babylon, who founded the country, who, 
in the temples of the cities of the great gods, placed works 
of art; the clever prince, of broad view, the diplomatic 
arbitrator, who understands everything, of broad insight 
and deep understanding, who is his own counsellor; whose 
5 



66 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

birth Beltis, the mother of the gods, celebrated; whose 
name to dominion over the Black-headed People the king 
of heaven and earth, the lord of lords, faithfully proclaimed; 
(then) he, with the wisdom of his deeds, the clever under- 
standing which Ea, the source of all creation, presented 
him; with the broad plans with which the " Lord of Wis- 
dom " (Ea) intrusted him, the holy places of Nabu and 
Marduk, his lords, (he) took under his care and to give 
ground-plots to the subjects in Sippar, Nippur, Babylon, 
and the cities of Akkad was his command. 

The old ground-plots of the Babylonians, which the 
soldiers of the enemy in the destruction (of the country) 
had taken away, and whose boundaries, during the time 
there was no fixed government, foreigners being pres- 
ent (?) in large numbers (?), were forgotten — surveys were 
not established; their boundary-stones (?) were changed 
but not destroyed — ^he returned to their (original) owner- 
ship, and to the subjects in Babylon and Borsippa he in- 
trusted. A single one he did not pass over; to young and 
old he gave (caused to take) alike, and he fixed the bound- 
ary; he made it larger than before, and caused their spirits 
to rejoice. To the subjects, as many as there were, he 
gave protection, presented gifts, and granted livings. 

At that time Bel-ahe-erba, mayor of Babylon, his obedi- 
ent servant, under the guidance of his hand, Merodachbala- 
dan, the kind, his lord, with his shining face, like a god, 
joyfully looked upon, and 16,600 cubits, upper length, S, 
adjoining Bel-ana-matishu and the " Fifty " of the Baby- 
lonians, 16,600, lower length, N, adjoining the " Fifty " of 
the Babylonians, and the canal Suru; 1,200, the upper 
breadth, W, 40 (?) apportioned (?) pi-it (?) of Erba-Mar- 
duk. King of Babylon; 1,200, lower breadth, E, adjoining 
tam-li-ta me, in all: 50 gur of plough-land, according to 
the large square cubit, land on the canal Suri. 

Ten thousand cubits, upper length, W, adjoining Nabu- 
gamil, son of Karea, and the plot of the city Bit-ashani; 
10,000, lower length, E, adjoining Kudurru, son of Egibi, 
and Ahiddin, son of Mushallimapli; 1,600, upper breadth. 



THE MERODACHBALADAN STONE 67 

N, adjoining the royal domain; 1,600, lower breadth, S, 
on the bank of the canal of Aheshullim, opposite the city 
Nabatu. In all: 54 gur 2 pi 6 qa of plough-land, accord- 
ing to the large square cubit, the field of Nabatu. 

Two gur of plough-land, according to the large square 
cubit, date-palm garden, field of Dunni-edin, on the bank 
of the royal canal; 3,300 cubits, upper length, S, on the 
bank of the royal canal, 3,300, lower length, N, adjoin- 
ing the libbu of the field, and bordering on the grove 
of Marduk, son of Kanik-babi; 400, upper breadth, W, 
bordering on the park of Belamma, the weaver's son; 30, 
lower breadth, E, nurzu (?) on the bank of the royal canal; 
and 3 gur of plough-land, according to the large square 
cubit, * * * in front of the upper park of the libbu of 
the field; upper length, S, bordering on the park; lower 
length, N, bordering on the libbu of the field; upper 
breadth, W, bordering on the field of Nammua, son of 
the priest of Ramman; lower breadth, E, bordering on 
Marduk. In all: five gur of plough-land, according to 
the large square cubit, park together with plough-land, 
in front of the park, field of the city Dunni-edin, on the 
bank of the royal canal. 

Sum total, 90 + 9 gur 2 pi 6 qa of plough-ground, ac- 
cording to the large square cubit, plot of the royal domain, 
Merodachbaladan, King of Babylon, to Belaherba, may- 
or (?) of Babylon, his servant, presented and in order that 
there might not be a suit to recover, with the seal of his 
name he sealed it and for all time he gave to him. 

In the sealing of this tablet, Iqisha-Marduk, son of the 
king; Ninib-belshunu, son of Nazi-Ea; Marduk-zakir- 
shum, son of Arad-Ea, the prefect; Nabii-balatsu-iqbi; 
Ina-dibbi(?)-Bel-AB, city officer of Babylon; Nabu-hama- 
tua, major-domo; Labashi-Marduk, son of Dabibi, direct- 
or of Esagila; Nabu-ta, son of Arkati-ilani-damqa, may- 
or (?) of Borsippa; Ishum-bani, son of Sin-pi-sharri-ishme, 
mayor (?) of Kutha; and Nabu-nir-dabibi, palace secretary, 
were present. Babylon, twenty-third of Tammuz, seventh 
year of Merodachbaladan, King of Babylon. 



68 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

Whoever in the future, whether king, or king's son, or 
prefect, or governor, or director, or city officer, whose name 
the great lord Marduk may proclaim and who exercises 
authority over Akkad, to destroy this tablet directs his at- 
tention, in any way whatever practises deceit, urges and 
orders any one, an enemy, a deaf person, a fool, a block- 
head, a short-sighted (?) ignorant (person), a knave, who 
does not fear the great gods, with wicked intentions sends, 
changes its position, throws (it) in the water, hides (it) 
in the ground, bums (it) with fire, erases (it) with a stone, 
sets it in a secret place, places it where it can not be seen, 
obliterates the signature, directs his attention to take away 
the ground-plot, the gift, which Merodachbaladan, King 
of Babylon, presented to Belaherba, mayor (?) of Babylon, 
that man, may Anu, Ea, and Bel, the great gods, present 
with a curse which can not be undone, with blindness, 
deafness, paralysis of the muscles! May he suffer misery! 
May Marduk, ^arpanit, the lords, who decide fates, cause 
him to undergo heavy punishment! May they afflict him 
with dropsy! May his life (skin) come to an end with 
bloated flesh (?)! May the great gods, as many as have 
their names mentioned on this tablet, his name, his seed, 
his progeny, destroy in the mouth of the people! May 
they cut off his future! 

With the royal seal used in dispositions, which has no 
like and against which there can be no suit to recover, this 
tablet has been sealed (?). 



THE TAYLOR CYLINDER OF 
SENNACHERIB, KING OF ASSYRIA 

(705-681 B. C.) 

Sennacherib, the great king, the powerful king, king 
of the world, King of Assyria, king of the four quarters of 
the world; the watchful shepherd, the favourite of the 
great gods, who protects the truth, who loves the right, 



TAYLOR CYLINDER OF SENNACHERIB 69 

who comes to the help of and lends assistance to the weak, 
who frequents the sanctuaries; the perfect hero, the man 
of war, chief of all princes; the great one, who consumes 
the rebellious, who strikes the hostile with lightning — 
Ashur, the great mountain, has granted me a kingdom 
without rival, and he has made my arms prevail over all 
who dwell in princely halls. From the Upper Sea of the 
Setting Sun to the Lower Sea of the Rising Sun he has 
made submissive to me the Black-headed People, and the 
rebellious princes have shunned battle with me, abandoned 
their homes, and like a falcon in the clefts they have fled 
alone to an inaccessible place. 

In my first campaign, in the vicinity of Kish, I brought 
about the oveirthrow of Merodachbaladan, King of Kardu- 
niash, together with the troops of Elam, his allies. In 
the midst of that battle he abandoned his camp, and saved 
his life by fleeing alone. My hands captured the chariots, 
horses, freight wagons (and) mules which he had left be- 
hind in the onset of battle. I entered his palace, which 
is in Babylon, with joy and opened his trieasure house; gold 
and silver, vessels of gold and silver, precious stones of 
every description, possessions, and goods, without number, 
a heavy tribute, his palace women, his ministers, his male 
and female musicians, all the artisans, as many as there 
were, his palace officials, I brought forth and reckoned 
as spoil. With the might of Ashur, my lord, I besieged, 
captured, and carried away the spoil of seventy-five of 
the large, walled cities of Kaldu and of four hundred 
and twenty of the smaller cities round about them. The 
Arabians, Arameans, and Chaldeans of Uruk, Nippur, 
Kish, Harsagkalama, Kutha, and Sippara, together with 
the inhabitants of the cities who were rebellious I 
brought forth and reckoned as spoil. On my return, 
the Tumuna, the Rihihu, the Yadaqqu, the Ubudu, the 
Kipre, the Malahu, the Gurumu, the U-bu-lum, the 
Damunu, the Gambulu, the Hindaru, the Ru'ua, the 
Puqiidu, the Hamranu, the Hagaranu, the Nabatu, the 
Litau, Arameans, who were rebellious, I conquered en 



70 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

masse. Two hundred and eight thousand people, small 
and great, male and female, horses and mules, asses, camels, 
cattle, and sheep, without number, a heavy spoil, I carried 
away to Assyria. During the course of my campaign I 
received from Nabu-bel-shanati, the prefect of Hararati, 
g;old, silver, tall palms (?), asses, camels, cattle, and sheep, 
his rich present. The men of Hirimmu, a stubborn enemy, 
I brought low with my weapons, and a single one did not 
escape. Their corpses I hung on posts and placed them 
round the city. I reconquered that district, and for the 
gods of Assyria, my lords, I set aside for all time one 
steer, ten rams, ten measures of wine, twenty measures of 
dates, its first fruits. 

In my second campaign, Ashur, my lord, gave me his 
support, and I marched to the country of the Kassites and 
of the Yasubigalli, who from time immemorial had not 
been submissive to the kings, my fathers. Through the 
high mountain forests, a rough country, I rode on horse, 
and I hauled up my chariot with ropes. The steepest 
places I climbed on foot like a wild ox. I besieged and 
captured Bit-Kilamzah, Hardishpi, and Bit-Kubatti, their 
large walled cities. I brought forth from their midst 
people, horses, mules, asses, cattle, and sheep, and reck- 
oned them as spoil; and their smaller cities, which were 
without number, I destroyed, devastated, and reduced to 
plough-land. The tents, their dwelling-places, I burned 
with fire, and let them go up in flames. I returned and 
used the city Bit-Kilamzah as a fortress. I made its walls 
stronger than ever, and I settled therein the people of the 
countries captured by my hands. I brought down from 
the mountains the Kassites and Yasubigalli, and made 
them dwell in the cities Hardishpi and Bit-Kubatti. I 
placed them under the control of my military officer, the 
prefect of Arrapha. I had a tablet prepared, and I in- 
scribed upon it my great victory which I had gained over 
them, and I set it up in the city. I turned about and 
took the road to the country of Ellipi. Before me Ispa- 
bara, their king, abandoned his strong cities, his treasure 



TAYLOR CYLINDER OF SENNACHERIB 



71 



houses, and fled to a distant place. I swept over the whole 
of his broad land like a wind storm. Marubishti and Ak- 
kuddu, cities of his royal house, together with thirty-four 
smaller cities round about them, I besieged, captured, de- 
stroyed, devastated, and burned with fire. People, small 
and great, male and female, horses, mules, asses, camels, 
cattle, and sheep, without number, I carried away and I 
reduced him to nothing and cut down his territory. The 
cities ^i^irtu and Kummahlum, large cities, together with 
the smaller cities round about them, the district Bit-Barru, 
to its whole extent, I cut away from his land and added 
to the territory of Assyria. I took the city Elenzash for 
a royal city and fortress for that district, and I changed its 
former name and called its name Kar-Sennacherib. I set- 
tled therein the people of the countries captured by my 
hands and I placed them under the control of my mili- 
tary officer, the prefect of Harhar, and I enlarged my ter- 
ritory. On my return, I received the heavy tribute of the 
far-off Medes, the mention of whose country no one among 
the kings, my fathers, had heard, and I made them submit 
to the yoke of tny lordship. 

In my third campaign I marched to the land of the 
Hittites. Lull (Elulseos), King of Sidon, was overcome 
by the fear of the splendour of my lordship, and fled far 
away to the sea, and I subdued his land. Great Sidon, 
Little Sidon, Bit-Zitti, Sarepta, Mahalliba, Usha, Ekdippa, 
Akko, his large walled cities, stations for food and water, 
his garrisons, the might of the weapons of Ashur, my lord, 
overcame and they submitted to me. Tubalu (Ethobal) 
I placed over them on the royal throne, and my lordship's 
tribute and taxes yearly without fail I imposed on him. 
Menahem of the city of Samsimuruna, Ethobal of Sidon, 
Abdiliti of Arvad, Urumilki of Byblos, Mitinti of Ashdod, 
Buduilu of Beth-Ammon, Kammusunadbi of Moab, Malik- 
rammu of Edom, kings of the West Land — ^all of them — 
brought rich presents, their heavy gifts, with merchandise, 
before me and kissed my feet. As for ^idqa, the King of 
Askelon, who had not submitted to my yoke, I took by 



72 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



force the gods of his father's house, himself, his wife, his 
sons, his daughters, his brother, the seed of his father's 
house, and carried them to Assyria. Sharruludari, the son 
of Rukibti, their former king, I placed over the people 
of Askelon, and I imposed on him the giving of taxes, a 
present for my lordship, and he became tributary to me. 
During the course of my campaign I besieged, captured, 
and carried away the spoil of Beth-Dagon, Joppa, Beni- 
barqa, and Azuru, cities belonging to Qlidqa, which had 
not at once submitted to me. The governors, chiefs, and 
people of Ekron, who had. cast Padi, their king, who was 
under treaty and oath to Assyria, into chains of iron, and 
had handed him over to Hezekiah of Judah — ^in a hostile 
manner he had shut him up in a dungeon — ^became afraid. 
They summoned the kings of Egypt, the bowmen, chari- 
ots and horses of the King of Meluhha — innumerable 
forces, and they came to their help. In the vicinity of 
Eltekeh they arranged (their) battle array against me and 
forced a battle. Under the protection of Ashur, my lord, 
I fought with them and accomplished their defeat. The 
charioteers and the sons of the King of Egypt and the 
charioteers of the King of Meluhha I captured alive, with 
my hands, in battle. I besieged, captured, and carried 
away the spoil of Eltekeh and Timnath. I advanced to 
Ekron and I killed the governors and chiefs, who had 
brought about rebellion, and I hung their corpses on poles 
round about the city. The inhabitants of the city who 
were in the opposition and riot I reckoned as spoil. The 
rest of them, who had nothing to do with the rebellion and 
disgraceful proceedings, who were not guilty, I ordered to 
be set free. Padi, their king, I brought forth from Jeru- 
salem, and I placed him on the throne of lordship over 
them. My lordship's tribute I imposed on him. But as 
for Hezekiah of Judah, who had not submitted to my yoke, 
forty-six of his strong walled cities and the smaller cities 
round about them, without number, by the battering of 
rams, and the attack of war-engines (?), by making 
breaches, by cutting through, and the use of axes, I be- 



TAYLOR CYLINDER OF SENNACHERIB 



73 



sieged and captured. Two hundred thousand one hun- 
dred and fifty people, small and great, male and female, 
horses, mules, asses, camels, cattle, and sheep, without 
number, I brought forth from their midst and reckoned 
as spoil. (Hezekiah) himself I shut up like a caged bird 
in Jerusalem, his royal city. I threw up fortifications 
against him, and whoever came out of the gates of his city 
I punished. His cities, which I had plundered, I cut off 
from his land and gave to Mitinti, King of Ashdod, to 
Padi, King of Ekron, and to ^il-Bel, King of Gaza, and 
(thus) made his territory smaller. To the former taxes, 
paid yearly, tribute, a present for my lordship, I added and 
imposed on him. Hezekiah himself was overwhelmed by 
the fear of the brilliancy of my lordship, and the Arabians 
and faithful soldiers whom he had brought in to strengthen 
Jerusalem, his royal city, deserted him. Thirty talents of 
gold, eight hundred talents of silver, precious stones, guhli 
daggassi, large lapis lazuli, couches of ivory, thrones of 
elephant skin and ivory, ivory, ushu and urkarinu woods, 
of every kind, a heavy treasure, and his daughters, his 
palace women, male and female singers, to Nineveh, my 
lordship's city, I caused to be brought after me, and he 
sent his ambassador to give tribute and to pay homage. 

In my fourth campaign, Ashur, my lord, gave me his 
support; I mustered my numerous troops and ordered the 
march to Bit-Yakin. During the course of my campaign, 
I accomplished the defeat of Shuzub, the Chaldean, who 
dwelt in the swamps in Bittutu. He was overcome by my 
fierce battle attack, lost courage, and like a bird (?) he 
fled alone and no further trace was seen of him. I turned 
about and took the road to Bit-Yakin. Merodachbaladan, 
whose defeat I had accomplished in my first campaign, and 
whose power I had broken, feared the clash of my powerful 
weapons and my mighty battle attack, and he collected all 
the gods of his land into their shrines, embarked them on 
ships, and fled, like a bird, to Nagite-raqqi in the sea. 
His brothers, the seed of his father's house, whom he had 
left by the sea, together with the rest of the people of 



74 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

his land, I brought forth from Bit-Yakin, from the swamps 
and marshes, and reckoned as spoil. I returned and de- 
stroyed and devastated his cities and reduced them to 
plough-land. Upon his confederate, the King of Elam, I 
poured out fury. On my return I placed Ashumadinshum, 
my first-born son, reared on my knees, on the throne of his 
lordship, and I made the broad land of Sumer and Akkad 
subject to him. 

In my fifth campaign, the men of Tumurri(?), Sharum, 
Egama, Kibshu, Halbuda, Qua, and Qana — ^whose dwell- 
ings, like the nest of the eagle, the king of birds, were 
located upon the peaks of Mount Nipur, a steep mountain 
— had not yielded to my power. I pitched my camp at the 
foot of Mount Nipur, and with my splendid bodyguard 
and my unrelenting warriors, like a strong wild ox I led 
the attack. I crossed the clefts, ravines, mountain tor- 
rents, difficult high waters, in a chair. Where it was too 
steep to make use of the chair, I clambered on foot. Like 
a mountain goat I climbed to the highest peaks. Where- 
ever there was a resting-place for my knees I sat down on 
a rock. For my thirst, I drank cold water out of skins. 
Upon the peaks of the mountains I pursued them and I 
accomplished their overthrow. I captured, spoiled, de- 
stroyed, and devastated their cities and burned them with 
fire. I turned about and took the road against Maniae, 
king of the city of Ukku in the country of Dale, who was 
still unconquered. Into the unopened paths and difficult 
trails before the rough mountains, none of the kings my 
predecessors had ever marched. I pitched my camp at the 
foot of the great mountains Anara and Uppa. In my chair 
with my splendid soldiers, with great trouble, I entered 
their narrow passes, and with difficulty I climbed the steep 
mountain peaks. Maniae saw the dust of the feet of my 
soldiers, abandoned his royal city Ukku, and fled to a dis- 
tant place. I besieged and captured Ukku. I carried 
away spoil of every description, his possessions and prop- 
erty. I brought forth the treasure of his palace and reck- 
oned it as spoil. I captured thirty-three cities on the 



TAYLOR CYLINDER OF SENNACHERIB 75 

border of his district, and carried away from them men, 
asses, cattle, and sheep. I (then) destroyed, devastated, 
and burned them with fire. 

In my sixth campaign — the rest of the people of Bit- 
Yakin had run away before my powerful weapons, like wild 
asses, and had collected all the gods of their country into 
their shrines, and had crossed over the Great Sea of the 
Rising Sun and had made their homes in the city Nagitu, 
of the land of Elam — in Hittite boats I crossed the sea. 
Nagitu, Nagitu-dibina, together with Hilmu, Pillatu, and 
the land of Hupapanu, districts of Elam, I conquered. The 
people of Bit-Yakin, together with their gods and the 
people of the King of Elam, I carried oH, and I did not 
leave a rebel behind. I embarked them on ships, made 
them cross over to the other side and take the road to 
Assyria. The cities of those districts I destroyed, devas- 
tated, and burned with fire, and I converted them into 
mounds and plough-land. On my return, in an open bat- 
tle, I accomplished their defeat and captured with my own 
hands Shuzub, the Babylonian, who, on account of an 
uprising in the land, had seized the government of Sumer 
and Akkad. I threw him into fetters and chains of iron, 
and brought him to Assyria. The King of Elam, who 
had supported him and marched to his aid, I defeated. I 
scattered his forces and broke his power. 

In my seventh campaign, Ashur, my lord, gave me his 
support, and I marched to Elam. During the course of my 
campaign I captured and despoiled Bit-Hairi and Raga, 
cities belonging to the territory of Assyria, which the 
Elamites had taken by force in the reign of my fathers. 
I placed in them soldiers from my garrisons, brought them 
within the territory of Assyria, and placed them under the 
control of the chief of Halgu-dur-shame-irqiti. The cities 
of Bube, Dunni-Shamash, Bit-risia, Bit-ahlame, Duru, 
Dantisula, Shiliptu, Bit-aqusi, Karmubasha, Bit-giggi, Bit- 
kappalani, Bit-Imbia, Hamanu, Bit-Arrabi, Burutu, Dintu- 
sha-Sula, Dintu-sha-Tur(?)-bit-etir, Hur(?)riashlake, Ra- 
ba, Rasu, Akkabarina, Til-uhuri, Hamranu, Naditu, to- 



76 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

gather with the cities at the entrance toward Bit-bunaki, 
Til-Humbi, Dintu-sha-Dumeilu, Bit-Ubia, Baltilishir, Ta- 
gablishir, Shanaqidati, Masutu-shaplitu, Sarhuderi, Alum- 
sha-tarbit, Bit-Ahiddina, Ilteuba, thirty-four large cities 
and the smaller ones round about them, without number, 
I besieged, captured, despoiled, destroyed, devastated, and 
burned with fire. Like a heavy cloud I covered the face of 
the broad heavens with the smoke of their burning ruins. 
When Kudur-Nahundu, the Elamite, heard of the capture 
of his cities, he was overcome with terror, (and) he brought 
his remaining cities within fortifications. He left Ma- 
dakte, his royal city, and took the road to Haidala in the 
far-distant mountains. I ordered the march to Madakte, 
his royal city. In the month Tebet cold weather set in, 
the heavens poured down a mass of rain, rain upon rain, 
and snow. Fearing the mountain streams and torrents, 
I turned back and took the road to Nineveh. At that 
time, by the command of Ashur, my lord, Kudur-Na- 
hundu, did not live three months. At an unexpected time 
and suddenly he died. After him, Ummanmenanu, who 
was without judgment and reason, his younger brother, 
took his seat upon the throne. 

In my eighth campaign, after Shuzub had been carried 
ofif, and the Babylonians, rebellious devils, had bolted their 
city-gates, the making of a rebellion was planned. Around 
Shuzub, the Chaldean, the rebellious (?) weakling, who had 
no courage, who was under the influence (?) of the prefect 
of Lahiru, a fugitive (?) and deserter, a wicked, bloodthirsty 
fellow, they gathered and they went into the swamps and 
made a revolt. I surrounded him with a cordon of sol- 
diers and pressed him hard. On account of terror and 
distress he fled to Elam. Threatened by conspiracies and 
crimes, he hastened from Elam and entered Babylon. The 
Babylonians illegitimately placed him on the throne, and 
intrusted to him the rule of Sumer and Akkad. They 
opened the treasure house of Esagila and the gold and sil- 
ver of Bel (and) (Jarpanit, which they had brought forth 
from the temples of their gods, they gave as a bribe to 



TAYLOR CYLINDER OF SENNACHERIB 



n 



Ummanmenanu, the King of Elam, who was without 
judgment and reason, (saying to him): "Assemble thy 
army, bring together thy camp, hasten to Babylon, stand 
by us, our confidence is in thee." That Elamite, whose 
cities in the course of a former campaign against Elam I had 
captured and converted into plough-land, took no heed, 
but accepted their bribe, assembled his soldiers and camp, 
collected his chariots and freight wagons, and put horses 
and mules in harness. The lands of Parsuash, Anzan, Pa- 
shiru, Ellipi, Yazan, Lagabra, Harzunu, Dummuqu, Sula, 
Samuna, the son of Merodachbaladan, Bit-Adini, Bit- 
Amukkani, Bit-Sillana, Bit-Sala-udud-akki, Lahiru, the 
Puqudu, the Gambulu, the Halatu, the Rua, the Ubulu, the 
Malahu, the Rapiqu, the Hindaru, the Damunu, a great 
confederation, he gathered about him. All of them took the 
road to Akkad and came to Babylon. They joined them- 
selves to Shuzub, and their forces were united. Like the 
coming of locust swarms in the spring of the year, together 
they came to do battle against me. The face of the broad 
heavens was covered with the dust of their feet like a 
heavy cloud, pregnant with mischief. Before me in the 
city of Halule, on the bank of the Tigris, the line of battle 
was formed, they attacked and joined battle. I prayed to 
Ashur, Sin, Shamash, Bel, Nabii, Nergal, Ishtar of Nine- 
veh, Ishtar of Arbela, the gods in whom I had confidence, 
that I might conquer the powerful enemy. They gave ear 
to my prayers at once and came to my help. I was as 
fierce as a lion, and I put on my cuirass and covered my 
head with a helmet, the sign of war. In the anger of my 
heart I drove furiously in my splendid war chariot, which 
overthrows the enemy. I seized the strong bow which 
Ashur had intrusted to me, and I grasped the javelin which 
destroys life. Against all the troops, wicked enemies, in 
my distress, I raged like a storm, I roared like Ramman. 
By command of Ashur, the great lord, my lord, on flank 
and front I attacked the enemy like the coming of a terrible 
storm. With the weapons of Ashur, my lord, and my 
mighty battle attack, I destroyed their front and brought 



78 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

about their retreat. With arrow and lance I cut off the 
hostile soldiers, and I cut my way * * * through the mass 
of their corpses. Humbanundasha, the chief of the King 
of Elam, energetic (and) careful, the leader of his troops, 
his great support — ^together with his chief men — ^whose 
girdle dagger was inlaid with gold and whose arms were 
bound with double bracelets of pure gold, like fat steers, 
hobbled with chains, I cut down quickly as with an axe, 
and I accomplished their destruction. I cut their necks 
like wild animals, their precious lives I cut in two like a 
cord. Like a heavy storm, I scattered their trophies and 
arms over the broad field. The swift steeds harnessed to 
my chariot swam in the mass of their blood as in a river. 
Blood and filth poured down on the wheels of my war 
chariot, which overthrows the bad and the good. I filled 
the field with the corpses of their warriors, as with herbs. 
I cut out their * * * and destroyed their * * * Like 
the seeds of ripe cucumbers I cut off their hands. The 
double bracelets of gold and bright silver which were on 
their arms I took off. With sharp swords I cut off their 
noses (?). I took away the gold and silver girdle daggers 
which they carried. The rest of his great men, together 
with Nabu-shum-ishkun, the son of Merodachbaladan, 
who feared battle with me, gathered their auxiliaries. In 
the midst of the battle I seized them alive with my hands. 
I brought together the chariots with their horses, whose 
drivers, in the terrible battle attack, had been killed, while 
they were left careering about by themselves. It con- 
tinued until the fourth hour of the night. I then put a 
stop to their slaughter. Like a bull, the fury of my battle 
overwhelmed Ummanmenanu, King of Elam. together 
with the King of Babylon, the princes of Chaldea, who had 
come to his support. They left their tents, and to save 
their lives they trampled under foot the corpses of their 
soldiers and fled. Like young captured birds, they lost 
heart. With their * * * they soiled their chariots and they 
left their * * * behind them. I ordered my chariot and 
horses to go in pursuit of them. Their fugitives, who had 



TAYLOR CYLINDER OF SENNACHERIB 



79 



fled for their lives, were run through with swords wher- 
ever they were captured. 

At that time, after I had completed the palace in Nine- 
veh as a dwelling for my royalty, I adorned it with orna- 
ments for the astonished gaze of all people. As for the 
Side-palace, which the kings, my predecessors, my fore- 
fathers, had built for the stowing away of the camp bag- 
gage, the stalling of horses, and the storing of all sorts of 
things, it had no foundation, its room was too small, and 
its construction was not artistic. In course of time, its 
platform foundation had become weak, its foundation had 
collapsed and its superstructure was in ruins. I tore that 
palace down completely. I took a large piece of ground 
from the swamp and vicinity of the city, in accordance 
with the plans of the architect, and added to it. I aban- 
doned the site of the old palace, and on the ground in the 
swamp which I had reclaimed from the river bed I built 
up a terrace, and raised the top of it to a height of two 
hundred tibki. In a favourable month, on an auspicious 
day, with the co-operation of my clever architects, I built 
on that terrace, in the wisdom of my heart, a palace of pilu 
stone and cedar, in the Hittite style, and a splendid palace 
— as a dwelling for my lordship — ^in the Assyrian style, 
which far exceeded the former one in size and artistic effect. 
Large cedar trunks, such as grow on the snow-capped 
Mount Amanus, I used for their roofs. I bound the doors 
of liyari wood with straps of bright copper and hung them 
in their gateways. With white pilu-stone, such as is found 
in the Balata, I built splendid lamasse and shede, and sta- 
tioned them on the right and left. For the rule of the 
Black-headed People, the storing of horses, mules, calves, 
asses, chariots, freight wagons (?), quivers, bows, arrows, 
all kinds of weapons for war, harness for horses and mules, 
which have great strength when yoked, I greatly enlarged 
its * * * space. That palace I built from its foundation 
to its roof and completed it. A tablet, the record of my 
name, I placed in it. For future days, whoever — among 
the kings, my sons, whom Ashur and Ishtar shall call to 



8o ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

rule over the land and people — the prince may be when 
this palace becomes old and ruined, may he repair its 
damages, may he see the inscription, the record of my 
name, cleanse it with oil, offer sacrifices, and return it to 
its place; then Ashur and Ishtar will hear his prayer. 
Whoever alters my writing and name, may Ashur, the 
great lord, father of the gods, treat him as an enemy, and 
take sceptre and throne from him and overthrow his rule! 
(Dated) In the month Adar, the eponymy of Bel-imu- 
rani, prefect of Carchemish. 



THE MURDER OF SENNACHERIB 
(68 1 B. c.) 

From the Babylonian Chronicle 

On the twentieth day of Tebet, Sennacherib, King of 
Assyria, was killed by his son in a revolt. For twenty- 
three years Sennacherib had ruled Assyria. From the 
twentieth day of Tebet to the second day of Adar the revolt 
in Assyria continued. On the eighteenth day of Sivan, 
Esarhaddon, his son, took his seat on the throne. 



ESARHADDON'S ACCESSION TO THE 

THRONE, AND THE BATTLE OF 

HANIGALBAT 

I WAS fierce as a lion, and my heart (liver) was en- 
raged. To exercise the sovereignty of my father's house 
and to clothe my priestly office, to Ashur, Sin, Shamash, 
Bel, Nabu and Nergal, Ishtar of Nineveh, Ishtar of Arbela, 
I raised my hands and they looked with favour on my 
petition. In their eternal mercy they sent me an oracle 
of confidence — viz.: " Go, do not delay; we will march at 
thy side and will subjugate thy enemies." One day, two 



CYLINDER A OF ESARH ADDON 8 1 

days, I did not wait, the front of my army I did not look 
upon, the rear I did not see, the appointments for my 
yoked horses, the weapons for my battle I did not inspect, 
provisions for my campaign I did not issue. The furious 
cold of the month Shebat, the fierceness of the cold I did 
not fear. Like a flying sisinnu bird, for the overthrow 
of my enemies, I opened out my forces. The road to 
Nineveh, with difficulty and haste, I travelled. Before 
me in' Hanigalbat, all of their splendid warriors seized the 
front of my expedition and forced a battle. The fear of 
the great gods, my lords, overwhelmed them. They saw 
the approach of my mighty battle and they became insane. 
Ishtar, the mistress of onslaught and battle, the lover of 
my priestly office, stood at my side and broke their bows. 
She broke up their compact line of battle, and in their 
assembly they proclaimed, " This is our king," By het 
illustrious command, they joined themselves to my side. 



CYLINDER A OF THE ESARHADDON 
INSCRIPTIONS 

[EsARHADDON, King of Assyria, King of Sumer] and 
Akkad, [son of Sennacherib], King of Assyria; [son of 
Sargon], King of Assyria; who, under the protection of 
Ashur, Sin, Shamash, Nabu, Marduk, Ishtar of Nineveh, 
Ishtar of Arbela, the great gods, his lords, from the rising 
of the sun to the setting of the sun marched without a rival. 

The conqueror of Sidon, which lies in the middle of 
the sea, the overthrower of all its dwellings; its wall and 
its dwelling (houses) I tore down and threw them into 
the sea, and I destroyed its site. Abdimilkuti, its king, 
who had fled before my weapons into the midst of the sea 
like a fish, from the midst of the sea I drew out and cut 
ofif his head. His accumulated property, gold, silver, pre- 
cious stones, elephant skin, elephant ivory, ushu and 
urkarinu wood, variegated and linen clothing, of every de>- 
6 



82 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

scription, the treasure of his palace, I carried away in great 
quantities. His numerous , men, who were without num^ 
her, oxen, sheep, and asses I brought to Assyria. I assem- 
bled the kings of Hatti and of the sea-coast — ^all of them. 
In another place, I caused the city to be built, and I called 
its name [Kar-Ashur]ahiddin. The men, the booty of 
my bow, from the mountains and the Sea of the Rising of 
the Sun, I caused to dwell there; and I placed my officer 
over them as governor. 

And Sanduarri, king of the cities of Kundi and SizU, 
a powerful enemy, who did not respect my lordship, who 
had forsaken the gods, trusted to the impassable moun- 
tains, and Abdimilkuti, King of Sidon, came to his help. 
By the names of the great gods they swore to each other, 
and trusted to their own forces. I trusted in Ashur, my 
lord, and,' like a bird, from the midst of the mountains I 
drew him forth and cut off his head. In order to show the 
men the power of Ashur, my lord, I hung the heads of 
Sanduarri and Abdimilkuti upon the necks of their great 
men. With male singers and music (?) I marched into the 
streets of Nineveh. 

The despoiler of Arzani, which is on the banks of the 
river of the land of Egypt * * * to Assyria brought. In 
the vicinity of the eastern gate of Nineveh, with wild 
beasts, wild boars, and dogs, I caused them to sit in chains. 

. And Teushpa of Gimir an umman-manda, whose resi- 
dence was afar off, in the Hubushna territory, together 
with the whole of his army, I ran through with the 
sword. 

. He who trampled upon the necks of the men of Hilakki, 
Du'ua, the inhabitants of the mountain-ridges, which lie 
in the vicinity of Tabal; who trusted to their [mighty] 
mountains; and from days of old had not been subject to 
any yoke; twenty-one powerful cities, together with the 
smaller cities of their territory, I besieged, captured, and 
carried away their spoil, I destroyed, tore down, and 
burned with fire. Upon the rest, who had not committed 
sin and crimes, I placed the heavy yoke of my lordship. 



CYLINDER A OF ESARHADDON 83 

He who trod down the land of Bamaki, a powerful 
enemy, the inhabitants of Tilashuri, whose name in the 
language of the people they call Mihranu Pitanu. 

He who scattered the inhabitants of Minni, the qutu, 
the unsubmissive; who subdued the armies of Ishpaka of 
Ashguza — an alliance that did not save him — ^with (his) 
sword. 

Who drove away Nabii-zer-napishti-lishir, son of Mar- 
dukbaliddin, who trusted to Elam, but did not save his 
life. Naid-Marduk, his brother, in order to subject him- 
self to me, fled from Elam, and came to Nineveh, my lord- 
ship's city, and kissed my feet. The sea-land, in its ex- 
tent, the dominion of his brother, I intrusted to him. 

Who tore away Bit-Dakkuri which is in Kaldi, an 
enemy of Babylon. He who bound Shamash-ibni, its king, 
who did not fear the renown of the lord of lords, a destruc- 
tive scoundrel, who had taken away the fields of the Baby- 
lonians and Borsippans by force. Because I knew the 
fear of Bel and Nabu, I returned these fields, and I in- 
trusted them to the Babylonians and Borsippans. I placed 
Nabu-shallim, son of Balasu, on his throne and he was_ 
tribute to me. 

Adumu, the powerful city of Aribi [which] Senna- 
cherib, King of Assyria, [the father], my begetter, had 
captured and * * * his gods had carried away, to Assyria 
had brought; [Haza']ilu, King of Aribi, with his heavy 
present, to Nineveh, my lordship's city, came and kissed 
my feet. He besought me for the return of his gods, and 
I showed him compassion. I repaired the injuries of these 
gods, and the power of Ashtir, my lord, and the writing of 
my name I caused to be written upon them, and I gave 
them back. I appointed Tabua, who was reared in my 
palace, to sovereignty over them, and with her gods I re- 
turned her to her land. I added sixty-five camels, in addi- 
tion to the former tribute of my fathers and imposed it 
on him. Afterward, fate carried Haza'ilu away, and I 
placed Yailu, his son, on his throne. Ten maneh of gold, 
one thousand brilliant stones, fifty camels, one thousand 



84 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

gunzi of sweet-smelling herbs, in addition to the tribute 
of his father, I added and placed on him. 

Bazu, a district, whose situation is afar off, a low stretch 
of land, a desert country, a barren place — one hundred and 
forty kasbu of swampy land, thorns, and gazelle-mouth 
stone; twenty kasbu of snakes and scorpions, which, like 
grasshoppers, filled the country; twenty kasbu of Hazu, a 
mountain of sag-gil-mud stone, I left behind me and I 
marched. Where, from days of old, no king before me 
had gone, by the command of Ashur, my lord, I marched 
victoriously. I killed eight kings of that district, and I 
carried away their gods, property, possessions, and men 
into Assyria. Lale, King of Yadi, [who] had fled before 
my weapons, heard of the carrying away of his gods, 
and he came to Nineveh, my lordship's city, into my pres- 
ence, and kissed my feet. I showed him compassion and 
spoke to him of peace. Upon his gods, which I had car- 
ried away, I wrote the power of Ashur, my lord, and gave 
them back. I intrusted to him the district of Bazi, and 
I imposed on him the taxes and tribute of my lordship. 

As for Beliqisha, son of Bunani, of Gambul, who, like 
"a fish, had fixed (his) dwelling at the distance of twelve 
kasbu of land in the water and marshes, by the command 
of Ashur, my lord, terror struck him. Of his own accord, 
taxes and tribute, large oxen, completely fattened * * * 
he brought and kissed my feet; I showed him compas- 
sion, and I made his heart confident. I strengthened 
Shapi-Bel, his stronghold, and himself, together with his 
bow-men, I caused to go up into it, and like a door of 
Elam, I shut it up. 

As for Patusharra, a district on the borders of the house 
of the desert, which is in the midst of the far-off Medes, 
on the borders of Bikni, a mountain of alabaster stone, the 
territory of whose land no one among the kings, my 
fathers, had trodden, Shidirparna, Eparna, its powerful city 
officers, who were not under subjection to any yoke, them- 
selves with their men, horses, chariots, oxen, sheep, asses, 
dromedaries, their heavy spoil, I carried away to Ass3rria. 



CYLINDER A OF ESARHADDON 8$ 

Uppiz, city-officer of Partakka, Zanasana, city-officer of 
Partukka, Ramatea, city-officer of Urakazabarna, Medes, 
whose situation is afar off, who, under the reign of the 
kings, my fathers, had not crossed over the territory of 
Assyria and had not trodden its ground, the fear of the 
might of Ashur, my lord, overwhelmed them. Large 
horses, alabaster-stone, the choice of his land, to Nineveh, 
my lordship's city, they brought and kissed my feet. As 
for the city-officers, faint-heartedness (?) struck them; they 
besought my lordship, and they asked of me a treaty. I 
sent with them my military officers, the prefects of the 
border of their land. They trampled upon and subdued 
the men, the inhabitants of these cities. The tribute and 
taxes of my lordship I imposed upon them regularly. 

From the time that Ashiir, Shamash, Bel, and Nabu, 
Ishtar of Nineveh, Ishtar of Arbela, had set me in power 
over my enemies, and I had found the fulness of my heart, 
with the booty of my numerous enemies, which, under the 
protection of the great gods, my lords, my hands had 
captured, the temples of the cities of Assyria and Akkad I 
caused to be built, and with silver and gold I adorned 
them, and I made them as bright as the day. 

In those days, the former (?) palace, which is in Nine- 
veh, which the kings, my forefathers, had caused to be built 
— for the stowing away of the camp, for the sheltering of the 
horses and bulls, chariots, weapons, utensils of war, and 
the spoil of the enemies, everything of every description, 
which Ashur, the king of the gods, had presented, as a 
royal possession, for the stalling of the horses, and the har- 
nessing of the chariots, [that place had become too small 
for me, and] I caused the men of the countries, the booty 
of my bow, to carry baskets (?) and work-caps (?) and they 
made bricks. That small palace I tore down entirely. A 
large piece of ground, in accordance with my plan, I cut 
off from the midst of the fields, and added to it. I filled 
out its terrace with freestone, a stone of the mighty moun- 
tains. 

I assembled twenty-two kings of the land of Hatti, of 



86 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

the sea-coast and the middle of the sea. [Cylinder B gfives 
the names of the kings and countries. And beyond the 
sea. Ba'al of Tyre, Manasseh of Judah, Qaushgabri of 
Edom, Muquri of Moab, Qil-Bel of Gaza, Metinti of Aske- 
lon, Ikausu of Ekron, Milkiashapa of Byblos, Matanbaal 
of Arvad, Abibaal of Samsimuruma, Buduil of Ammon, 
Ahimilki of Ashdod, twelve kings of the sea-coast; 
Ekishtura of Edial, Pilagura of Kitrusi, Kisu of Sil- 
lua, Ituandar of Paphos, Eresu of Sillu, Damasu of 
Kuri, Atmesu of Tamesu, Damusi of Qartihadashti, Unasa- 
gusu of Sidir, Bu-gu-su of Nure, ten kings of Cyprus in 
the midst of the sea, in all twenty-two kings of Hatti (the 
Hittites), etc.] To all of these I gave my commands, and 
large beams, mighty posts, boards of cedar and cypress 
from the midst of Sirara and Labnana, brilliant colossi and 
bull-colossi (?), thresholds of burned brick, of gis-sir-gal 
and ashnan stone, of turmina turmina-turdu en-gi-damku 
alaldu gi-na hi-li-ba, from the mountain-ridges, the place 
of their production, for the requirements of my palace, 
with labour and with difficulty they caused to be drawn to 
Nineveh. 

In a fortunate month, on a favourable day, upon that 
terrace, I built great palaces for the dwelling of my lord- 
ship. I caused them to perform state (compulsory) la- 
bour. A palace, whose length was ninety-five great cubits, 
whose breadth was thirty-one great cubits, which, among 
the kings who went before me, my fathers, no one had 
built, I built. I laid in rows upon it mighty beams of 
cedar. Doors of cypress-wood, whose odor was good, I 
bound with a covering of silver and copper, and I hung in 
its gates. Bull-divinities and colossi of stone which, ac- 
cording to their position, turn the breast of the enemy, 
which protect the path, render inviolable the way of the 
king, their builder, to the right and left I caused to take 
their positions. A palace of freestone and cedar, shu-te- 
mu-du-ti (?) for the renown of my lordship, artistically I 
caused to be built. Glittering female colossi of bronze 
which looked sideward, forward, and backward, I placed in 



CYLINDER A OF ESARHADDON 87 

if on both sides. Mighty beams of cedar, and boards I 
placed as the fastening of their gates. For the surround- 
ing wall of that palace, a strong protection of pi-stone and 
alabaster I caused to be made and to surround it like a 
wreath * * * like * * * I caused to surround the whole 
of the gates. I hung doors of pure silver and shining 
copper in their midst. The power of Ashur, my lord, 
which I had exhibited in hostile countries, by the work of 
the engravers, I carved in it. A large park like those of 
Haman, in which every sort of spices and trees was planted, 
I placed on its sides. Its ground-floor I greatly enlarged, 
and its path I made much wider. For a drinking-place 
for the horses, within it I had a watering-trough con- 
structed and arranged after the manner of a canal. This 
palace, from its foundation to its roof, I erected, caused 
to be completed and fitted out with fulness. Ekallu 
paqidat kalama-y-i. e., the palace guarding everything, I 
called its name. Ashur, Ishtar of Nineveh, the gods of 
Assyria, all of them, I invited into it. Large and clean sac- 
rifices I sacrificed before them, and I presented my pres- 
ents. These gods, in the steadfastness of their hearts, 
looked with favour on my kingdom. The great men and 
inhabitants of my country — all of them — with eating and 
feasting, I made to sit at the dedicatory table in its midst, 
and I caused their hearts (spirits) to rejoice. With wineis 
and cider I bribed their hearts, and I poured over them 
the best oil. By the command of Ashur, king of the gods, 
and the gods of Assyria, all of them, in health of body, joy 
of heart, cheerfulness of spirit, abundance of offspring, 
within it, may I continually dwell, and may its complete- 
ness (splendour) be sufficient! On the beginning of the 
year, in the first month, all of the horses, bulls, asses, 
camels, weapons, utensils of war, all the soldiers, the spoil 
of my enemies, yearly, without fail, within it may I store 
away! Within this palace may the gracious bull-divini- 
ties and gracious colossi, protecting the footsteps of my 
majesty, causing my spirit to rejoice, forever show their 
power, may they not separate themselves from its side! 



88 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

For the future, among the kings, my sons, whomso- 
ever Ashiir and Ishtar call to be ruler of land and people, 
at the time when this palace becomes old and weak, may 
he repair its damage! According as I placed the inscrip- 
tion of the king, my begetter, with the inscriptions of my 
name, so do thou as I did, and look after my inscription, 
and cleanse it with oil, offer sacrifices, with thy own in- 
scriptions place it! Ashur and Ishtar will hear thy prayers. 



INSCRIPTION OF ESARHADDON FROM 
THE BLACK STONE (ABERDEEN) 

EsARHADDON, king of the world, King of Assyria, 
viceroy of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, the lofty 
prince, who fears Nabu and Marduk. 

From the time that, under the reign of a former king, 
in Sumer and Akkad, hostile forces came to the front, the 
people who dwelt in Babylon sent an ultimatum and 
planned insurrection; they laid their hands on Esagila, 
the temple of the gods; gold and precious stones they 
passed through as purchase-money to Elam — (from this 
time) the lord of the gods, Marduk, was enraged. To 
overthrow the country and to destroy the people he 
formed hostile plans. The river (canal) Arahtu, a river of 
plenty, a mighty flood, like a storm-flood was brought, and 
he caused it to come, against the city, its habitations, and 
its temples, and he made it (the city) resemble a ruin. 
The gods and the goddesses residing therein ascended to 
heaven; the people dwelling therein were apportioned to 
bonds and bands, and they entered into a state of slavery. 
He had decreed ten years as the length of its state of 
ruin, and the merciful Marduk was speedily appeased, and 
he drew to his side all Babylonia (literally above and be- 
low). In the eleventh year I gave orders to reinhabit it. 

I, Esarhaddon, whom thou hast chosen from the num- 
ber of my older brothers to restore these works, and over 



BLACK STONE OF ESARHADDON 89 

whom thou hast established thy good protection, all of 
whose enemies like a cyclone thou hast overwhelmed, and 
all of whose foes thou hast destroyed, and the desire of 
whose heart thou hast caused him to attain, and to whom 
thou, in order to appease the heart of thy great divin- 
ity, to soften thy spirits, hast handed over the rule of 
Assyria. 

At the beginning of my dominion, in the first year of 
my reign, when I had taken my seat with pomp upon the 
royal throne, favourable signs appeared in the heavens and 
on earth * * * About the doing of this work, to the 
judgment of Shamash, Ramman, Marduk, chief-justice of 
the gods, my lords, I bowed; I consulted them. Through 
the mediation of a seer, oracles inspiring trust were 
brought; to rebuild Babylon, to renew Esagila they wrote 
thereon. In their true protection I placed trust, and I 
summoned all my workmen and the men of Kar-Duni- 
ash to its whole extent; I caused them to carry baskets 
(?),^ and I placed (upon them) work-caps (?). I sprinkled 
its foundation wall (?) with fine oil, honey, cream, wine, 
wine of the snow-covered mountains. I placed on my 
own head a work-cap (?), and I caused myself to carry 
it (i. e., to perform state work). With shiluru, ivory. Tere- 
binths, Oaks, Palms, * * * as many as to its yoke, I 
caused bricks to be made. Esagila, the temple of the 
gods, and its shrines; Babylon, the city of protection; 
Imgur-Bel, its inner wall; Nimit-Bel, its outer wall, from 
their foundations to their battlements, I built anew, I en- 
larged them, raised them higher and strengthened them. 
I repaired the image of the great gods and caused it to 
take its place in their rooms forever. I re-established their 
regular offerings, which had fallen into disuse. The Baby- 
lonians, who had gone into slavery and who had been ap- 
portioned to bonds and bands, as Babylonians I reckoned 
again. I placed them anew under protection. 

' I caused them to perform state (compulsory) labour. 



50 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



INSCRIPTION OF ESARHADDON ON 
THE MONOLITH IN BERLIN 

AsHUR, the father of the gods, who loves my priestly 
office; Anu, the strong, the first in rank, who proclaimed 
my name; Bel, the high lord, who established my reign; 
Ea, the wise, the knowing, who decides my fates; Sin- 
Nannar, the brilliant, who grants me favourable signs; 
Shamash, judge of heaven and earth, who defines my 
career; Ramman, the mighty, who makes abundant provi- 
sion for my army; Marduk, the lord of the Igigi and Anun- 
naki, who enlarges my dominion; Ishtar, the mistress of 
contest and battle, who marches at my side; the Seven- 
hero-gods, who overwhelm my enemies; the great gods, 
all of them, who decide fates, who give power and strength 
to the king, their favourite, Esarhaddon, the great king, 
the powerful king, king of the world. King of Assyria, 
viceroy of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, King of 
Karduniash — all of them — king of the kings of Egypt, 
Pathros, and Cush, who reverences their great divinity, 
the exalted autocrat of Ashur, [Shamash,] Nabu [and 
Marduk]; king of kings, the unsparing, who bums the 
stubborn, who is clothed with brilliancy, who does not 
fear battle; the splendid warrior, who is unsparing in con- 
test; the prince, the all-powerful, who controls the sceptre 
of kings; the mad dog who avenges his father, his be- 
getter; the king who, under the protection of Ashur, Sha- 
mash, Nabu, and Marduk, his supporters, marched here 
and there with justice, and accomplished his desires; who 
broke down all those who did not favour him, princes who 
were unsubmissive, like the cane of the swamp, and caused 
them to be trodden under his feet, who arranged (restored) 
the free-will offerings to the great gods who [encouraged] 
the fear of gods and goddesses. * * * 

[The text of lines 1-9 of the reverse is too badly muti- 
lated for translation.] 



MONOLITH OF ESARHADDON 



91 



* * * The kings of the four quarters of the world I trod 
under foot, * * * the countries, all of them, I brought 
under my yoke. * * * I imposed on them tribute and 
taxes; who conquered his enemies, who destroyed his 
foes; the king, Whose path was a cyclone; because of his 
deeds, the maddened wolf entered his presence (?), and 
after him * * * whose strong battle was a flaming sea 
of fire * * * the son of Sennacherib, king of the world. 
King of Assyria, son of Sargon, king of the world, King of 
Assyria, viceroy of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, 
of the ancient royal seed of Bel-ibni, son of Adasi, who 
established the kingdom of Assyria * * * of the city 
Ashur * * * [who before] Ashur, Shamash, Nabu, and 
Marduk, his lords, prostrated himself. I am powerful, all- 
powerful, exalted, all-mighty, strong, important, majestic 
in power; among all kings I do not know a rival; the dar- 
ling of Ashur, Nabu, and Marduk, proclaimed of Sin, fa- 
vourite of Anu, beloved of Queen Ishtar, the goddess of 
everything, the unsparing weapon, who brings to destruc- 
tion the land of the enemy, am I; the king, powerful in 
contest and battle, who destroys the habitations of those 
who are hostile to him; who annihilates his enemies, over- 
whelms his foes, brings under subjection those who are 
unsubmissive to him; who holds dominion over all people, 
as whose fate Ashur, Shamash, Nabu, and Marduk, my 
exalted lords, whose command can not be changed, a 
kingdom without a rival, decreed; into whose hands Ishtar, 
the mistress, who loves my priestly office, a strong bow, a 
mighty spear bringing destruction to the hostile, intrusted; 
the desire of my heart she caused me to attain, and all 
princes who were unsubmissive she brought to submission 
under my feet. 

At the time that Ashur, the great lord — in order to 
show the people the mightiness and greatness of my deeds 
— over the kings of the four quarters of the world strength- 
ened my royal rule, and spread abroad the fame of my 
name, and placed in my hand a mighty sceptre with which 
to overcome my enemies, (then) the country rebelled 



92 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



against Assyria; they acted disgracefully, they revolted. 
To destroy and to despoil the territory of Assyria * * * 
my people. After Ashur and the great gods, my lords, 
had given me marching orders, distant roads, impassable 
mountains, large swamps, desert places, in the obedience 
of my heart, I traversed successfully. As for Tarqu, King 
of Egypt and Cush, who was under the curse of their great 
divinity, from Ishupri as far as Memphis, his royal city — 
a march of fifteen days — every day without exception I 
killed his warriors in great number, and as for him, five 
times with the point of the spear I struck him with a 
deadly stroke. Memphis, his royal city, in half a day, by 
cutting through, cutting into and scaling (?) I besieged, I 
conquered, I tore down, I destroyed, I burned with fire, 
and the wife of his palace, his palace women, Ushanahuru, 
his own son, and the rest of his sons, his daughters, his 
property and possessions, his horses, his oxen, his sheep 
without number, I carried away as spoil to Assyria. I tore 
up the root of Cush from Egypt,^ a single one — even to 
the suppliant — I did not leave behind. 

Over all Egypt I appointed kings, prefects, governors, 
grain-inspectors, mayors, and secretaries. I instituted 
regular offerings to Ashur and the great gods, my 
lords, for all time. I placed on them the tribute and taxes 
of my lordship, regularly and without fail. A tablet, writ- 
ten in my name, I caused to be made, and the glory of the 
bravery of Ashur, my lord, the mighty deeds which I had 
accomplished, under the protection of Ashur, in my 
marches, and the victories, the booty of my hands, thereon 
I caused to be written, and for the (astonished) gaze of all 
my enemies I set up for future days. 

Whoever removes this tablet from its place, or erases 
my name as written, or writes his name or covers it with 
dust, or throws it into the water, or bums it with fire, or 
places it where it can not be seen, may Ishtar, the mis- 
tress of contest and battle, destroy his manhood or woman- 

• That is, everything pertaining to Cush I forcibly removed from 
Egypt. 



SHORT INSCRIPTIONS OF ESARHADDON 53 

hood! May she cause him to dwell as a captive among 
his enemies! 

May the future prince see the tablet, written in my 
name! may he read it aloud! may he cleanse it with oil! 
may he offer a sacrifice! may he exalt the name (fame) 
of Ashur, my lord ! 



SHORT INSCRIPTIONS OF 
ESARHADDON 

I. ON A BRONZE LION IN THE MUSEUM AT 
CONSTANTINOPLE 

Palace of Esarhaddon, king of the world, King of 
Assyria, the conqueror of Egypt and Cush. 

II. ON A BRICK FROM NEBBI YUNUS 

Palace of Esarhaddon, the powerful king, king of the 
world. King of Assyria, son of Sennacherib, King of As- 
syria, son of Sargon, King of Assyria. 

IIL ON A BRICK FROM NEBBI YUNUS 

Palace of Esarhaddon, King of Assyria, son of Sen- 
nacherib, King of Assyria, son of Sargon, King of Assyria, 

IV. ON AN ALABASTER VASE FROM KOUYUNJIK 

Palace of Esarhaddon, king of the world. King of As- 
syria, King of Sumer and Akkad, King of Kar-Duniash. 

V. Esarhaddon, king of the world, King of Assyria, 
the palace which is in the city Tarbigu from its founda- 
tion to its roof has caused to be built anew. 

VI. I, Esarhaddon, the great king, the powerful king, 
king of the world. King of Assyria, viceroy of Babylon, 
King of Sumer and Akkad, the palace, which is in the city 



94 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

Tarbiqu, for a dwelling-place for Ashurbanipal constructed, 
I brought to a state of completion. 

VII. I, Esarhaddon, the g^eat king, the powerful king, 
king of the world, King of Assyria, viceroy of Babylon, 
King of Sumer and Akkad, king of the kings of Egypt, of 
Pathros, and Cush, the palace, which is in the city Tarbiqu, 
for a dwelling-place for Ashurbanipal, the prince of the 
harem, the son of my heart, constructed, I brought to a 
state of completion. 

VIII. For Marduk, his lord Esarhaddon, King of As- 
syria, King of Babylon, caused the burned brick of Esagila 
and Etemenanki to be made anew. 

IX. Palace of Esarhaddon, the great king, the power- 
ful king, king of the world. King of Assyria, viceroy of 
Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, who built the Temple 
of Ashur, rebuilt Esagila and Babylon, repaired the image 
of the great gods. King of Egypt, who bound (as a captive) 
the King of Meluhha, king of the four quarters of the 
world, son of Sennacherib, king of the world. King of 
Assyria, son of Sargon, king of the world. King of Assyria. 



ANNALS OF ASHURBANIPAL 
(668-626 B. c.) 

From the Rassam Cylinder 

I AM Ashurbanipal, the offspring of Ashur and Beltis, 
the great crown-prince of the harem, whom Ashur and 
Sin, lord of the moon's disk, named for kingship in the 
distant past, and whom they formed in his mother's womb 
for lordship over Assyria, and whom Shamash, Ramman, 
and Ishtar, in accordance with their unchanging decisions 
have commanded to exercise sovereignty. Esarhaddon, 
King of Assyria, the father who begat me, honoured the 



ANNALS OF ASHURBANIPAL 



95 



command of Ashur and Beltis, the gods who supported 
him, who commanded him that I should exercise sover- 
eignty. In the month of lyyar, the month of Ea, lord of 
mankind, on the twelfth day, an auspicious day, at the feast 
of Gula, in order to carry out the exalted command which 
Ashur, Beltis, Sin, Shamash, Ramman, Bel, Nabu, Ishtar 
of Nineveh, Queen of Kidmuru, Ishtar of Arbela, Ninib, 
Nergal, and Nusku had issued, he (i. e., Esarhaddon) as- 
sembled the people of Assyria, both great and small, from 
the Upper Sea even to the Lower Sea. In order to confirm 
me in my position as crown-prince and in the exercise of 
the sovereignty of Assyria later on, he made them swear 
allegiance by the gods and made the league firm. 

I entered with joy and rejoicing into the harem, the 
artistic place, the headquarters of royalty, wherein Sen- 
nacherib, my grandfather, had exercised authority as 
crown-prince and as king; wherein Esarhaddon, my 
father, was born, and grew up, and exercised lordship over 
Assyria, and ruled over all princes, and increased the family, 
and gathered together kinsmen and relatives; and I, 
Ashurbanipal, therein acquired the wisdom of Nabu, 
learned all the knowledge of writing of all the scribes, as 
many as there were, and learned how to shoot with the 
bow, to ride on horses and in chariots and to hold the 
reins. By the command of the great gods, whose names 
I called upon, whose glory I proclaimed, and who com- 
manded that I should exercise sovereignty, and intrusted 
to me the restoration of their shrines, while in my stead 
they met my enemies, and overthrew my adversaries, I 
am a warlike man, the favourite of Ashur and Ishtar, a 
man of royal descent. 

From the time that Ashur, Sin, Shamash, Ramman, 
Bel, Nabu, Ishtar of Nineveh, Queen of Kidmuri, Ishtar 
of Arbela, Ninib, Nergal, and Nusku graciously established 
me upon the throne of my father, Ramman has let loose 
his showers, and Ea has opened up his springs; the grain 
has grown to a height of five yards, the ears have been 
five sixths of a yard long, the produce of the land — the 



g6 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

increase of Nisaba — has been abundant, the land has con- 
stantly yielded heavily, the fruit trees have borne fruit 
richly, and the cattle have done well in bearing. During 
my reign plenty abounded; during my years abundance 
prevailed. 

In my first campaign * I marched to Makan and 
Meluhha. Tirhaka, King of Egypt and Ethiopia, whose 
defeat Esarhaddon, my father, had brought about, and 
whose land he had taken possession of — he, Tirhaka, for- 
got the power of Ashur, Ishtar, and the great gods, my 
lords, and trusted in his own forces. He marched against 
the kings, the prefects, whom my father had appointed in 
Egypt, in order to slay and plunder and to take Egypt; 
against them he went in and settled in Memphis, a city 
which my father had conquered and added to the territory 
of Assyria. A swift messenger came to Nineveh and 
brought me the tidings. My heart raged at these deeds, 
and my feelings were wrought up. I lifted my hands and 
prayed to Ashur and Ishtar, of Assyria. I mustered my 
splendid troops which Ashur and Ishtar had intrusted to 
me, and I ordered the march to Egypt and Ethiopia. 

In the course of my campaign * twenty-two kings from 
the sea-coast, the islands and the inland, who were sub- 

' For the date of the Egyptian campaigns, compare the following 
letter : 

To the king of the countries, my lord, (from) thy servant Kudurru. 
May Ashur, Shamash, and Marduk, bless the king, my lord ! After the 
king, my lord, went to Egypt, in the month Tammuz an eclipse occurred. 

A variant gives a more detailed account of Esarhaddon's conquest of 
Egypt : 

Esarhaddon, King of Assyria, my father, had marched and entered 
therein. He brought about the defeat of Tirhaka, King of Ethiopia, and 
shattered his might. He conquered Egypt and Ethiopia and carried away 
thence incalculable booty. He took possession of that land throughout 
its extent and added it to the territory of Assyria. He changed the for- 
mer names of its cities and named them afresh. He appointed his serv- 
ants therein as kings and prefects, and he established the annual tribute 
and taxes of his lordship upon them. 

* A parallel passage gives the names of the twenty-two kings spoken 
of above : 

Ba'al, King of Tyre ; Manasseh, King of Judah ; QaUshgabri, King of 
Edom ; Mu9uri, King of Moab ; Qil-Ba'al, King of Gaza ; Mitinti, King 



ANNALS OF ASHURBANIPAL 



97 



ordinate to me, brought their heavy tribute into my pres- 
ence and kissed my feet. Those kings, together with their 
troops and their ships, I put in motion by land and water 
along with my troops. I marched in haste to the help 
and support of the kings and prefects who were in Egyp^, 
and were subject to me, and I arrived at Karbaniti. 

Tirhaka, King of Egypt and Ethiopia, heard in Mem- 
phis of the progress of my campaign, and summoned his 
warriors to prepare battle, weapons, and war in my front. 
Under the protection of Ashur, Bel, and Nabu, the great 
gods, my lords, who walked at my side, in battle upon 
the wide field I inflicted defeat upon his forces. Tirhaka 
heard in Memphis of the overthrow of his forces. The 
brilliancy of Ashur and Ishtar overwhelmed him, and he 
lost control of himself. The splendour of my kingship, 
wherewith the gods of heaven and earth have adorned me, 
fell upon him, and he abandoned Memphis and fled into 
Thebes in order to save his life. I captured that city, 
brought my forces into it, and settled them therein. 
Necho, King of Memphis and Sais; Sharruludari, King of 
^inu; Pishanhuru, King of Nathu; Pakruru, King of 
Pishaptu; Bukkunannipi, King of Athribis; Nahke, King 
of Hininshi; Putubishti, King of Tanis; Unamunu, King 
of Nathu; Harsiaeshu, King of Zabnuti; Buaima, King of 
Bindidi; Susinqu, King of Bushiru; Tabnahti, King of 
Bunubu; Bukkunannipi, King of Ahni; Iptihardishu, 
King of Pihattihurunpiki; Nahtihuruansini, King of 
Pishabdia; Bukurninip, King of Pahnuti; Qiha, King of 
Shiautu; Lamentu, King of Himuni; Ishpimatu, King of 
Taini; and Mantimeanhi, King of Thebes — ^these kings, 
governors, and prefects, whom my father had appointed in 
Egypt, and who had fled from their posts before the ad- 

of Askelon ; Ikalishu, King of Ekron ; Melkiashapa, King of Gublu ; 
Yakinlu, King of Arwada ; Abiba'al, King of Samsimuruna ; Amminadbi, 
King of Beth-Ammon ; Ahimilki, King of Ashdod ; Ekishtura, King of 
Edial ; Pilagura, King of Kitrusu ; Kisu, King of Silua ; Ituandar, King 
of Pappa ; Eresu, King of Sillu ; Damasu, King of Kuri ; Adraesu, King 
of Tamesu ; Damusu, King of Qartihadastu ; Unasagusu, King of Sidir ; 
BU9USU, King of Nuri — in all, twenty-two kings of the sea-coast. 

7 



98 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

vance of Tirhaka and filled the open field, I led back and 
I restored them to their appointments in their stations. I 
again took possession of Egypt and Ethiopia, which my 
father had conquered. I made the garrisons stronger than 
before, and made the bonds firm. I returned safely to 
Nineveh with much plunder and heavy spoils. 

Afterward those kings, as many as I had appointed, 
•violated their covenants with me, disregarded the oath 
sworn by the great gods, forgot the favour which I had 
shown to them, and their hearts devised evil and they gave 
vent to rebellious utterances and formed treacherous (?) 
plans among themselves, saying, " If they drive Tirhaka 
out of Egypt, how then can we remain? " They sent their 
messengers to Tirhaka, King of Ethiopia, to make a com- 
pact and a league, saying: " Let a league be established be- 
tween us and let us be a help to each other. If we divide 
the country among ourselves, then there shall not be an- 
other lord between us." They devised an evil plot against 
the troops of Assyria, the power of my lordship, which 
I had stationed there in accordance with their league. 

My military governors heard of these things. They 
intercepted their messengers together with their de- 
spatches, and learned their rebellious deeds. They seized 
these kings and bound them hand and foot in bonds of 
■ iron and fetters of iron. The oath by Ashur, king of the 
gods, conquered them and I avenged myself upon those 
' who had violated the covenant sworn to by the great gods, 
for the kindness and the favour which I had shown them. 

The inhabitants of Sais also, and Mendes, and Tanis, 
and the rest of the cities, as many as had sided with them 
and plotted evil, they (i.e., the generals) destroyed with 
weapons, both small and great, and left not a man in them. 
They hung their corpses on gibbets, stripped off their 
skins, and therewith covered the wall of the city. Those 
kings who had plotted evil against the forces of Assyria 
they brought alive to Nineveh into my presence. I showed 
mercy to Necho alone from among them, and I let him 
live. I made the covenant stricter than before, and rati- 



ANNALS OF ASHURBANIPAL 



99 



fied it with him. I clothed him with party-coloured rai- 
ment; I put a chain of gold upon him as the insignia of 
his sovereignty; I encircled his fingers with rings of gold; 
I gave him for his girdle an iron dagger overlaid with gold, 
on which I had written my name; and I presented him 
with chariots and with horses and mules for the convey- 
ance of his lordship. I sent my military officer and pre- 
fects with him according to his agreement. I returned 
him to his post in Sals, where my father had appointed him 
to sovereignty, and I appointed Nabushezibanni, his son, 
over the city Athribis. I showed him more kindness and 
favour than my father had shown him. 

The terrible might of the weapons of Ashur, my lord, 
overwhelmed Tirhaka where he had fled, and he went to 
his black fate (i. e., to death). Afterward Urdamani, son 
of Shabako, took his seat upon his royal throne, made 
Thebes and On his strongholds, and collected his forces. 
He set his battle in motion to fight with my troops, men of 
Assyria, which were in Memphis. He shut those men in 
and cut ofif their escape. A swift messenger came to Nine- 
veh and informed me. 

In my second campaign I directed the march to Egypt 
and Ethiopia. Urdamani heard of the approach of my 
campaign and when I trod upon the border of Egypt hfe 
abandoned Memphis and fled into Thebes in order to save 
his life. The kings, governors, and prefects whom I had 
established in Egypt came into my presence and kissed 
my feet. I took up the march after Urdamani ^ and came 
to Thebes, his fortress. He saw the advance of my mighty 
battle-array, abandoned Thebes, and fled to Kipkip. That 
entire city, under the protection of Ashur and Ishtar, my 
hands captured. 

(I seized) silver, gold, precious stones, the contents of 
his palace — ^all that there was: party-coloured raiment, 

■ A parallel account of the flight and pursuit of Urdamani reads : 
Urdamani fled alone and entered into Thebes, his royal city. For a 
journey of one month and ten days they marched after him by difScult 
roads as far as Thebes. They conquered that city throughout its extent 
and overthrew it like a whirlwind. 



lOO ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

cloth, great horses, aiid people, male and female. Two 
tall obelisks made of bright zahalu, whose weight was 
twenty-five hundred talents, which stood before the gate 
of the temple, I removed from their place, and took to 
Assyria. Heavy spoils without number I carried off from 
Thebes. Over Egypt and Ethiopia I made my weapons 
rage, and established my might. With full hands I re- 
turned in safety to Nineveh, my capital. 

In my third campaign I marched against Ba'al, King of 
Tyre, who dwelt in the midst of the sea; who had dis- 
regarded my royal command and had not listened to the 
words of my lips. I constructed bulwarks against him, 
and I seized his approaches on sea and land.^ I beset 
their lives, brought them into dire straits, and made them 
submit to my yoke. A daughter, sprung from his own 
body, and his brother's daughters he brought to me to 
serve as concubines. At the same time he caused Yahim- 
ilki, his son, who had never before crossed the sea, to be 
brought to me to be my servant. I received his daughter 
and his brother's daughters from him with rich dowry; 
but I showed him mercy and gave back to him the son 
sprung from his own body.^ 

Yakinlu, King of Arwad, who dwelt in the midst of 
the sea, who had not been subject to the kings, my fathers, 
submitted himself to my yoke, brought his daughter with 
a large dowry to Nineveh to be my concubine, and kissed 
my feet. 

• A parallel passage inserts here : 

I hemmed in his way ; food and drink for the support of their lives I 
made scarce in their mouths ; and I surrounded them with a strong in- 
vestment from which there was no escape. 

* A parallel passage reads : 

I gave back and showed him mercy. I broke through the siege-walls 
which I had constructed against Ba'al, King of Tyre, and I opened up 
his approaches on sea and land, all that 1 had seized. I received heavy 
tribute from him and I returned in safety to Nineveh, the city of my lord- 
ship. The princes (dwelling) in the midst of the sea and the king's dwell- 
ing on the lofty mountains saw the might of these deeds of mine, and 
they feared my lordship. Yakinlu, King of Arwad, and Mukallu, King 
of Tabal, who had not submitted to the kings, my fathers, submitted to 
my yoke. 



ANNALS OF ASHURBANIPAL loi 

Mukallu, King of Tabal,* who had devised hostility 
against the kings, my fathers, brought a daughter, sprung 
from his own body, with a rich portion to Nineveh to be 
my concubine, and kissed my feet. Upon Mukallu I laid 
annual tribute of large horses. 

Sandasarme, the Cilician, who had not been subject to 
the kings, my fathers, and had not borne their yoke, brought 
a daughter, sprung from his own body, with a large dowry 
to Nineveh to be my concubine, and kissed my feet. 

After I had overthrown the land of Yakinlu, King of 
Arwad, Aziba'al, Abiba'al, Aduniba'al, Sapadiba'al, Budi- 
ba'al, Ba'aljashubu, Ba'alhanunu, Ba'almaluku, Abimilki, 
and Ahimilki, the sons of Yakinlu, who dwelt in the midst of 
the sea, rose up from the midst of the sea, and came with 
their heavy presents, and kissed my feet. I looked with 
pleasure upon Aziba'al, and established him as king over 
Arwad. Abiba'al, Aduniba'al, Sapadiba'al, Budiba'al, Ba'al- 
jashubu, Ba'alhanunu, Ba'almaluku, Abimilki, and Ahimilki 
I clothed in party-coloured raiment, and encircled their 
fingers with gold rings, and made them stand before me. 

Ashur, the god, my creator, revealed my name in a 
dream to Gyges,^ King of Lydia, a region which is across 

' A parallel passage reads : 

As for Mukallu, King of [ ], who dwelt in the mountains and 

impassable hills, who had sent weapons against the kings, my fathers, 
and had planned hostility — in his own land terror overcame him and the 
fear of my sovereignty overwhelmed him, and, without making an attack 
with weapons and war, he sent to Nineveh and besought my lordship. 
Large horses I required of him as tribute — the gift of his country. Ikkilu, 
King of Arwad, who dwelt in the wide sea, who had fixed his dwelling 
like a fish in immeasurable waters, * * * mighty floods, who had pre- 
sumptuously trusted to the raging sea, and had not submitted to my yoke, 
accepted my lordship, and bowed himself to become my servant and 
drew my yoke. I laid upon him yearly tribute of gold, violet-purple 
wool, red-purple wool, fish, and birds. 

' A parallel passage reads : 

He came (?) to the border of my land, to the people of my land. They 
said, " Who art thou, O stranger, into whose land no rider has ever made 
his way?" They brought him to Nineveh, the city of my lordship, * * * 
into my presence. Of the languages of the east and of the west, which 
Ashur had committed to my hands, there was none that was master of 
his language, and no one had heard his language. * * * From the border 
of the land * * * with him he brought * * *. 



102 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

the sea, a far-off place, of whose name the kings, my 
fathers, had heard no mention, saying, " Lay hold of the 
feet of Ashurbanipal, King of Assyria, and through the 
influence of his name conquer thy enemies." On the 
very day on which he saw this vision he sent his messenger 
to ask after my welfare. This vision which he had seen 
he sent by his messenger and repeated to me.* From the 
very day on which he laid hold of my royal feet he con- 
quered the Cimmerians, who had been oppressing the 
people of his land, and had not feared the kings, my 
fathers, nor even laid hold of my royal feet. Under the 
protection of Ashur and Ishtar, the gods, my lords, from 
among the governors of the Cimmerians whom he had 
conquered, two he bound in bonds, with chains and fet- 
ters of iron, and had them brought into my presence to- 
gether with a heavy gift from himself. (However) he 
discontinued his messenger whom he had continually sent 
to ask after my welfare. Because he did not keep the com- 
mand of Ashur, my creator, he trusted in his own strengfth, 
while his heart became scornful, and he sent his forces to 
an alliance with Psammetichus, King of Egypt, who had 
thrown .off the yoke of my lordship. I heard of it and 
prayed to Ashur and Ishtar, as follows: " May his corpse 
be cast before his enemies, and may they carry away his 
bones! " Just as I had prayed to Ashur it was fulfilled; 
before his enemies his corpse was cast, and they carried 
off his bones. The Cimmerians, whom through my name 
he had trodden under foot, advanced and raided his whole 
land. After him his son took his seat upon his throne. 
Through his messenger he sent me tidings of the disas- 

' A parallel account adds at this point : 

The people who dwelt in Kirbit, which is situated in Halehasta, 
trusted to their inaccessible mountains, and did not fear the lordship of 
Assyria. Tandai, their governor, who had not submitted to the yoke of 
the kings, my fathers, constantly plundered the land of Yamutbala and 
laid it in ruins. On account of these deeds, the people of Dur-ilu sent to 
me and besought my lordship. I sent my military governors and my 
prefects against them ; they conquered Kirbit and carried away its people 
as spoil. I uprooted the people of those towns which my hands had con- 
quered and I made them dwell in Egypt. 



ANNALS OF ASHURBANIPAL 



103 



trous calamity which, in answer to niy prayer, the gods — 
my supporters — had brought upon his father, who begat 
him, and he laid hold of my royal feet, saying: " A king 
upon whom the god looks with favour art thou ; my father 
thou didst curse and calamity befell him. But as for me — a 
slave who fears thee — bless me and I will be tributary to 
thee." 

In my fourth campaign I mustered my troops and 
directed the march against Ahsheri, King of Mannai. By 
the command of Ashur, Sin, Shamash, Ramman, Bel, 
Nabu, Ishtar of Nineveh, Ninib, Nergal, and Nusku, I en- 
tered the land of Mannai and marched through it victori- 
ously. Its cities, great and small, which were without 
number, as far as Izirtu, I captured, I destroyed, I devas- 
tated, I burned with fire. I brought forth people, horses, 
asses, cattle, and sheep from within those cities, and 
counted them as spoil.* Ahsheri heard of the progress of 
my campaign and abandoned Izirtu, his royal city. He 

' A parallel passage reads as follows : 

Ahsheri heard of the progress of my campaign and despatched his 
troops. In the course of the night they advanced in a cunning manner 
in order to offer battle and fight against ray troops. My warriors fought 
with them and inflicted defeat upon them. For a distance of three double 
leagues of ground they filled the broad plain with their bodies. By the 
command of Ashur, Sin, and Shamash, the great gods, my lords, who sup- 
ported me, I entered into Mannai and marched through it victoriously. In 
the course of my campaign I conquered Aiusiash, a fortress, Pashatgu (?), 
Pusutu, Ashdiash, Urkiamun, Uppish, Sihua, Naziniri — eight strong 
cities and also little ones without number as far as Izirtu ; I destroyed, 
devastated, and burned them with fire. I brought forth men, horses, 
asses, cattle, and sheep from within those cities and counted them as spoil. 

Ahsheri heard of the progress of my campaign and abandoned Izirtu, 
his royal city, and fied to Atrana, his fortress, and took refuge. I sur- 
rounded Izirtu, Urmeate, and Uzbia, his strongholds. I shut in the 
inhabitants of those cities, straitened their existence, and brought them 
into distress. That district I conquered, I destroyed, I devastated, and 
burned with fire. I laid it waste for a distance of fifteen days' march and 
poured out disaster upon it. In the course of my campaign I conquered 
the cities in the vicinity of Padiri, which the Mannai had taken away 
during the reign of the kings, my fathers, and had joined to themselves ; 
and I burned them with fire and carried away their spoil. I added those 
cities to the territory of Assyria. I swept over the district of Arsianish, 
which is between Aiqanani, which is in Harsishadi, which is at the top of 
Kumurdai, which is in Mannai, and I burned it with fire. I killed Raidi- 



104 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

fled to Ishtatti, a city in which he trusted, and took refuge 
there. I conquered that region, laid it waste for a dis- 
tance of fifteen days' march, and poured disaster upon it. 
As for Ahsheri, who did not fear my lordship — ^in accord- 
ance with the word of Ishtar who dwells in Arbela, who 
had said from the beginning, " I will bring about the death 
of Ahsheri, King of Mannai, according as I have said," she 
delivered him into the hands of his servants, and the people 
of his land made a revolt against him. On the street of 
his city they cast his corpse and left his body lie. With 
my weapons I struck down his brother, his family, and the 
members of his father's house. Afterward I placed Ualli, 
his son, upon his throne. He saw the might of Ashur, 
Sin, Shamash, Ramman, Bel, Nabu, Ishtar of Nineveh, 
Queen of Kidmuri, Ishtar of Arbela, Ninib, Nergal, and 
Nusku, the great gods, my lords, and he submitted to my 
yoke. In order to retain his life he confessed his sin and 
besought my lordship. He sent Irisinni, a son whom he 
had begotten, to Nineveh, and kissed my feet. I showed 
him mercy and sent my messenger with greetings of peace 
to him. He sent a daughter, sprung from his own body, 
to Nineveh to be my concubine. They brought to me 
his former tribute, which he had stopped during the reigns 
of the kings, my fathers. I added thirty horses to his 
former tribute, and laid it upon him.* 

shadi, the commander of their fortresses, and I carried ofif his spoil. I 
conquered the district of Erishteana, swept over its cities, burned it with 
fire, and carried off its spoil. In the onset of my battle I laid waste his 
district and diminished his whole country. With much plunder and a 
heavy present I returned in safety and trod the border of Assyria. * * » 
-rua, Sharruiqbi, Gusune, and • * • -rute — towns adjacent to Assyria, 
which the Mannai had taken away in the reigns of the kings, my fathers 
— those habitations I conquered. I uprooted the Mannai from within 
them. Horses and weapons, their tools of war, I carried away to Assyria. 
I took those cities in possession again and added them to the territory of 
Assyria. As for Ahsheri, who did not fear my lordship — * * * Ishtar 
delivered him into the hands of his subjects ; the people of his land made 
a revolt against him, etc. 

' Another account inserts the following additional narrative here be- 
fore the campaign against Teumman : 

In those days I conquered seventy-five strong cities of Birizhadra, a 
city ruler of the Medes, and Sarati and Parihia, sons of Gagi, city rulers 



ANNALS OF ASHURBANIPAL loj 

In my fifth campaign I directed the march to Elam. 
By the command of Ashur, Sin, Shamash, Ramman, Bel, 
Nabu, Ishtar of Nineveh, Queen of Kidmuri, Ishtar of 
Arbela, Ninib, Nergal, and Nusku, in the month Elul, the 

of the land of Sahi, who had cast off the yoke of my lordship, and I carried 
away their spoil. Them themselves I seized alive with my own hands 
and brought to Nineveh, the city of my lordship. 

As for Andaria, the prefect of Lubdi, who had marched and advanced 
by night to capture Ubbume and Kullimeri — the inhabitants of Kulli- 
meri, servants subject to me, inflicted great slaughter upon him in the 
night ; they let not one escape. They cut off the head of Andaria and 
brought it to Nineveh into my presence. 

In my sixth campaign I went against Urtaku, King of Elam, who had 
not considered the good which my father had done him and had not kept 
friendship (with me). At a time when famine prevailed and hunger 
existed in Elam, I had had corn taken to him for the sustenance of the 
people's lives, and I had seized his hand (i. e., supported him). His peo- 
ple who had fled from before the famine and had settled in Assyria until 
rain should fall in his land and there should be a harvest — those people 
who had sustained their lives in my land I had had taken to him and 
* * * [next fifteen lines badly broken]. 

I despatched and sent my messenger. He went and returned and 
related to me repeatedly as follows : " The EUamite covers Akkad like 
a swarm of grasshoppers * * * ; against Babylon he pitches his camp 
and lays siege." To the help of Bel and Nabu, my gods whose duty I 
reverenced, I mustered my men of war and took the way. He heard of 
the approach of my campaign and terror overwhelmed him, and he turned 
back to his own land. I took (the way) after him, brought about his 
defeat, and drove him to the border of his own land. Urtaki, King of 
Elam, who had not kept friendship (with me), in a day not destined 
for him, death * * * ; in pain he perished * * *. In the ground of life 
his feet * * *. In this year he lost(?) his life. Bel-iqisha, a Gambu- 
lian, who had cast off the yoke of my lordship, lost his life through the 
bite of a wild boar. Nabu-shum-eresh, the TIG.EN.NA, who did not 
keep the covenant, bore dropsy and full waters. Upon Marduk-shum- 
ibni, his military governor, who had led him astray and who had brought 
evil upon Urtake, Marduk, king of the gods, laid his great sins. In one 
year they laid down their lives in each other's presence. The angry heart 
of Ashur did not rest with reference to them ; the passion of Ishtar who 
supported me was not soothed with reference to them. They overthrew 
his royal reign and caused another to take the lordship of Elam. After- 
ward Teumman, like a demon, took his seat upon the throne of Urtake. 
In order to kill the sons of Urtake and the sons of Ummanaldash, Urtake's 
brother, he devised evil. Ummanigash, Ummanappa, and Tammaritu, 
the sons of Urtake, King of Elam, and Kudurru and Paru, the sons of 
Ummanaldash, the king who preceded Urtake, and sixty of the royal 
seed, and archers without number — the nobles of Elam, who had fled 
from before the murder of Teumman, their uncle, seized my royal 
feet. 



I06 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

(month of the) mission of the goddesses, the month of 
Ashur, the king of the gods, the father of the gods, great 
in lordship, Hke the onset of a mighty storm I covered the 
land of Elam throughout its extent. I cut off the head 
of Teumman, their king, the rebel who had devised evil.^ 
I slew his warriors without number. I carried away his 
soldiers alive in my hands. I filled the plain around Susa 
with their bodies like as with thorns and thistles. I made 
their blood flow down the river Eulaus, and dyed its water 
like wool. Ummanigash, son of Urtaki, King of Elam, 
who had fled to Assyria from before Teumman and had 
seized my feet, I brought with me to Elam and set him 
on the throne of Teumman. Tammaritu, his third 
brother, who had fled with him, I established as king in 
Hidalu. 

After I had made the weapons of Ashur and Ishtar rage 
over Elam, and had manifested might and power, I turned 
my face on my return against Dunanu of Gambulu, who 
had trusted in Elam. I conquered Shapibel, the fortress 
of Gambulu. I entered into that town; I slaughtered its 
inhabitants like wild animals. Dunanu and Samg^nu, 
who had obstructed the exercise of my sovereignty, I 
bound hand and foot in bonds, iron fetters, and iron man- 
acles. I led away from Gambulu to Assyria as booty the 
rest of the children of Beliqisha, his family, the members 
of his father's house, as many as there were, Nabunaid and 

' The following inscription is written over figures of two men, one of 
whom is wounded by an arrow and the other is standing with bow 
stretched : 

Teumman, in the depths of despair said to his son, " Shoot with the 
bow." 

This is written over two figures of men who have been beheaded : 

Teumman, King of Elam, who was wounded in my powerful battle. 
Tamritu, his oldest son, seized his hand, and, to save their lives, they 
fled and hid themselves in a forest. Under the protection of Ashur and 
Ishtar, I bound them and cut off their heads in each other's presence. 

Written above the figure of a man in a chariot holding the head of a 
man in his hands : 

The head of Teumman, King of Elam, which the ahurru of my troops 
cut off in battle, they brought hastily to Assyria as a message of joyful 
tidings. 



ANNALS OF ASHURBANIPAL 107 

Beletir, the sons of Nabushumerish, the TIG.EN.NA, 
and the bones of their father, together with Urbi and Tebe, 
people of Gambulu, and oxen, sheep, asses, horses, and 
mules. His fortress Shapibel I destroyed, I tore down, 
and I ruined with water. 

At that time Shamash-shum-ukin, the faithless brother, 
to whom I had done good, and whom I had estab- 
lished as King of Babylon, and for whom I had made 
every possible kind of royal decoration, and had given 
him, and had gathered together soldiers, horses, and 
chariots, and had intrusted them to him, and had given 
him cities, fields, and woods, and the men dwelling in 
them, even more than my father had commanded — even 
he forgot that favour I had shown him, and he planned 
evil. Outwardly with his lips he spoke friendly things, 
while inwardly his heart plotted murder. He spoke 
deceitfully with the Babylonians, who were subject to 
Assyria and servants yielding obedience to me, and he 
planned treachery with them. He sent them to me at 
Nineveh in order to greet me with a cunning message. 
I, Ashurbanipal, King of Assyria, to whom the great gods 
have allotted a favourable fate and whom they created in 
truth and righteousness, made these Babylonians sit at a 
dainty table, arrayed them in clothing of party-coloured 
stuffs, and encircled their fingers with rings of gold, as 
long as these Babylonians remained in Assyria in order 
to wait for an expression of my will. But he, Shamash- 
shum-ukin, my faithless brother, who had violated the 
treaty with me, stirred up a revolt against me among the 
people of Akkad, Kaldu, and the sea-land from Aqaba as 
far as Bab-salimeti — servants who were subject to me. 
Ummanigash, also, a fugitive who had seized my royal 
feet, and whom I had established as king in Elam, and the 
kings of Guti, the west-land, and Meluhhu, whom my 
hands had established by the command of Ashur and Bel- 
tis — all of them he aroused to hostility against me, and 
they made common cause with him. He barred the city 
gates of Sippar, Babylon, and Borsippa, and broke off 



Io8 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

fraternal relations (with me). He made his warriors go up 
upon the walls of these towns, and they began war against 
me. He ceased offering sacrifices for me before Bel, the 
son of Bel, the light of the gods, Shamash, and the war- 
rior Gira; and he discontinued the giving of my sacrifices. 
He plotted evil in order to seize the cities, the dwellings of 
the great gods, whose shrines I had renewed and had re- 
stored with gold and silver, and had placed decorations in 
them. 

At that time a certain seer was l)ang asleep during the 
night, and he saw a vision, thus: ^ On the disk of Sin (the 
moon) there was written as follows: "Whoever plots evil 
against Ashurbanipal, King of Assyria, and begins hos- 
tilities against him, I will send an evil death upon. I will 
bring his life to an end by the swift, iron dagger, the fire- 
brand, famine, or the devastation of Gira " (i. e., the pest- 
god). I heard these things and I trusted in the word of 
Sin, my lord. 

In my sixth campaign I mustered my troops and 
directed the march against Shamash-shum-ukin. I shut 
him up, together with his warriors, in Sippar, Babylon, 
Borsippa, and Kutha, and cut off their escape. In city and 
field I brought defeat upon them without number. The 
rest perished by the scourge of Gira, by hunger, and 
famine. 

Against Ummanigash, King of Elam, the creature of 
my hands who had accepted a bribe from him (i. e., Sha- 
mash-shum-ukin) and had come to an alliance with him, 
Tammaritu revolted and slew both him and his family 
with the sword. Thereupon Tammaritu, who took his 
seat upon the throne of Elam after Ummanigash, did not 
send to greet me, the king, but went to the help of Sha- 
mash-shum-ukin, my hostile brother, and hastened his 
weapons to battle with my troops. In consequence of 
the prayers which I had offered to Ashur and Ishtar, they 

' A variant reads : 

Nabu, the scribe of every kind of divine work, stood and read a writ- 
ing on the disk of Sin (that is, the moon). 



ANNALS OF ASHURBANIPAL 



109 



received my petitions and heard the utterance of my lips. 
Indabigash, his servant, rebelled against him, and brought 
about his defeat in the battlefield. Tammaritu, King of 
Elam, who had already spoken with insolence concerning 
the beheading of Teumman, whom my troops had be- 
headed ahurru, saying, " Will they behead the King of 
Elam in his own country in the midst of his troops? " 
spoke for the second time, saying, " How has Ummani- 
gash kissed the ground before the messenger of Ashur- 
banipal. King of Assyria! " Ashur and Ishtar punished 
him for those words which he had recklessly spoken, and 
Tammaritu, with his brother, his family, the offspring of 
his father's house, and eighty-five princes who walked at 
his side, were put to flight before Indabigash. Their 
hearts boiled with rage, and they came to Nineveh. Tam- 
maritu kissed my royal feet and swept the ground with his 
beard; threw himself beneath my wheels and of his own 
accord determined to serve me. By the command of 
Ashur and Ishtar he besought my lordship to secure him 
his rights and go to his aid, standing before me and prais- 
ing the strength of the mighty gods, my lords, who had 
come to my help. I, Ashurbanipal, the great-hearted, 
who bears no grudge against the violent, and who con- 
dones rebellion, showed mercy to Tammaritu and placed 
him, together with the children of his father's house, within 
my palace. 

At that time famine laid hold of the people of Akkad 
who had sided with Shamash-shum-ukin and had plotted 
evil, and they ate the flesh of their sons and daughters in 
order to satisfy their hunger, and they cut open their 
stomachs (?). Ashur, Sin, Shamash, Ramman, Bel, Nabu, 
Ishtar of Nineveh, Queen of Kidmuri, , Ishtar of Arbela, 
Ninib, Nergal, and Nusku, who went before me and sub- 
dued my foes, threw Shamash-shum-ukin, the hostile 
brother who had attacked me, into an abyss of burning fire 
and destroyed his life. But as for the men who had 
formed plans against Shamash-shum-ukin, the hostile 
brother, and had accomplished this wicked deed, who 



no ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

feared death, and whose life was precious in their own eyes 
so that they had not thrown themselves into the fire with 
Shamash-shum-ukin, their lord; who had fled from before 
the slaughter of iron dagger, hunger, famine, and burning 
fire, and had seized a place of refuge — the net of the great 
gods, my lords, from which there is no escape, overthrew 
them; not one escaped; not a rebel went forth from my 
hands; they (i. e., the gods) delivered them into my hands. 
They brought before me chariots, a state carriage, a can- 
opy, his wives, and the property of his palace. I cut out 
the tongues of those soldiers in whose mouths was inso- 
lence because they had spoken insolence against Ashur, 
my lord, and had plotted evil against me, the prince who 
fears him; and I murdered them. As for the rest of the 
men who were alive, by the bull-colossi, where my grand- 
father, Sennacherib, had made a slaughter, there I at that 
time slew those men as a lamentation for him. I let dogs, 
swine, vultures (?), eagles, birds of the heavens, and fish of 
the ocean eat their flesh, which was cut off. 

After I had done these things and had pacified the 
hearts of the great gods, my lords, I brought forth from 
Babylon, Kutha, and Sippar, and threw into heaps the bones 
of the bodies of the men whom Gira had destroyed, and 
those who had died of hunger and famine — ^the remnant 
of the food of the dogs and swine which choked the streets 
and filled the broad spaces. By the work of the priest- 
hood I purified their shrines and cleansed their defiled 
streets. I pacified their enraged gods and angry god- 
desses with a dirge and penitential prayers. I completely 
restored and re-established like as in former days their 
cultus which had been diminished. I showed favour to 
the rest of the inhabitants of Babylon, Kutha, and Sippar, 
who had escaped slaughter, massacre, and famine; and I 
commanded that they should be allowed to live, and made 
them dwell in Babylon. 

The men of Akkad, with those of Kaldu, Aramu, and 
the sea-coast, whom Shamash-shum-ukin had allied to 
himself and had made of one mind, became hostile to me 



ANNALS OF ASHURBANIPAL m 

of their own accord. By the command of Ashur and Bel- 
tis and the great gods, my supporters, I completely sub- 
dued them all and laid upon them the yoke of Ashur which 
they had cast oflf. I set over them governors and prefects 
appointed by my hands. I laid upon them the former con- 
tinual and regular sacrifices to Ashur and Beltis and the 
gods of Assyria. I levied on them tribute and taxes to me 
as lord (to be paid) yearly without fail. 

In my seventh campaign, in the month of Siwan, the 
month of Sin, the lord of decisions, the first-born son and 
prince of Bel, I mustered my troops and directed the 
march against Ummanaldash, King of Elam.^ I took 
with me Tammaritu, King of Elam, who had fled from be- 
fore Indabigash, his servant, and had laid hold of my feet. 
The men of Hilmu, Billati, Dummuqu, Sulai, Lahira, and 
Dibirina heard of the advance of my mighty battle-array 

' The course of events in Elam prior to Ashurbanipal's campaign 
against Ummanaldash is stated in a parallel inscription as follows : 

Indabigash, who had taken his seat upon the throne of Elam after 
Tammaritu, saw the might of my weapons which I had caused to rage 
over Elam in former days. Indabigash brought out from his father's 
house the Assyrians whom I had sent to an alliance with Nabu-bel-shume, 
son of Nabu-aplu-iddina, who had marched with him like a friend and com- 
panion to the protection of his country, whom Nabu-bel-shume had seized 
by treachery and had taken with him into captivity. In order to secure 
favour * * * his kindness * • * from the border of his land he brought 
before me by the hands of his messengers in order to establish a covenant 
and peace. 

Concerning Nabu-bel-shume, son of Nabu-aplu-iddina, a servant sub- 
ordinate to me, who had fled and gone to Elam, and the rest of the Assyr- 
ians whom Nabu-bel-shume had seized by treachery and taken with him, 
I sent to Indabigash by the hand of his messenger as follows : " Because 
thou dost not bring those men, I will surely come and destroy thy cities 
and carry off the inhabitants of Susa, Madaktu, and Hidalu, and hurl 
thee down from thy royal throne and set another upon thy throne, and 
bring upon thee the disaster which I inflicted upon Teumman." As for 
him, his messenger did not reach him and did not relate to him the 
expression of my will. By the command of Ashur, Sin, Shamash, Bel, 
Nabu, Ishtar of Nineveh, Ishtar of Arbela, Ninib, Nergal, and Nusku, 
who walk at my side and destroy my enemies, they heard in Elam 
of the coming of my messenger whom I had sent to Diru. The fear 
of my sovereignty wherewith the great gods had adorned me, over- 
whelmed Elam, and his land rebelled against Indabigash and they 
killed him with the sword. I set Ummanaldash, son of Attametu, upon 
his throne. 



112 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

wherewith I was approaching the land of Elam, and the 
briUiancy of Ashur and Ishtar, my lords, and the fear of 
my majesty overwhelmed them. They themselves, with 
their people, their cattle, and their sheep, hurried to As- 
syria in order to become my servants, and laid hold of my 
royal feet. 

In the course of my campaign I conquered the ancient 
Bit-Imbi, a royal city and fortress of Elam, which blocked 
the way to Elam like a great wall, which Sennacherib, 
King of Assyria, my grandfather, had conquered before 
me; but he — the Elamite — had again built a city in front 
of the ancient Bit-Imbi and had strengthened its walls and 
built its outer wall high and named it Bit-Imbi. I killed its 
inhabitants who did not come forth and greet my majesty. 
I beheaded them and cut off their lips and took them to 
Assyria as a spectacle for the people of my land. Imbappi, 
the prefect of Bit-Imbi, the son-in-law of Ummanaldash, 
King of Elam, I brought forth alive from within that city, 
and I laid fetters of iron on his hands and feet and car- 
ried him to Assyria. I brought forth the royal wife and 
the son of Teumman, King of Elam, whom I had beheaded 
in a former campaign by the command of Ashur, together 
with the rest of the inhabitants of Bit-Imbi, and I treated 
them as spoil. 

Ummanaldash, King of Elam, heard of the entrance of 
my troops, which had entered Elam, and he abandoned 
Madaktu, his royal city, and fled, and ascended his moun- 
tain. Umbahabua, who had fled to Bubilu after Elam re- 
volted and had taken his seat on the throne of Elam in- 
stead of Ummanaldash, heard thereof, like as he had, and 
abandoned Bubilu, the city of the seat of his lordship, and 
like a fish took to the bottom of distant waters. 

I led Tammaritu, who had fled and laid hold of my feet, 
into Susa, and made him king. He forgot the favour 
which I had done him in sending him help, and he formed 
an evil plot to conquer my troops. Thus he spoke in his 
own heart, " The people of Elam, in whatever direction 
they turn, are subject to Assyria, and they (i. e., the As- 



ANNALS OF ASHURBANIPAL nj 

Syrians) will come in and will plunder Elam." Ashur and 
Ishtar, who walked at my side and enabled me to stand 
against my foes, looked into the heart of Tammaritu, the 
wicked rebel, and brought him to account. They hurled 
him down from his royal throne and turned him aside a 
second time and made him bow at my feet. On account of 
these things and in the rage of my heart because the faith- 
less Tammaritu had rebelled, in the might and strength of 
the great gods, my lords, I marched victoriously through- 
out the whole extent of Elam. 

On my return in peace with full hands I turned the 
front of my yoke toward Assyria. Gatudu, Gatuduma, 
Daiba, Nadi, Duru-Amnani, Duru-Amnanima, Hamanu, 
Taraqu, Hajalilsi, Bit-Kunukkubitsu, Bit-Arrabi, Imbi, 
Madaktu, Susa, Bubi, Timmen-Marduk-sharrani, Urdalika, 
Algariga, Tubu, Tel-Tubu, Dun-sharri, Dur-Undasi, Dur- 
Undasima, Bubilu, Samunu, Bunaku, Qabrina, Qabrinama, 
Hara — these towns I conquered, destroyed, devastated, and 
burned with fire. I carried away their gods, their people, 
their cattle, their sheep, their property, their possessions, 
their wagons, their horses, their mules, their weapons, and 
their implements of war as spoil to Assyria. 

In my eighth campaign by the command of Ashur and 
Ishtar I mustered my troops and directed the march 
against Ummanaldash, King of Elam. I conquered again 
Bit-Imbi, which I had conquered in my former campaign, 
and Rashu and Hamanu with its district. Now he, Um- 
manaldash, King of Elam, heard of the capture of Rashu 
and Hamanu, and the fear of Ashur and Ishtar, who 
walked at my side, overwhelmed him. He abandoned 
Madaktu, his royal city, and fled to Dur-Undasi. He 
crossed the Idide and made that river his fortress. He 
gathered (his forces) to battle against me. I conquered 
a royal city, Naditu, with its district; I conquered Bit- 
bunaku, a royal city, with its district; I conquered Harta- 
banu, a royal city, with its district; I conquered Tubu, a 
royal city, with its district, (which) all lay in the river. I 
conquered Madaktu, a royal city, with its district; I con- 
8 



114 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

quered Haltemash, his royal city; I conquered Susa, his 
royal city; I conquered Din-Sharri, (and) Sumuntunash, 
his royal city; I conquered Pidilma, his royal city; I con- 
quered Bubilu, his royal city; and I conquered Albinak, his 
royal city. Under the protection of Ashur and Ishtar I 
pursued and marched against Ummanaldash, King of 
Elam, who had not submitted to my yoke. In the course 
of my campaign I conquered Dur-Undasi, his royal city. 
My troops saw the Idide a raging torrent, and were afraid 
of the crossing. Ishtar, who dwells in Arbela, during the 
night revealed a dream to my troops and spoke thus to 
them: " I march before Ashurbanipal, the king, whom my 
hands created." My troops trusted in that dream and 
crossed the Idide in safety. Fourteen cities, his royal 
dwelling-places, as well as small cities, which were innu- 
merable, and twelve districts which 'were all in Elam, I 
conquered, destroyed, devastated, and burned with fire. 
I turned them into mounds and plough-land. I killed his 
warriors without number, and slew his proud soldiers with 
weapons. Ummanaldash, King of Elam, fled in his cha- 
grin and seized a mountain. I conquered Banunu and the 
districts of Tasarra in their entirety. I conquered twenty 
cities in the districts of Hunnir, on the border of the city 
Hidalu. I laid waste and destroyed Bashimu and the 
cities in its environs. I slew the people who lived in them. 
I smashed their gods and I appeased the spirit of the lord 
of lords. I carried away his gods, his goddesses, his prop- 
erty, his possessions, and the people, small and great, as 
spoil to Assyria. By the command of Ashur and Ishtar, 
who had sent me, I entered sixty leagues into Elam and 
marched victoriously through it. 

On my return, when Ashur and Ishtar enabled me to 
stand against my foes, I conquered Susa, a great city, the 
abode of their gods, the seat of their oracles. By the com- 
mand of Ashur and Ishtar I entered his palaces and sat 
down with joy. I opened their treasure-houses, wherein 
was stored up silver, gold, property, and possessions, which 
the former kings of Elam and the kings who rule even up 



ANNALS OF ASHURBANIPAL 115 

to these days had gathered and stored away, and on which 
no other enemy besides me had laid his hand, and I 
brought it out and counted it as spoil. I carried away to 
Assyria as spoil silver, gold, property, and possessions of 
Sumer, Akkad, and Karduniash — everything which the 
former kings of Elam had carried away as spoil in seven 
times and had brought into Elam — splendid ^ariru-metal, 
shining eshmaru-metal, precious stones (which were) a 
costly ornament, fit for kings, which the former kings of 
Akkad and Shamash-shum-ukin had paid to Elam for the 
purpose of a league with them; clothing (which was) fit- 
ting decoration for kings, weapons of war, trophies, every- 
thing used in battle such as were fit for his hand; all the 
portable furniture of his palaces — that whereon he had sat 
and slept, that from which he had eaten and drunk and 
poured libations and anointed himself; chariots, state- 
carriages, wagons covered with qariru and zahalu-metal, 
horses, and large mules whose harness was of gold and 
silver. I destroyed the temple tower of Susa, which was 
made with an incasement of uknu-stone, and I broke off 
its turrets, which were made of shining copper. Shushi- 
nak, the god of their oracles, who dwells in hidden places, 
whose divine activity no one 'sees, Shumudu, Lagamaru, 
Partikira, Ammankasibar, Uduran, Sapak, whom the 
kings of Elam worshipped, Husun, Ragiba, Sungursara, 
Karsa, Kirsamas, Sudanu, Aipaksina, Bilala, Panintimri, 
Silagara, Napsa, Napirtu, Kindakarpu — these gods and 
goddesses with their ornaments, their possessions, their 
furnishings, their priests and temple-servants (?) I carried 
away to Assyria. I took to Assyria thirty-two statues of 
kings which were made of silver, gold, copper, and ala- 
baster, from Susa, Madaktu, and Huradi; and also a statue 
of Ummanigash, son of Umbadara; a statue of Ishtarnan- 
hundi; a statue of Halusi; and a statue of Tammaritu, the 
second, who had become my servant by the command of 
Ashur and Ishtar. I threw down the bull-colossi and the 
guardian gods and all the other watchers of the temple, 
and I tore down the fierce wild oxen which decorated the 



Il6 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

doors. I overthrew the temples of Elam until there were 
no more. I gave its gods and goddesses to the winds. 
My soldiers entered into their secret forests into which no 
stranger had ever pressed and whose borders no (stranger) 
had trod; they saw their secret places and burned them 
with fire. The mausoleums of their kings, the earlier and 
later ones, who had not feared Ashur and Ishtar, my lords, 
but had been hostile to the kings, my fathers, I destroyed 
and laid waste and exposed them to the sun. I took their 
bones to Assyria; I gave their shades no repose, and de- 
prived them of their food and drink-offerings. I laid 
waste the regions of Elam during a march of one month 
(and) twenty-five days, and I strewed salt and thorns over 
them. I carried away to Assyria as spoil kings' daugh- 
ters and kings' sisters, along with the older and younger 
families of the kings of Elam, prefects, the governors of all 
the cities which I had conquered, chief archers, officers, 
charioteers (?), the III HU.SI, the master of the horse, 
archers, chiefs, artisans, all the workmen, as many as there 
were, people — ^male and female, small and great — ^horses, 
mules, asses, and oxen and sheep, which were more nu- 
merous than locusts. I took the dust of Susa, Madaktu, 
Haltemash, and the rest of their cities like * * * to As- 
syria. In thirty days I overpowered Elam throughout its 
entire extent. I deprived its fields of the shouts of men, 
the trampling of cattle and sheep, and the glad cry of joy. 
I made the wild asses and gazelles, the animals of the field, 
as many as there were, lie down therein like * * * 

As for Nanna ^ who had been angry for sixteen hundred 
and thirty-five years and had gone and dwelt in Elam, a 
place not suitable to her, and who in those days along 

' Another account tells of the carrying off of Nanna as follows : 
Kudumanhundi, the Elamite, who did not fear the great gods and who 
in confusion of mind trusted to his own might, and laid his hand upon 
the shrines of Akkad and laid waste the land of Akkad [ * * * ] the days 
were fulfilled ; the allotted time had come, the great gods [saw] the deeds 
and after sixteen hundred and thirty-five years [avenged] the devastation 
of the Elamite. They sent me, Ashur-bani-pal, a prince, who fears them, 
to bring Elam to naught and [they put into my hands] an un[sparing] 
weapon. 



ANNALS OF ASHURBANIPAL 



117 



with the gods, her fathers, had announced my name for 
lordship over the lands, and had intrusted the return of 
her divine self to me, saying, " Ashurbanipal shall lead 
me forth from wicked Elam, and shall cause me to enter 
E-anna " — at that time they (i. e., the gods) caused men of 
later days to see the (execution of) their divine word of 
command which they had spoken from ancient times. I 
seized the hand of her great divinity, and with joy of heart 
she took the straight way to E-anna. On the first day of 
the month of Kislev I brought her into Erech and gave her 
a dwelling in E-shargubana, which she loved, in an ever- 
lasting shrine. 

I presented to my gods the best of the people and 
of the spoil of Elam, which I had plundered in accordance 
with the command of Ashur, Sin, Shamash, Ramman, Bel, 
Nabu, Ishtar of Nineveh, Queen of Kidmuri, Ishtar of 
Arbela, Ninib, Nergal, and Nusku. I added to my royal 
host the archers, shield-bearers, workmen, and artisans 
whom I had carried away as spoil from Elam. The rest 
I distributed like sheep among the cities, the habitations 
of the great gods, my prefects, my great men, and my 
whole camp. 

Ummanaldash, King of Elam, who had seen the vio- 
lence of the mighty weapons of Ashur and Ishtar, came 
back from the mountains where was his refuge, and en- 
tered into Madaktu, a city which by the command of Ashur 
and Ishtar I had torn down and destroyed and spoiled, and 
he seated himself in mourning in the place of sadness. 

As for Nabu-bel-shume, the grandson of Merodach- 
baladan, who had broken the covenant with me, and had 
cast ofif the yoke of my lordship, who had made the kings 
of Elam his strength, and had trusted in Ummanigash, 
Tammaritu, Indabigash, and Ummanaldash, the kings 
who had exercised the lordship of Elam— concerning 
the delivering up of Nabu-bel-shume I sent my mes- 
senger in the fulness of (my) wrath to Ummanaldash. 
Nabu-bel-shume, grandson of Merodachbaladan, heard of 
the coming of my messenger who had entered Elam, and 



Il8 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

his heart was troubled and anguish seized him, and his 
Hfe became worthless in his eyes and he longed for death. 
He commanded his own shield-bearer thus: " Slay me with 
the weapons." He and his shield-bearer (thereupon) ran 
each other through with the iron dagger of their girdles. 
Ummanaldash was afraid and laid the corpse of the afore- 
said Nabu-bel-shume in salt, and gave it, together with the 
head of his shield-bearer who had run him through with 
the weapon, to my messenger, and he brought it into my 
presence. I did not give his corpse over to burial, but I 
made his death more complete than before and cut off his 
head and hung it on the neck of Nabuqati^abat, a Sin-ma- 
gir of Shamash-shum-ukin, the hostile brother, who had 
gone with him to make Elam hostile (to me). 

Pae, who exercised lordship over Elam in place of 
Ummanaldash, thought upon the rage of the mighty 
weapons of Ashur and Ishtar, which they had poured out 
upon Elam once, twice, three times, and hopelessness 
seized him. He fled from Elam and seized my royal feet. 
The rebellious people of Bit-Imbi, Kuzurten, Dur-sharri, 
Masutu, Bube, Bit-Unzai, Bit-Arrabi, Iprat, Dimtu-sha- 
Tapapa, Akbarina, Qurukirra, Dunnu-Shamash, Hamanu, 
Kaniqu, Aranziashi, Nagidati, Dimtu-sha-Simame, Bit- 
Qatatti, Sha-Kisai, Subahe, Tel-Humba, who had fled be- 
fore the mighty weapons of Ashur and Ishtar in my former 
campaign, and had seized Saladri, an impassable moun- 
tain — these people who had made the mountain Saladri 
their stronghold, the brilliance of Ashur and Ishtar, my 
lords, overwhelmed. They fled from the mountain where 
they had taken refuge, and they seized my feet. I gath- 
ered them for the bow and added them to my royal host 
which they (i. e., the gods) had intrusted to me. 

In my ninth campaign I mustered my troops^ and 
directed the march against Uaite, King of Arabia, who had 

' A parallel passage reads as follows : 

Yattta', son of Hazael, King of Kedar, who yielded obedience to me, 
prayed to me, and besought my kingship for the sake of his gods which 
my father had carried oflf as spoil. I made him pronounce the name of 
the great gods and gave him back the Atarsamain. Afterward he vio- 



ANNALS OF ASHURBANIPAL ng 

broken my treaty, and had not kept in mind the favours 
which I had shown him, but had thrown oflf the yoke of 
my lordship, which Ashur had laid upon him, in order that 
he should be tributary to me. He had refrained from asking 
after my welfare, and had withheld the gift of his heavy 
tribute. Like Elam, he heard of the rebellious plans of 
Akkad, and disregarded my treaty. Me — Ashurbanipal — 
the king, the pure priest, the pious chief, the product of 
the hands of Ashur, he deserted and to Abiyate and Ayamu, 
sons of Teri, he handed over his forces and sent them to 
the help of Shamash-shum-ukin, the hostile brother, and 
made common cause with him. He (i. e., Shamash-shum- 
ukin) stirred up the Arabians to revolt along with himself, 
and made plundering raids upon the people, dominion 
over whom Ashur, Ishtar, and the great gods had given to 
me to exercise and had intrusted to me. At the command of 
Ashur and Ishtar I summoned my troops; on the way to 
Azarilu and Hirataqaqai, in Edom, in the pass of Yabrud, 
in Beth-Ammon, in the districts of Hauran, in Moab, in 
Sa'arri, in Harge, and in the districts of ^ubitu, a countless 
number of his men I killed and brought about his defeat. 
The Arabians, as many as had gone forth with him, I ran 
through with the sword, while he himself escaped from be- 
fore Ashur's mighty weapons and fled afar oflf. They set 
fire to the tents, their dwellings, and burned them up. Dis- 
aster overtook Uaite, and he fled alone to Nabataea. 

As for Uaite, son of Hazael, cousin of Uaite, son of 
Birdadda, who had made himself King of Arabia — ^Ashur, 
king of the gods, the great rock, changed his purpose, and 
he came into my presence. In order to exhibit the 
majesty of Ashur and the great gods, my lords, I laid heavy 
punishment upon him, in that I put him in a cage, and 
with wild beasts (?) and dogs I bound him and set him to 

lated the treaty with me and did not cherish the good (which I had done 
him) and cast off the yoke of my lordship and withheld his feet from 
coming to greet me and kept back the present. He led the Arabians 
to revolt with him and carried off the plunder of the west-land. I 
sent against him my troops which were occupying the border of his 
land, etc. 



I20 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

watch the city gate of Nineveh, (which is called) " The en- 
trance to Temple-street." 

Ammuladi also. King of Kedar, advanced in order to 
make war upon the kings of the west-land, whom Ashur, 
Ishtar, and the great gods had intrusted to me. Under the 
protection of Ashur, Sin, Shamash, Ramman, Bel, Nabu, 
Ishtar of Nineveh, Queen of Kidmuri, Ishtar of Arbela, 
Ninib, Nergal, and Nusku, I brought about his defeat. 
Him, together with Adiya,* wife of Uaite, King of Arabia, 
they captured alive and brought before me. By the com- 
mand of the great gods, my lords, I put a dog-chain on him 
and set him to watch in a cage. 

By the command of Ashur, Ishtar, and the great gods, 
my lords, I slew the ally of Abiyate and Ayamu, sons of 
Teri, who had come to the help of Shamash-shum-ukin, 
the hostile brother, in order to enter into Babylon, and 
I brought about his defeat. The rest of them, who had 
entered into Babylon, through stress of famine ate one 
another's flesh. In order to save their lives they came 
forth from Babylon, and my army, which was besieging 
Shamash-shum-ukin, defeated him for the second time, 
while he himself fled alone, and in order to save his life 
threw himself at my feet. I granted him mercy, made him 
swear to the compacts by the great gods, and I made him 
King of Arabia instead of Uaite, son of Hazael. 

However, he made common cause with the Nabataeans, 
and did not fear the oath by the great gods, but plundered 
the border of my land. Through the influence of Ashur, 
Sin, Shamash, Ramman, Bel, Nabu, Ishtar of Nineveh, 
Queen of Kidmuri, Ishtar of Arbela, Ninib, Nergal, and 
Nusku, Natnu, King of Nabataea, a far-distant country, to 
whom Uaite had fled, heard of the power of Ashur which 
emboldened me, and though never before had he sent his 
messengers to the kings, my fathers, and asked after their 
royal welfare, he was overcome by fear of the victorious 

' Another inscription gives this account of the capture of Adiya : 
I slew the warriors of Adiya, Queen of Arabia, in great numbers and 
burned their tents with fire. I seized her herself alive with my hands 
and [took] her, together with the plunder of [her] country, to Assyria. 



ANNALS OF ASHURBANIPAL 121 

arms of Ashur, so that he asked after my royal welfare. 
But Abiyate, son of Teri, unmindful of kindness, and re- 
gardless of the oath of the great gods, formed plans of 
revolt against me, and made common cause with Natnu, 
King of Nabataea, and they mustered their forces for an 
attack upon my border. By the command of Ashur, Sin, 
Shamash, Ramman, Bel, Nabu, Ishtar of Nineveh, Queen 
of Kidmuri, Ishtar of Arbela, Ninib, Nergal, and Nusku, I 
mustered my troops, and against Abiyate I directed the 
march. The Tigris and the Euphrates at full flood they 
crossed over in safety; they marched by distant paths; 
they climbed high mountains; they made their way 
through dense forests;* between high trees, thorns (?), 
briers (?), on a road full of brambles they marched unin- 
jured. Through the land of Mash,^ a region of thirst and 
starvation, where the birds of the heavens do not fly, and 
where wild asses and gazelles do not pasture, a journey 
of two hundred hours from Nineveh, the favourite city of 
Ishtar, the consort of Bel, after Uaite, King of Arabia, 
and Abiyate, who had joined forces with the army of 
Nabataea, they marched. 

In the month of Siwan, the month of Sin, the first 
and most eminent son of Bel, on the twenty-fifth day of the 
procession of Beltis of Babylon, honoured among the great 
gods, I set out from Hadatta. Near Laribda, a fortress of 
kunukke stone, by cisterns of water, I pitched my camp. 
My troops provided themselves with water for their thirst 
and marched on through the land of thirst, the region of 
starvation, as far as Hurarina. Between Yarku and Azalla, 
in the land of the Mash,^ a distant place, where wild animals 
do not live, and where the birds of the heavens do not make 
their nests, I brought about the defeat of the Isami, the 
tent-dwellers of Atarsamain and of Nabataea. Men, asses, 
camels, and sheep without number I carried oflf as plunder. 
Sixteen hours' journey by land my troops marched on 
victoriously and returned in safety. In Azalla they drank 
their fill of water. From Azalla as far as Quraqiti, twelve 

' Literally, forests whose shade was broad. ' Or, the wilderness. 



122 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

hours' march through a land of thirst and starvation they 
went on. I surrounded the tent-dwellers of Atarsamain 
and the Kedarenes of Uaite, son of Birdadda, King of 
Arabia. His gods, his mother, his sister, his wife, his 
family, the whole population of Kedar; the asses, the 
camels, and sheep, as many of them as my hands had cap- 
tured under the protection of Ashur and Ishtar, my lords, 
I set on the road to Damascus. In the month of Ab, the 
month of the Bow-star, the daughter of warlike Sin, on 
the third day, the festival of Marduk, king of the gods, I 
set out from Damascus; twelve hours' journey, all night 
long, I marched and came to Arhuliti. At Hukkurina, an 
impassable mountain, I came upon the tent-dwellers of 
Abiyate, son of Teri, the Kedarene. I defeated him and 
carried away his spoil. Abiyate and Ayamu, sons of Teri, 
by the command of Ashur and Ishtar, my lords, my hands 
captured alive in battle. On their hands and feet I put 
iron chains, and along with the spoil of their land I took 
them to Assyria. The fugitives, who had fled from before 
my weapons, were afraid and took refuge on an impassable 
mountain. In Manhanabbi, Apparu, Tenuquri, Zayuran, 
Marqana, Sadaten, Enzikarme, Tana, Irrana — over all 
places where were cisterns and springs of water, as many as 
there were, I set watches, and I cut off the water necessary 
to their lives, allowing them only an occasional drink. They 
died of thirst, and the rest cut open the camels of their herds, 
and to quench their thirst drank the blood and the water of 
the entrails. Of those who had gone up into the mountain, 
and had entered in and occupied a place of refuge, not one 
escaped, not a rebel escaped my hands; in their place of 
refuge my hands captured them: the people — male and 
female — ^the asses, camels, cattle and sheep, in countless 
numbers I carried away as spoil to Assyria. The whole of 
my land which Ashur had given to me — all of it — through- 
out its whole extent they filled up. Camels, like sheep, I 
divided and distributed to the people of Assyria. In my 
land camels were worth from a half-shekel to a shekel of 
silver apiece (?) at the auction gate. The 9utammu for a 



ANNALS OF ASHURBANIPAL 123 

Tiidni, the amelu SI(A)M for a ha-pi-e, the gardener for his 
kishu, from him whom I had appointed (?) bought camels 
and slaves.* 

The warlike Pest-god overthrew Uaite, together with 
his troops, who had not kept my treaty and had escaped 
from before the weapons of Ashur, my lord, and fled be- 
fore them. Famine arose among them, and for their hun- 
ger they ate the flesh of their children. The curses, as 
many as were inscribed upon their treaty, Ashur, Sin, Sha- 
mash, Ramman, Bel, Nabu, Ishtar of Nineveh, Queen of 
Kidmuri, Ishtar of Arbela, Ninib, Nergal, and Nusku sud- 
denly brought upon them. Young camels, suhiru, calves 
and lambs sucked their dams seven times each, and yet did 
not satisfy their stomachs with milk. The Arabians asked 
one of another, " Why has such calamity as this come 
upon Arabia?" [and were answered], "Because we have 
not kept the great oaths of Ashur, but have rebelled 
against the favours of Ashurbanipal, the king, the beloved 
of Bel." Beltis, the beloved of Bel, the strong one, hon- 
oured of the goddesses, who sits enthroned with Anu and 
Bel, gored my enemies with her mighty horns. Ishtar, 
who dwells in Arbela, clothed in flames and arrayed in 
brilliancy, rained down fire upon Arabia. The warlike 
Pest-god girded on war and overthrew my enemies. 
Ninib, the lance, the great warrior, the son of Bel, with his 
sharp arrows cut oflf my enemies. Nusku, the exalted 
messenger, who glorifies my lordship, who at the com- 
mand of Ashur and the warlike Beltis, queen of * * * 
walked at my side and protected my sovereignty, placed 
himself at the head of my troops and overthrew my foes. 
The troops of Uaite heard of the attack of the weapons of 
Ashur and Ishtar, the great gods, my lords, who came to 
my aid in battle, and they rebelled against him. He 
feared, fled from his house and went forth. Under the pro- 
tection of Ashur, Sin, Shamash, Ramman, Bel, Nabu, Ish- 

■ While most of the words in this sentence are unlcnown, the general 
sense seems to be that camels were so cheap that any common working- 
man could secure a camel in exchange for one of his ordinary tools. 



124 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



tar of Nineveh, Queen of Kidmuri, Ishtar of Arbela, Ninib, 
Nergal, and Nusku, my hands captured him and brought 
him to Assyria. In answer to my prayer which I had 
made for the overthrow of my enemies, by the command of 
Ashur and Beltis, with my sharp weapon held in my hand 
I pierced his jaw; through his cheek I put a rope (?); a 
dog-collar I put on him and at the east gate of Nineveh, 
which is called "The entrance to Temple-street," I set 
him to watch in a cage. In order that he might be sub- 
missive to the majesty of Ashur, Ishtar, and the g^eat gods, 
my lords, I granted him mercy and let him live. 

On my return march I conquered the city of Ushu, 
which is situated on the sea-coast. I killed the inhabitants 
of Ushu who had been disobedient to their governors in 
paying no tribute as the gift of their land. Among the un- 
submissive population I executed judgment; their gods 
and their men I carried as spoil to Assyria. The people of 
Akko who were rebellious I killed; hung their bodies 
upon stakes, and surrounded the city with them. The rest 
of them I took to Assyria, formed them into a division and 
added them to my many troops, which Ashur had given 
me. Ayamu, son of Teri, who had taken sides with 
Abiyate, his brother, and had fought against my troops, 
I captured alive in battle with my own hands, and in 
Nineveh, my capital, I flayed him. 

Ummanaldash, King of Elam, whom from of old Ashur 
and Ishtar, my lords, had commanded to be my servant, 
and against whom by the command of their exalted deity, 
which is inflexible, his land afterward rebelled, and who 
had fled alone from before the revolt of his servants which 
they had organized against him, and had seized a moun- 
tain, from the mountain, the place of his refuge, whither 
he had fled, I brought forth like a falcon (?) and took to 
Assyria alive. Tammaritu, Pae, and Ummanaldash, who 
one after another had exercised the lordship of Elam, and 
whom I had subjected to my yoke in the might of Ashur 
and Ishtar, my lords, and Uaite, King of Arabia, whom I 
had defeated in accordance with the command of Ashur 



ANNALS OF ASHURBANIPAL 125 

and Ishtar, and had taken from his own land to Assyria — 
when I went up to ofifer (?) sacrifices in E-mash-mash, the 
dwelUng of their lordship, before Beltis, the mother of the 
great gods, the loved consort of Ashur, and took oaths by 
the gods of Bit-akit, I made them take the yoke of my 
state carriage, and they drew it beneath me to the gate of 
the temple. I threw myself upon my face and exalted 
their deity and praised their power in the midst of my hosts 
because Ashur, Sin, Shamash, Ramman, Bel, Nabu, Ishtar 
of Nineveh, Queen of Kidmuri, Ishtar of Arbela, Ninib, 
Nergal, and Nusku had subjected to my yoke those who 
were unsubmissive, and with might and power had placed 
me over my enemies. 

Sar-duri, King of Urarti, whose fathers, the kings, had 
sent brotherly greetings to my fathers — at that time Sar- 
duri heard of the mighty deeds which the great gods had 
decreed for me, and like as a son sends a message of sub- 
mission to his father, he sent a message like this to me: 
" Greetings to the king, my lord " ; and with fear and sub- 
mission he caused his heavy present to be brought into 
my presence. 

At that time the harem, the resting-place of the palace 
which is in Nineveh, the lofty city which is loved by Beltis, 
which Sennacherib, my grandfather, King of Assyria, had 
built for his royal dwelling, that harem had become old 
with joy and gladness, and its walls had fallen. I, Ashur- 
banipal, the great king, the mighty king, the king of the 
world, the King of Assyria, the king of the four quarters 
of the world, because I had grown up in that harem, and 
Ashur, Sin, Shamash, Ramman, Bel, Nabu, Ishtar of Nine- 
veh, Queen of Kidmuri, Ishtar of Arbela, Queen of Laws, 
Ninib, Nergal, and Nusku had preserved me therein as 
crown-prince, and had extended their good protection and 
shelter of prosperity over me, and from the time when I 
took my seat upon the throne of my father and exercised 
lordship over widely extended lands and peoples had con- 
stantly sent me joyful tidings therein of victory over my 
enemies; and because my dreams on my bed at night were 



126 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

pleasant, and on that of the morning my fancies were 
bright; and because that dwelling brings prosperity to its 
lord, and the great gods have decreed a favourable fate for 
it, I tore down its ruins. In order to extend its area I 
tore it all down. I erected a building the site of whose 
structure was fifty tibki (in extent). I raised a terrace; (but) 
I was afraid before the shrines of the great gods, my lords, 
and did not raise that structure very high. In a good 
month, on a favourable day, I put in its foundation upon 
that terrace and laid its brickwork. I emptied sesame- 
wine and wine upon its cellar, and poured also upon its 
earthen wall. In order to build that harem the people of 
my land hauled its bricks there in wagons of Elam which 
I had carried away as spoil by the command of the gods. 
I made the kings of Arabia, who had violated their treaty 
with me and whom I had captured alive in battle with my 
own hands, carry baskets and (wear) workmen's caps in 
order to build that harem; and I imposed forced service 
upon them. They spent their days in moulding its bricks 
and performing forced service for it to the playing of 
music. With joy and rejoicing I built it from its founda- 
tion to its roof. I made more room in it than before, and 
made the work upon it splendid. I laid upon it long 
beams of cedars, which grew upon Sirara and Lebanon. I 
covered doors of liaru-wood, whose odour is pleasant, with 
a sheath of copper, and hung them in its doorways. I 
covered long beams with bright copper, and laid them as 
the frame of the doors of its porch. I completed that 
harem, my royal dwelling, in its entirety, and filled it with 
splendour. I planted around it a grove of all kinds of 
trees, and Sha-sa-sa fruits of every kind. I finished the 
work of its construction, offered splendid sacrifices to the 
gods, my lords, dedicated it with joy and rejoicing, and 
entered therein under a splendid canopy. 

In days to come may that one among the kings, my 
sons, whose name Ashur and Ishtar may proclaim for lord- 
ship over lands and peoples, when this harem becomes old 
and falls into decay, repair its damages; and may he see 



INSCRIPTION OF ASHURBANIPAL 



127 



the inscription with my signature and those of my father 
and of my grandfather, the enduring royal race; and may 
he anoint it with ointment and offer sacrifices and set it 
up along with the inscription on which his own name is 
written; and may the great gods — as many as are written 
on these inscriptions — present him with power and might 
as they have me! But whoever destroys the inscription 
with my signature and those of my father and of my grand- 
father, and does not set it up along with his own inscrip- 
tion — him may Ashur, Sin, Shamash, Ramman, Bel, Nabu, 
Ishtar of Nineveh, Queen of Kidmuri, Ishtar of Arbela, 
Ninib, Nergal, and Nusku condemn by a judgment includ- 
ing the naming of my name! 

On the fifteenth of lyyar in the eponymy of Shamash- 
udanninanni, governor of Akkad. 



BUILDING OPERATIONS OF ASHUR- 
BANIPAL IN BABYLON (668 b. c.) 

I AM Ashurbanipal, the great king, the mighty king, 
king of the world, King of Assyria, king of the four quar- 
ters (of the world), king of kings, the prince without an 
equal, who by the corrimand of Ashur, Shamash, and Mar- 
duk rules from the Upper to the Lower Sea, and has sub- 
dued all princes beneath his feet; the restorer of Esagila, 
the temple of the gods, who has made its fastenings bright 
like the starry heavens, and has repaired the damages of all 
the temples and established his protection over air cities; 
whose works are pleasing to all the gods, whose rule over 
the Black-headed people is acceptable; the son of Esar- 
haddon, king of the world. King of Assyria, governor of 
Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, who peopled Baby- 
lon, built Esagila, renovated the shrines of all the cities, 
adorned their interior, re-established their daily offerings 
which had fallen into disuse, and restored the laws and 
ordinances of old; the grandson of Sennacherib, the great 



128 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

king, the mighty king, king of the world, King of Assyria, 
am I. 

The great lord Marduk, who, during the reign of the 
former king, dwelt in Asshur in the presence of his father * 
who begat him, in the days of my reign entered with re- 
joicing into Babylon, and I re-established the daily sacri- 
fices of Esagila and of the gods of Babylon. I strength- 
ened law and order in Babylon in order that the strong 
might not injure the weak. I appointed Shamash-shum- 
ukin, my twin brother, to the kingship of Babylon. 

In those days, during my reig^, I repaired the ruins 
of the wall of Ezida, which had become old, and whose 
foundation was weakened, and I built it high like a moun- 
tain. 

May Nabu, the exalted lord, forever look upon my 
pious deeds with joy! 

And as for me, Ashurbanipal, the prince who worships 
him. 

May a word of favour toward me be found upon his 
lips! 

Long life, abundance of offspring, health of body, and 
joy of heart may he appoint as my lot! 

The foundation of my royal throne may he make firm 
like a mountain! 

With the heavens and earth may he establish my 
reign! 

And as for Shamash-shum-ukin, my twin brother, King 
of Babylon, may his days be long! 

May he be satisfied with pleasures! 

In all the future, may the later prince, in the course 
of whose reign this work may fall into ruins, repair its 
damages; my royal image may he find and anoint it with 
oil; may he offer sacrifices and set it up alongside of his 
own image; then Nabu will hear his prayer! But whoso- 
ever erases my inscription, tears down my royal image, 
changes its place and does not set it up alongside of his 
own image, may Nabu, the great lord, look upon him in 
I That is, Marduk's father, Ashur. 



INSCRIPTION OF ASHURBANIPAL 129 

wrath; overthrow his royal throne; and take away his lord- 
ship; his name and his seed may he destroy from all lands; 
and may he show him no mercy ! 



AN INSCRIPTION OF ASHURBANIPAL 

From a Barrel Cylinder found at Aboo-Habba 

I AM Ashurbanipal, the great king, the mighty king, 
the king of the universe, the King of Assyria, the king of 
the four quarters of the world, the king of kings, the 
prince without a rival, who by the command of the gods, 
his supporters, ruled from the Upper Sea to the Lower Sea, 
and brought all princes to his feet; the son of Esarhaddon/ 
the great king, the mighty king, the king of the universe, 
the King of Assyria, the governor of Babylon, the King of 
Sumer and Akkad, who caused Babylon to be inhabited, 
who built Esagila, who restored the shrines of all the cities, 
who set up decorations within them, and re-established 
their daily sacrifices which had ceased; the grandson of 
Sennacherib, the great king, the mighty king, the king 
of the universe, the King of Assyria. 

During my reign the great lord Marduk entered with 
rejoicing into Babylon, and established his dwelling in 
Esagila forever. I re-established the daily sacrifices of 
Esagila and of the gods of Babylon. I strengthened law 
and order in Babylon in order that the strong might not 
injure the weak. I appointed Shamash-shum-ukin, my 
twin-brother, to the kingship of Babylon, and I completed 
the work of Esagila which was unfinished. I adorned 
Esagila with silver, gold, and precious stones, and made 
it shine like the starry heavens. I repaired the damages 
of Ekua and all the shrines. I exercised protection over 
all the cities. 

In those days I sought out the sanctuaries of E-bab- 
bara, which is in Sippara, the house of Shamash, the great 
lord, my lord, which had become old, and had fallen in, and 



I30 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



had gone to ruin, and I had it built anew with brick-work, 
and I raised its head aloft like a mountain. 

May the great judge of the gods, the great lord, my 
lord, forever look with joy upon my pious deeds, and for 
me, Ashurbanipal, King of Assyria, the prince who wor- 
ships him, may he decree length of days, abundance of 
offspring, health of body, and joy of heart! And as for 
Shamash-shum-ukin, King of Babylon, my twin-brother, 
may he live long and be satisfied with renown! 

Whenever in the future that work may fall into ruin, 
may the later prince, in the course of whose reign (it may 
happen), repair its ruins; may he inscribe my name along 
with his own name; may he see my inscription, anoint it 
with oil, ofifer a sacrifice, and set it up along with his own 
inscription: (then) Shamash will hear his prayer. Who- 
ever treacherously obliterates my written name and the 
name of my twin-brother, and does not inscribe my name 
along with his own name, but destroys my inscription, and 
does not set it up along with his own inscription — upon 
him may Shamash, god of the upper and lower regions, 
look with anger, and may he destroy his name and his seed 
from the earth! 



INSCRIPTION OF SHAMASH-SHUM- 
UKIN 

Shamash-shum-ukin, the mighty king. King of Ab- 
na-nu. King of Babylon, the wise, the prudent one, the 
shepherd, the favoured one of Bel, Shamash, and Marduk, 
the King of Sumer and Akkad, am I. 

In my birthplace where my mother bare me, Erua, 
queen of the gods, joyfully named me for dominion over 
men. The great gods with joy selected me for the gather- 
ing of the scattered people of the land of Akkad, and with 
delight called me to restore the neglected laws and ordi- 
nances. 



INSCRIPTION OF NABOPOLASSAR 



131 



Marduk, king of the gods, joyfully accompanied me 
from Asshur to the seat of life. The great lord, the warrior 
Marduk, joyfully established his splendid dwelling in Esa- 
gila, the temple of heaven and earth. As for the great 
gods who inhabit the shrines of all the temples, I re- 
stored the precious laws and the ordinances dear to their 
hearts. 

At that time I rebuilt the collapsed wall Bar-ul-ru-sa-a, 
the wall of Sippara, which had become weak and had fallen 
on account of the attack of the enemy, and I strengthened 
its weak places, and its battlements like a mountain I raised 
on high with earth. 

Throughout the future, do thou, Shamash, heroic war- 
rior, and thou, O Anunit, his consort, look with pleasure 
on my pious deeds and proclaim wherever you are wor- 
shipped that I, Shamash-shum-ukin, shall receive favour! 



INSCRIPTION OF NABOPOLASSAR, KING 
OF BABYLON (Hilprecht), (625-604 b. c.) 

To Marduk, the great lord, lord of the gods, the pow- 
erful, patron of the Igigi, oppressor of the Anunnaki, light 
of the gods, his fathers, who dwells in Esagila, lord of 
Babylon, my lord — Nabopolassar, governor of Babylon, 
King of Sumer and Akkad, the lofty prince, who is under 
the guidance of Nabu and Marduk, the humble, the sub- 
missive, whose heart has learned the fear of god and god- 
dess, the restorer of Esagila and Ezida, the one who looks 
after the rights (?) (temple dues (?)) of the great gods, 
am I. 

When at the command of Nabu and Marduk, beloved 
of my royalty, and by the strong weapon of the powerful 
Dibbara who strikes my enemies with lightning, I de- 
stroyed the Subare (and) turned their land into mounds 
and plough-land; at that time, as for Etemenanki, the 
temple-tower of Babylon, which before my time had be- 



132 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

come weakened and had fallen in, Marduk the lord com- 
manded me to lay its foundation in the heart of the earth 
(and) to raise its turrets to heaven. Baskets, spades (?), 
and U.RU. I made out of ivory, ushu and mismakanna 
wood; I caused the numerous workmen assembled in my 
land to carry them. I set to work (?); I made bricks, I 
manufactured burned bricks. Like the downpour of 
heaven, which can not be measured, like the massive flood, 
I caused the Arahtu to carry bitumen and pitch. With 
the co-operation of Ea, with the insight of Marduk, with 
the wisdom of Nabu and Nisaba, in the broad understand- 
ing with which the god, my creator, had endowed me, with 
my great ingenuity (?), I came to a decision; I gave orders 
to the skilled workmen. With a nindanaku measure I meas- 
ured the measurements of the aba ash-lam (?). The archi- 
tects at first made a survey of the ground plot (?). After- 
ward I consulted Shamash, Ramman, and Marduk; to my 
heart they gave decision, they sanctioned the measurements, 
the great gods by decree indicated the later stages of the 
work. By means of exorcism, in the wisdom of Ea and Mar- 
duk, I cleared away that place, (and) on the original site I 
laid its platform-foundation; gold, silver, stones from moun- 
tain and sea in its foundation I set * * * goodly oil, sweet- 
smelling herbs, and * * * I placed underneath the bricks. 
An image of my royalty carrying a dupshikku I con- 
structed; in the platform-foundation I placed it. Unto 
Marduk, my lord, I bowed my neck; I arrayed myself in 
my gown, the robe of my royalty. Bricks and mortar I 
carried on my head, a dupshikku of gold and silver I wore; 
and Nebuchadrezzar, the first-bom, the chief son, beloved 
of my heart, I caused to carry mortar mixed with wine, 
oil, and (other) products along with my workmen. Nabu- 
shumlisher, his twin brother, the offspring of my own flesh, 
the junior, my darling, I ordered to take a basket and 
spade (?); a dupshikku of gold and silver I placed (on him). 
Unto Marduk, my lord, as a gift, I dedicated him. I built 
the temple in front of Esharra with joy and rejoicing, 
and like a mountain I raised its tower aloft; to Marduk, 



INSCRIPTION OF NABOPOLASSAR 



133 



my lord, as in days of old^ I dedicated it for a sight to be 
gazed at. 

O Marduk, my lord, look with favour upon my goodly 
deeds! 

At thy exalted command, which can not be altered, let 
the performance of my hands endure forever! 

Like the bricks of Etemenanki, which are to remain 
firm forever, do thou establish the foundation of my throne 
for all time! 

O Etemenanki, grant blessing to the king who has re- 
stored thee! 

When Marduk with joy takes up his abode in thee, 

O temple, recall to Marduk, my lord, my gracious 
deeds! 



INSCRIPTION OF NABOPOLASSAR 

(WiNCKLER A) 

NABOPOLASSAR, the King of Babylon, under the guid- 
ance of Nabu and Marduk, am I. 

When Marduk, the great lord, by his supreme com- 
mand, commissioned me to restore the cities and repair the 
temples — at that time, the river Euphrates had receded 
from Sippar, the splendid city, beloved of Shamash and A, 
and the waters were far (?) too distant for the service (?) of 
their lordships. 

I, Nabopolassar, the humble, the submissive, who wor- 
ships the gods, brought back (by digging) the river Eu- 
phrates (in its original channel) to Sippar; and I pro- 
vided pure waters in abundance for Shamash, my lord. I 
walled up the banks of that river with mortar and 
brick, and I constructed a protecting wall for Shamash, 
my lord. 



134 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

INSCRIPTION OF NABOPOLASSAR 

(WiNCKLER B) 

Nabopolassar, the powerful king, King of Babylon, 
King of Sumer and Akkad, founder of the land, the exalted 
prince, under the guidance of Nabu and Marduk, the fa- 
vourite of Shamash, beloved of A, the hero of heroes, 
whom the powerful Dibbara lets attain his every desire, the 
humble, the submissive, who has a care for the rights (?) 
(temple dues?) of the great gods, the king, whose works 
surpass those of the kings his fathers, am I. 

At the time that Shamash the great lord walked at my 
side, and I destroyed the [rebellious, (and) turned the land 
of my foes into mounds and plough-land], at that time I 
rebuilt for the mistress of Sippar, the exalted princess, my 
mistress, E-edin-na, a temple wherein she might find peace 
of mind, and I made it brilliant as the day. 

In the future, O mistress of Sippar, powerful mistress, 
when I have brought this temple to a state of completion, 
and thou hast taken up thy dwelling therein, do thou estab- 
lish me, Nabopolassar, the king, thy restorer, forever like 
the bricks of Sippar and Babylon; and do thou permit my 
sovereignty to last into far future days! 

THE EAST INDIA HOUSE INSCRIPTION 

OF NEBUCHADREZZAR II, KING 

OF BABYLON (601-565 b. c.) 

Nebuchadrezzar, King of Babylon, the exalted 
prince, the favourite of Marduk, the lofty patesi, the be- 
loved of Nabu, the arbiter, the possessor of wisdom, who 
seeks out the path of their divinity, who reverences their 
lordship; the untiring governor, who ponders daily con- 
cerning the maintenance of Esagila and Ezida, and is con- 
tinually anxious for the shrines of Babylon and Borsippa; 
the wise, the pious, the maintainer of Esagila and Ezida, 
the chief son of Nabopolassar, King of Babylon, am I. 



EAST INDIA HOUSE INSCRIPTION 



I3S 



From the time that the lord my god, Marduk, had cre- 
ated me and had formed my embryo in the womb, at the 
time I was born, at the time I was created, I sought out 
the shrines of the god, the path of the god I followed. 
As for Marduk, the great lord, the god my creator, his 
clever deeds I held in high esteem. As for Nabu, his 
true son, the beloved of my royalty, the lofty path of his 
divinity I steadfastly followed; with all my faithful heart 
I loved the worship of their divinity, I reverenced their 
lordship. 

At the time that Marduk, the great lord, lifted up my 
royal head and intrusted me with the rule of all people; and 
Nabu, the ruler of the host of heaven and earth, gave into 
my hands a righteous sceptre for the governing of the peo- 
ple; then, as for me, I stood in awe of them and sought 
out their divinity, for the renown of their famous name I 
reverenced both god and goddess. To Marduk my lord 
I made supplication; I read his prayers, and the word of 
my heart reached up to him. To him I spoke: 
" O eternal prince! Lord of all being! 

To the king whom thou lovest, and 

Whose name thou hast proclaimed 

As was pleasing to thee. 

Do thou lead aright his name. 

Guide him in a straight path. 

I am the prince, thy favourite, 

The creature of thy hand; 

Thou hast created me, and 

With dominion over all people 

Thou hast intrusted me. 

According to thy favour, O lord, 

Which thou dost bestow on 

All people, 

Cause me to love thy exalted lordship, 

And create in my heart 

The worship of thy divinity. 

And grant whatever is pleasing to thee. 

Because thou hast fashioned my life." 



136 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

He, the pre-eminent, the honoured, the leader of the 
gods, the Prince Marduk, heard my supplication and re- 
ceived my prayer. He made his exalted lordship favour- 
able to me, the fear of his divinity he established in my 
heart, he incited my heart to do his service. I reverenced 
his lordship. Under his exalted protection, far-off lands, 
distant mountains, from the Upper Sea to the Lower Sea, 
steep trails, unopened paths, where motion was impeded, 
where there was no foothold, difficult roads, journeys with- 
out water, I traversed, and the unruly I overthrew; I 
bound as captives my enemies; the land I set in order and 
the people I made to prosper; both bad and good among 
the people I took under my care (?); silver, gold, costly 
precious stones, bronze, palm-wood, cedar-wood, all kinds 
of precious things, a rich abundance, the product of the 
mountains, the wealth of the seas, a heavy gift, a splendid 
present, to my city Babylon I brought into his presence, 
and I undertook restorations in Esagila, the palace of his 
lordship. 

E-kua, the shrine of the lord of the gods, Marduk, I 
made to glisten like the sun; its walls (?), with massive 
gold like imtu-stone, with ugnu-stone and alabaster (?) — 
the abode of the house — I decorated. The gate Hili-shud, 
the gate of splendour, and the gate of Ezida and Esagila I 
made as brilliant as the sun. The brilliant abode, the seat 
of the arbiters of fate, which is the place of congregation, 
the shrine of the Fates, where, on Zagmuku, the beginning 
of the year, on the eighth and the eleventh day, the king, 
the god of heaven and earth, the lord of heaven, takes up 
his residence, where the gods of heaven and earth reverently 
pay obedience and stand bowed down before him; a fate 
of a far-distant day, as the fate of my life, they determine 
therein: that shrine, the shrine of royalty, the shrine of 
lordly power, belonging to the leader of the gods, the 
Prince Marduk, which a former king had constructed with 
silver, I decorated with shining gold and brilliant orna- 
ments. The vessels of the Temple of Esagila, with massive 
gold, Ma-kua (the ship of peace) with bright metals and 



EAST INDIA HOUSE INSCRIPTION 



137 



precious stones I adorned like the stars of the heavens. 
The temples of Babylon I rebuilt and restored. As for 
E-temen-an-ki (house of the foundation of heaven and 
earth) with burned brick and bright ugnu-stone I raised 
on high its turrets. To the rebuilding of Esagila my heart 
incited me; I held it constantly in mind. I selected the 
best of my cedar trees, which I had brought from Mount 
Lebanon, the snow-capped forest, for the roofing of E-kua, 
the shrine of his lordship, and I decorated with brilliant 
gold the inner sides of the mighty cedar trunks, used in 
the roofing of E-kua. I adorned the under side of the 
roof of cedar with gold and precious stones. Concerning 
the rebuilding of Esagila I prayed every morning to the 
king of the gods, the lord of lords. 

Borsippa, the city of his abode, I beautified. Ezida, 
the eternal house, in the midst thereof I built. With silver, 
gold, precious stones, bronze, palm-wood, and cedar-wood 
I completed its construction. The cedar-wood of the roof 
of the shrines of Nabu I decorated with gold. The cedar- 
wood of the roof of the gate of Nana I decorated with 
shining silver. The wild-bulls and the doors of the gate 
of the shrine, the lintels, the bars, the bolt (?), and the lock 
I adorned with bright metal; and the cedar-wood of the 
roof, its eaves (?), I adorned with silver. The path to the 
shrine and the way to the temple were inclosed with esh- 
maru-metal; the rooms of the shrines in its midst were sil- 
ver-work; the wild-bulls and the doors of the gates I made 
to shine brightly with za-ha-li-e metal. I adorned the tem- 
ple with ornaments, I filled it with splendour for the aston- 
ished gaze (of all people). The shrines of Borsippa I re- 
built and restored. As for E-ur-VII-an-ki (the house 
of the seven spheres of heaven and earth) with burned 
brick and bright ugnu-stone I raised on high its turrets. 
The ship (ark) of the river Gan-ul, the conveyance of his 
highness, the ship of the procession of Zagmuku — a festival 
of Babylon — ^its hull and its inner compartment's I deco- 
rated with rows of marble and (precious) stones. 

E-sigisshe-sigisshe, the exalted festival-place of the lord 



138 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

of the gods Marduk, the promoter of merriment and rejoic- 
ings among the Igigi and the Anunnaki, I constructed 
mountain-high with bitumen and burned brick on the walls 
of Babylon. E-mah, the Temple of the Lady of the Moun- 
tain, in the heart of Babylon, for the lofty goddess, the 
mother who bore me, I built in Babylon. For Nabu, the 
exalted messenger, who gives the righteous sceptre for 
the government of all peoples, E-pad(?)-kalama-shumma, 
his temple, with bitumen and burned brick I constructed 
in Babylon. For Sin, who looks with favour upon my 
forces, E-gish-shir-gal, his temple, I built in Babylon. For 
Shamash, the exalted judge * * * E-di-tar-kalama, his 
temple, I built very high with bitumen and burned brick 
in Babylon. For Ramman, who establishes abundance in 
my land, E-nam-hi, his temple, I built in Babylon. For 
Gula, who spares and protects my life, E-sa-be and E-har- 
sag-el-la, her temples, I built artistically with bitumen and 
burned brick in Babylon. For Nin-lil-an-na (the lady of 
heaven), the lady who loves me, E-dur(?)-garza, her temple, 
I built very high at the side of the wall of Babylon. For 
Tur-e, who breaks in pieces the weapons of my enemies, his 
temple I built in Borsippa. For Gula, the lady who makes 
me of good cheer, E-gfula, E-ti-la, and E-zi-ba-ti-la, her 
three shrines, I built in Borsippa. For Ramman, who rains 
down showers of plenty upon my land, his temple I built 
artistically in Borsippa. For Sin, who burdens himself 
with my welfare, E-dim-an-na, his temple, I built with bril- 
liancy on the wall round about Ezida. 

Imgur-Bel and Nimitti-Bel, the large walls of Babylon 
which Nabopolassar, King of Babylon, the father, my be- 
getter, had made, but had not completed their construc- 
tion — ^their moat he had dug, and by means of two strong 
walls with bitumen and burned brick he had strengthened 
their banks; a wall along the Arahtu canal he had made, 
and with the dike of burned brick on the other side of 
the Euphrates he had joined it, but had not completed the 
rest. From Du-azag-ki-nam-tar-tar-re-e-ne, the shrine of 
Fates, as far as A-ibur-shabu(m), the street of Babylon, in 



EAST INDIA HOUSE INSCRIPTION 139 

front of the Gate of the Lady, I constructed a way with 
brick and tur-mi-na-tur-da stone as a procession street for 
the great lord Marduk. As for me, his first-bom son, the 
beloved of his heart, Imgur-Bel and Nimitti-Bel, the great 
walls of Babylon, I completed. The sides of the wall of its 
moat, two strong walls, with bitumen and burned brick I 
built, and to the wall which my father had strengthened 
I joined it, and I surrounded the city for its protection 
with a wall of burned brick toward the east, and I con- 
structed a wall about Babylon. A-ibur-shabu(m), the 
street of Babylon, I filled in with a high terrace as a pro- 
cession street for the great lord Marduk, and partly with 
brick and tur-mi-na-tur-da stone, partly with brick and 
stone from the mountain, A-ibur-shabu, from Bab-Ella (the 
shining gate) as far as Nana-sakipat-tebisha, I macadamized 
for a procession street of his divinity; I joined it to what 
my father had built, and I constructed the boulevard Nana- 
sakipat-tebisha. 

The entrances of the city gates on both sides of Imgur- 
Bel and Nimitti-Bel, on account of the filling in of the 
street of Babylon, had become too low, and I tore down 
these gates and at the water's edge I firmly laid their 
foundation with bitumen and burned brick, and with 
burned brick and brilliant ugnu-stone, out of which the 
wild-bulls and the serpents are constructed, skilfully I 
built them. I laid in rows mighty cedar trees for their 
roof. I set in place in their gates the cedar doors, with 
a sheathing of copper, the thresholds and the hinges, 
made of bronze. I stationed at their thresholds strong 
wild-bulls of bronze and serpents standing erect. I filled 
with splendour these city gates for the astonished gaze 
(of all people). That the shaft of battle might not 
reach Imgur-Bel, the wall of Babylon — ^what no former 
king had done — for four thousand land cubits on the sides 
of Babylon, afar off, to make approach impossible, I sur- 
rounded Babylon with a large wall toward the east. I dug 
its moat and strengthened its bank with bitumen and 
burned brick, and built a strong wall on its bank mountain- 



I40 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

high. Its wide city gates I put in position, and the doors 
of cedar, with a sheathing of copper, I set in place. That a 
terrible enemy might not push forward to the sides of Baby- 
lon, I surrounded the land with large bodies of water, like 
the volume of the sea; and that the plying (of ships) 
as on the raging sea or the briny g^lf might not bring 
about a breach in their banks, I threw up against them a 
levee of mud, and surrounded them with a wall of burned 
brick. I skilfully strengthened the watch-tower, and made 
the city Babylon a fortification. Tabi-suburshu, the wall 
of Borsippa, I built anew; I dug its moat, and strengthened 
its bank with bitumen and burned brick. 

Nebuchadrezzar, King of Babylon, whom Marduk, the 
great lord, called to look after the welfare of his city Baby- 
lon, am I. Esagila and Ezida I made as brilliant as the 
sun. The shrines of the great gods I made to shine like 
the day. In former times, in the days of old, down to the 
reign of Nabopolassar, King of Babylon, the father, my 
begetter, the numerous kings, my predecessors, whose 
names the god had called to sovereignty, in their well-be- 
loved cities which they loved, had built palaces, taken up 
their residences, collected their possessions therein, gath- 
ered together their property, and on the festival of Zag- 
muku, the procession of the lord of the gods, Marduk, had 
entered Babylon. From the time that Marduk created me to 
sovereignty, and Nabu, his eternal son, gave me rule over 
his subjects, like my precious soul I loved their shining 
presence. With the exception of Babylon and Borsippa 
I did not adorn a single city. In Babylon, my well-beloved 
city, which I love, the palace, a house for the astonished 
gaze of the people, a meeting-place for the land, a bril- 
liant chamber, a royal residence, in Babylon which is in 
Babylonia, from Img^r-Bel as far as Libil-hegalla, the east- 
ern canal, from the bank of the Euphrates as far as A-ibur- 
shabu — which Nabopolassar, King of Babylon, the father, 
my begetter, with brick had constructed, and wherein he 
had taken up his residence — on account of the waters of 
a flood its foundation had become weak, and on account of 



EAST INDIA HOUSE INSCRIPTION 141 

the terracing of the street of Babylon, the gates of this 
palace had become too low. Its wall, made of brick, I tore 
down, and I sought out its platform foundation, and the 
bottom of the water I reached. Its foundation at the 
water's edge I firmly laid, and with bitumen and burned 
brick I raised it mountain-high. I laid in rows mighty 
cedar trees for its roof. I set in place in its gates the cedar 
doors, with a sheathing of copper, the thresholds and the 
hinges, made of bronze. I gathered together therein sil- 
ver, gold, precious stones, all kinds of precious and valuable 
things, possessions, property, the insignia of my exalted 
position. I collected within it the results of my splendid 
bravery, a royal treasure. Because my heart did not love 
the abode of my royalty in another city, in no human 
habitation did I build a residence for my lordship. Prop- 
erty, the insignia of royalty, I did not establish anywhere 
else. In Babylon a chamber for my dwelling-place, as be- 
fitted my royalty, was not to be found. Because the fear 
of Marduk, my lord, was in my heart, in Babylon, his treas- 
ure city, in order to enlarge my royal residence, his street 
I did not change, his shrine I did not impair, his canal I 
did not dam up, his chamber I kept constantly (?) in 
mind. 

That the shaft of battle might not reach Imgur-Bel, 
the wall of Babylon, at a distance of four hundred and 
ninety land cubits on the sides of Nimitti-Bel, the outer wall 
of Babylon, for the protection of the two large walls, with 
bitumen and burned brick I built a wall mountain-high, 
and between them I built a structure of burned brick, and 
I built very high in its tower a large chamber with bitumen 
and burned brick for my royal dwelling-place, and joined 
it to my father's palace, and in a prosperous month, on a 
favourable day, I firmly laid its foundation in the bowels 
of the earth, and I raised high its turrets like a mountain. 
On the fifteenth day I brought to completion its construc- 
tion, and I beautified the dwelling of my lordship. Mighty 
cedar trees from the snow-capped mountains, ashuhu trees 
with broad trunks, and cypress trees, (with) costly stones, 



142 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



I laid in rows for its roofing. Doors of palm-wood, of 
cedar, and of cypress, of ushu and ivory, inlaid with silver 
and gold, and with a sheathing of copper, the thresholds and 
hinges, made of bronze, I set in place in its gates. I sur- 
rounded its turrets with a cornice of ugnu-stone and threw 
around it mountain-high a strong wall with bitumen and 
burned brick. On the sides of the wall of Babylon I built 
a large wall out of large blocks of stone, such as are found 
on the lofty mountains, and like a mountain I raised on 
high its battlements. I built that house for the astonished 
gaze (of all people), and for the spectacle of the whole world 
I filled it with splendour. All kinds of abundance, the 
fear of the brilliancy of my royalty, were round about 
its sides, and that the wicked and the perverse might 
not enter it, and that I might keep afar off from the sides 
of the wall of Babylon the battle shaft of the terrible 
enemy, I fortified the city Babylon mountain-high. To 
Marduk, my lord, I made suppUcation, I lifted up my 
hands: 

Marduk, lord, leader of the gods, 
Powerful prince, 

Thou hast created me, and 
With sovereignty over all men 
Thou hast intrusted me. 
Like my precious soul 

1 love thy exalted presence. 

With the exception of thy city Babylon 

In no human habitation 

Have I adorned a city. 

As I love 

The fear of thy divinity. 

As I follow in the path of thy lordship. 

Look with favour upon the lifting up of my hands, 

Give ear to my prayers. 

Truly I am the king, the restorer, 

Who makes cheerful thy heart, 

The clever governor. 

The restorer of all thy cities. 



INSCRIPTION OF NEBUCHADREZZAR II 143 

By thy command, 

O merciful Marduk, 

The temple which I have built, 

May it endure for all time, and 

May I be satisfied with its splendour! 

In its midst 

May I attain an old age, 

May I be sated with offspring! 

Of the kings of the four quarters of the world. 

Of all mankind. 

Their heavy tribute 

May I receive therein! 

From the horizon of the heaven to the zenith. 

Toward the east. 

May I have no enemies. 

May I possess no foes, 

May my descendants live therein 

Forever, and 

Rule over the Black-headed races! 



THE WINCKLER INSCRIPTION OF 
NEBUCHADREZZAR II 

Nebuchadrezzar, King of Babylon, the exalted 
prince, the favourite of Marduk, the lofty patesi, the be- 
loved of Nabu, the legitimate shepherd, who enters upon 
the peaceful path of Shamash and Ramman, the wise, the 
circumspect, who is attentive to the wisdom of Nirra, the 
potentate, the knowing one, the judicious, who cares for 
the shrines of Zamama and Ishtar, the humble, the pliant, 
who is submissive to the will of Marduk, the great lord, 
and of Bel, who enlarges his dominion, and of Nabu, the 
lofty messenger, who prolongs the days of his life, and is 
their obedient servant, the untiring governor, the restorer 
of Esagila and Ezida, the * * * of restorations, who 
brings large gifts to Esagila, the exalted, the suppliant, the 



144 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

choice of the loyal heart of the great gods, the grave ruler, 
the reclaimer of fields, who looks after the agricultural in- 
terests of Babylon, who fills the shrines with plenty, who 
establishes the daily offering, the chief son of Nabopolassar, 
King of Babylon, am I. 

At the time that Marduk, the great lord, faithfully cre- 
ated me, and commanded me with pomp to lead aright the 
land, to shepherd the people, to restore the cities and to 
renew the shrines, I to Marduk, my lord, paid reverent 
obedience. In Esagila, the majestic shrine, the temple of 
heaven and earth, the dwelling-place of royalty, I decorated 
with shining gold E-kua, the shrine of the lord of the gods, 
Marduk, Bab-Hili-shud, the home of ^arpanit, (and) Ezida 
in Esagila, the shrine called " the king of the gods of heaven 
and earth," and I made (them) to shine like the day. E- 
temen-an-ki, the temple-tower of Babylon, I made anew. 
Ezida, the eternal house, beloved by Nabu, in Borsippa 
anew I built and made it bright as the starry heavens with 
gold and precious stones. Mighty cedar trees I decorated 
with gold, and for the roofing over of E-mah-tila, the shrine 
of Nabu * * * I laid in rows. E-mah, the Temple of Nin- 
mah, in Babylon; E-pad(?)-kalama-shumma, the Temple of 
Nabu-sha-hariri; E-gish-shir-gal, the Temple of Sin; E-har- 
sag-el-la, the Temple of Nin-karrak; E-nam-hi, the Temple 
of Ramman in Kumari; E-di-tar-kalama, the Temple of 
Shamash; E-ki-tur-garza, the Temple of Nin-lil-an-na by 
the side of the wall in Babylon, (these) anew I built, and 
their turrets I raised on high. The great gods who dwell 
therein I gave residence within them. 

As for Babylon, the city of the great lord, Marduk, his 
renowned city, Imgur-Bel and Nimitti-Bel, its great walls, 
I completed. At the entrances of its city-gates, I built and 
stationed strong wild-bulls of bronze, and serpents standing 
erect, and, what no former king had done — ^the father, my 
begetter, had thrown around the city the wall of its moat 
with bitumen and burned brick a second time — ^these 
mighty walls for the third time, the first (joined) with the 
second, I built with bitumen and burned brick, and joined 



INSCRIPTION OF NEBUCHADREZZAR II 



HS 



them to the wall which my father had constructed, and laid 
their foundation in the bosom of the broad earth, and raised 
their battlements mountain-high. An embankment of 
burned brick toward the east I threw around the wall of 
Babylon. 

The embankment of the Arahtu toward the east, from 
the city-gate Ishtar to the city-gate Urash, the father, my 
begetter, had constructed with bitumen and burned brick, 
had bound to the fences (?) of burned brick along the Eu- 
phrates, but had not completed the rest. I, his eldest son, 
the beloved of his heart, built the embankment of the 
Arahtu with bitumen and burned brick, and strengthened 
it with the embankment which my father had constructed. 

For the protection of Esagila and Babylon, that there 
might not be a breach in (the bank of) the Euphrates, I 
made with bitumen and burned brick a mighty dike in the 
river. I laid its foundation in the depths, and raised its 
battlements mountain-high. At four thousand cubits' dis- 
tance, that the sides of the city might not be approached 
from afar — what no king before me had done — I threw 
around Babylon a mighty wall toward the east. Its moat 
I dug, and the bottom of the water I reached. I built its 
bank (?) with bitumen and burned brick, and joined it to 
the embankment which my father had constructed, and 
built along its bank a mighty wall with bitumen and burned 
brick mountain-high. 

Tabi-suburshu, the wall of Borsippa, I made anew. The 
wall of its moat with bitumen and burned brick I threw 
around the city for protection. For Tur-e, the lord who 
breaks in pieces the weapons of my enemies, his temple in 
Borsippa anew I made. For Gula, rich in life, who pre- 
serves my life, who dwells in E-ti-la, E-ti-la, her temple, I 
built anew in Borsippa. For Gula, the exalted princess, who 
extends the fame of my kingdom, who dwells in E-gula, 
E-gula, her temple, I built anew in Borsippa. For Gula, 
the great lady, who gives life to my soul, who dwells in 
E-zi-ba-ti-la, E-zi-ba-ti-la, her temple, I built anew in Bor- 
sippa. To strengthen the defence of E-shid-lam, a wall 



146 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

round about E-shid-lam I built anew, and the buildings 
thereof * * * as of old. The wall of the moat of Kutha 
with bitumen and burned brick I threw around the city for 
protection. E-babbara, the Temple of Shamash in Sippar; 
E-tur-gina, the Temple of Shar-qarbi (?) in Baz; E-i-de-A- 
nim, the Temple of Urash in Dilbat; E-shi-kalama, the 
Temple of Lugal-Maradda in Maradda; E-an-na, the Tem- 
ple of Ishtar in Erech; E-babbara, the Temple of Shamash 
in Larsa; E-gish-shir-gal, the Temple of Sin in Ur — ^these 
shrines of the great gods anew I built, and brought their 
construction to completion. The great gods who dwell 
therein with joy and rejoicing I gave residence within them. 

The restorations of Esagila and Ezida, and the reno- 
vation of Babylon and Borsippa, which I had carried on to 
a further extent than ever before, I brought to the highest 
stage of completion. The restoring of the shrines of the 
great gods, which I had performed more splendidly than 
the kings, my fathers, all my extensive undertakings, I in- 
scribed on a tablet, and put away for all time to come. All 
my undertakings, which I inscribed on the tablet, may the 
wise consider, and may they bethink themselves of the 
majesty due to the god! The building of the cities for gods 
and goddesses, with which the great lord, Marduk, had 
charged me, and to which he had incited my heart, rever- 
ently I did not cease until I finished their construction. 

At that time E-ul-la, the Temple of Nin-karrak, in Sip- 
par — ^which from time immemorial and for years long gone 
by had not been kept in order, whose walls had fallen into 
decay, and whose site was no longer recognisable, being 
covered with earth — was not reckoned among the shrines 
of the gods; its revenues had been withheld because they 
had not been arranged for; its free-will offerings had 
ceased. Because I seized the garment of Marduk, my 
lord, Marduk, my lord, loved me and intrusted me with the 
renewing of shrines and the rebuilding of ruins. Because 
of my faithful reign, Marduk, the merciful one, bestowed 
favour upon that temple, and Shamash, the lofty judge, 
commanded its renovation. Me, the shepherd who fears 



INSCRIPTION OF NEBUCHADREZZAR II 



147 



them, they gave orders to rebuild it. I sought and 
searched out its ancient platform foundation; the mention 
of the name of " Nin-karrak who dwells in E-ul-la " was 
written on it and was found therein. Upon its ancient plat- 
form foundation I laid its foundation, and for Nin-karrak, 
the mistress who loves me and who protects my life and 
grants safety to my descendants, E-ul-la, her temple, I built 
anew in Sippar. I made its revenues to abound, and estab- 
lished its free-will offerings. 

O Nin-karrak, lofty mistress, 

Look with favour upon the work of my hands, and 
May grace toward me be established upon thy lips! 
A long life, abundance of offspring. 
Health and happiness. 
As a boon do thou grant me! 
Before Shamash and Marduk, 
Look with favour upon my works, command that 
I receive favour! 



THE GROTEFEND INSCRIPTION OF 
NEBUCHADREZZAR II 

Nebuchadrezzar, the just king, the faithful shepherd, 
who directs mankind, who rules over the subjects of Bel, 
Shamash, and Marduk, the arbiter, the possessor of wisdom, 
who cares for life, the lofty one, the untiring one, the main- 
tainer of Esagila and Ezida, the son of Nabopolassar, King 
of Babylon, am I. 

At the time that Marduk, the great lord, raised me to the 
lordship of the land, and committed to my keeping the 
numerous peoples, reverently I bowed down before Mar- 
duk, the god who created me, to bear his yoke I bowed 
my neck. More than ever before I increased his rich tem- 
ple-dues and his pure free-will offerings. Each day an ox, 
clean, fat, and perfect * * * goodly sacrifices, a gift to 
the gods of Esagila and the gods of Babylon, fish, birds, 



148 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

garlic, pilu, the product of the marsh land, honey, curds, 
milk, goodly oil, sesame wine, mead, strong drink from 
the mountains, clear wine, wine from the mountains of 
Izalla, Tu'immu, ^immini, Hilbuni, Aranabani, Suham, 
Bit-kubati, and Bitati, I furnished in abundance Hke the 
water of the river, beyond reckoning, to the table of Mar- 
duk and the table of Zarpanit, my lords. I adorned the 
shrine, the dwelling-place of his lordship, like a wall, with 
shining gold. I overlaid the gate Kuzbu-rapshu with gold, 
and I richly adorned the temple for Qarpanit, my mistress. 
Ezida, the dwelling-place of the god, the king of the gods 
of heaven and earth; the shrine of Nabu in Esag^la, its 
threshold, its bars, and its lock (?) I overlaid with gold, and 
made the temple shine like the day. With joy and re- 
joicing I built E-temen-an-ki, the temple-tower of Babylon. 

I brought to completion Imgur-Bel, the great wall of 
Babylon, the city of the great lord Marduk. At the thresh- 
olds of the city-gates I stationed strong wild-bulls of 
bronze, and serpents standing erect. I dug its moat and 
reached the bottom of the water. I built its bank with 
bitumen and burned brick. I had the bulwark (?) at the 
bank of the mighty wall built with bitumen and burned 
brick, like a mountain, so that it could not be moved. 

In order to strengthen the watch-tower of Esagila, that 
the enemy and the destroyer might not approach Babylon, 
I threw around the city on the outer wall of Babylon a 
strong wall toward the east. I dug its moat and raised 
its bank with bitumen and burned brick mountain-high. 
By the side of Babylon I constructed a dike of great masses 
of earth, and surrounded it with a mighty stream of many 
waters like the fulness of the sea, and then I threw a swamp 
around this. To * * * the life of the people of Babylon 
* * * among the cities of Sumer and Akkad I made its 
name great. 

Ezida, the eternal house, I built anew in Borsippa, and I 
decorated the cedar-wood of its roof with shining gold. I 
adorned its structure with gold, silver, precious stones, 
bronze, palm-wood, and cedar-wood. With joy and re- 



INSCRIPTION OF NEBUCHADREZZAR II 149 

joicing I made Nabu and Nana to take up a residence 
therein well-pleasing to them. Each day, with an ox, 
clean, fat, and perfect, sixteen fat offerings (?), a gift to the 
gods of Borsippa, presents (?) of fish, birds, garlic, pilu, the 
product of the marsh land, mead, serash, sesame wine, 
strong drink from the mountains, clear wine, honey, curds, 
milk, and goodly oil, I weighed down more than ever be- 
fore the table of Nabu and Nana, my lords. 

I set apart six sheep each day as a stated oflfering for 
Nergal and Laz, the gods of E-shidlam and Kutha. The 
temple-dues of the great gods I enlarged (?), and increased 
the former stated oflferings. 

I built anew E-babbara in Sippar for Shamash and A-a, 
my lords. I built anew E-babbara in Larsa for Shamash 
and A-a, my lords. I built anew E-gish-shir-gal in Ur for 
Sin, the lord, the beloved of my royalty. I built anew 
E-ide-kalama in Dilbat for Urash, my lord. I built anew 
E-tur-gina in Baz for Bel-^arbi, my lord. 

The former dues and the ancient rites of Nana, the bril- 
liant mistress of Uruk, I reinstated. To Uruk I returned 
its protecting-deity, and to E-anna its gracious bull-colos- 
sus. I searched for and sought out its ancient platform- 
foundation, and upon its ancient platform-foundation I laid 
its foundation. 

Nebuchadrezzar, the lofty priest-king, the restorer of 
the cities of the great gods, am I. To Esagila and Ezida 
have I remained faithful. I have continually sought out 
the shrines of Nabu and Marduk, my lords. On their holy 
festival, their great feast of the new year, I came into their 
presence with oxen, clean, strong, and perfect, goodly sac- 
rifices, young lambs, garlic, pilu, fish, birds, the product of 
the marsh land, witli measures of serash, beyond reckoning, 
like water, and wine, each year in plenty and abundance. 

The numerous peoples, the rule of which Marduk had 
given into my hands, I made submissive to Babylon, and 
I received therein the income of the lands, the product of 
the mountains, and the riches of the seas. Under its en- 
during protection I gathered together all mankind in com- 



I50 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

fort, and stored up there great heaps of grain beyond 
reckoning. 

At that time I built anew in Babylon the palace, the 
seat of my royalty, the meeting-place for many peoples, 
a dwelling-place of joy and rejoicing, where the defeated 
must do homage; I laid its platform-foundation in virgin 
soil, in the bosom of the deep earth, with bitumen and 
burned brick; from Lebanon, the snow-capped forest, I 
brought mighty cedar trees for its roof; I threw around it 
a mighty wall of bitumen and burned brick, and therein I 
issued royal edicts and lordly decrees. I lifted up my 
hands, I prayed to the lord of lords; to Marduk, the merci- 
ful, my petitions ascended: 

O lord of countries! Marduk! 

Hearken unto the word of my mouth! 

May I enjoy the splendour of the house which I 

have built! 
May I attain therein, 
In Babylon, old age! 
May I be sated with offspring! 
May I receive therein 
The heavy tribute 

Of the kings of the four quarters of the world. 
Of all mankind! 
May my descendants 
Rule therein 
Forever 
Over the Black-headed races! 



THE BORSIPPA INSCRIPTION OF 
NEBUCHADREZZAR II 

Nebuchadrezzar, King of Babylon, the faithful shep- 
herd, the choice of Marduk's loyal heart, the noble priest- 
king, the beloved of Nabu, the knowing, the wise, whose 
ear is attentive to the affairs of the great gods, the un- 



INSCRIPTION OF NEBUCHADREZZAR II 



ISI 



tiring governor, the restorer of Esagila and Ezida, the chief 
son of Nabopolassar, King of Babylon, am I. 

At the time that Marduk, the great lord, faithfully cre- 
ated me, and commissioned me to make his restorations, 
Nabu, the ruler of the hosts of heaven and earth, gave into 
my hands a righteous sceptre. Esagila, the temple of 
heaven and earth, the dwelling-place of the lord of the 
gods Marduk, and E-kua, his shrine, I adorned with 
shining gold like a wall. Ezida I built anew, and with 
silver, gold, precious stones, bronze, palm-wood, cedar- 
wood I completed its construction. E-temen-an-ki, the 
temple-tower of Babylon, I built and completed, and with 
burned brick and shining ugnu-stone I raised on high its 
turrets. 

At that time E-ur-VII-an-ki, the temple-tower of Bor- 
sippa, which a former king had built and raised to a height 
of forty-two cubits without adding its turrets — from time 
immemorial it had been in ruins, its drainage had been out 
of repair, rain and bad weather had disintegrated its un- 
bumed brickwork, the tile work of its roof had become 
cracked, and the unbumed brickwork of its interior was 
poured out into a mound — to rebuild it the great lord, Mar- 
duk, incited my heart. I did not change its site, nor did 
I alter its platform-foundation. In a prosperous month, 
on a favourable day, the unburned brickwork of its in- 
terior, and the tile work of its roof, which were in ruins, I 
repaired, and I restored it from its condition of ruin, and 
I placed an inscription with my name in the corners (?) of 
its stories. To rebuild it and to raise on high its towers 
I lifted up my hands: 

O Nabu, eternal son, exalted messenger, 
Victorious, beloved of Marduk, 
Do thou look 

With favour and joy upon my works, and 
A long life, abundance of offspring, 
A firm throne, an enduring reign, the overthrow of my 
foes, 



152 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

The conquering of the land of the enemy as a boon do thou 

grant me! 
On thy eternal tablet which defines the boundaries 
Of heaven and earth, 
Do thou proclaim the length of my days, do thou write 

my offspring! 
In the presence of Marduk, the king of heaven and earth. 
The father, my begetter, look with favour upon my works. 
Command that I receive favour! 
May Nebuchadrezzar, 
The king, the restorer. 
Be ever established in thy mouth! 



THE BABYLON INSCRIPTION OF 
NEBUCHADREZZAR II 

Nebuchadrezzar, King of Babylon, the lofty prince, 
the choice of Marduk's loyal heart, the faithful shepherd, 
the patron of the shrines of Nabu, who delights their hearts, 
the exalted priest-king, who ponders daily concerning the 
maintenance of Esagila and Ezida, and is continually anx- 
ious for the shrines of Babylon and Borsippa, the wise, the 
pious, the maintainer of Esagila and Ezida, the chief son of 
Nabopolassar, King of Babylon, am I. 

From the time that Marduk, the great lord, my creator, 
faithfully created me, and gave into my charge with pomp 
the shrines of his city Babylon, I did not cease to be faith- 
ful to Marduk, my lord. Daily and unceasingly I medi- 
tated in my heart that which was pleasing to him. With 
silver, gold, costly precious stones, bronze, palm-wood, 
cedar-wood, all kinds of precious and valuable things, with- 
out stint I readorned Esagila and made it brilliant like the 
sun. I completed Ezida, and made it as bright as the 
starry heavens. 

Imgur-Bel and Nimitti-Bel, the great walls of Babylon, 
I set in order, and I built the wall of its moat mountain- 



INSCRIPTION OF NEBUCHADREZZAR II 



»S3 



high with bitumen and burned brick, and threw it around 
the city for protection. Strong wild-bulls of bronze and 
serpents standing erect I stationed in its city-gates, and I 
beautified Babylon for the astonished gaze (of all people). 
I cared for the protection of Esagila and Babylon. In the 
upper * * * of the city-gate Ishtar, from the bank of the 
Euphrates up to the city-gate, for the protection of the 
sides of the city I built with bitumen and burned brick 
a mighty citadel, and I laid its foundation at the water's 
edge in the depth of the clear water. I raised its turrets 
mountain-high, and skilfully strengthened the watch-tower, 
and thus protected Babylon. 

O Marduk, great lord. 

Upon the work of my hands 

Look with grace and favour, and 

May my gracious deeds be established on thy lips! 

By thy pure word, which is unchangeable. 

Proclaim that my days be long, 

Command that I have oflfspring! 

By thy exalted command, which can not be thwarted. 

May I have no enemy, may I possess no foe! 



THE SENKEREH INSCRIPTION OF 
NEBUCHADREZZAR II 

Nebuchadrezzar, King of Babylon, the humble, the 
suppliant, the pious, the worshipper of the lord of lords, the 
restorer of Esagila and Ezida, the legitimate son of Nabo- 
polassar, King of Babylon, am I. 

At the time that Marduk, the great lord, the chief of 
the gods, the mighty leader, appointed me to rule over land 
and people — at that time E-babbara, the Temple of Shamash 
in Larsa, which from time immemorial had been like a heap 
of ruins, in whose interior the mud-walls had disintegrated 
and the outer walls were no longer recognisable — in my 
reign the great lord, Marduk, gave his patronage to that 



154 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

temple. He made the winds to blow, and carried away the 
deposit of its interior so that the outer walls could be seen. 
Me, Nebuchadrezzar, King of Babylon, his governor and 
his worshipper, he commanded with pomp to rebuild that 
house. Its ancient platform-foundation I sought and 
searched out, and I spread fresh mortar (dirt) upon its an- 
cient platform-foundation, and set in place its unbumed 
brickwork. E-babbara, the eternal temple, the dwelling- 
place of Shamash, my lord, I rebuilt to Shamash, the great 
lord, my lord, who dwells in E-babbara, which is in Larsa. 

O Shamash, great lord. 

When thou makest thy entrance 

Into E-babbara, the dwelling-place of thy lordship. 

With joy and rejoicing. 

Upon the gracious work of my hands 

Do thou look with favour, and 

May a life of many days, 

A firm throne, and 

An enduring reigfn 

Be established on thy lips! 

May the thresholds, bolts, and hinges of the doors 

Of E-babbara 

Ever 

Recall to thee 

My gracious deeds! 



THE CANAL INSCRIPTION OF 
NEBUCHADREZZAR II 

Nebuchadrezzar, King of Babylon, the humble, the 
pious, the worshipper of the great gods, the exalted patesi, 
the restorer of Esagila and Ezida, the son of Nabopolassar, 
King of Babylon, am I. 

I sought out the site of Libil-hegalla, the eastern canal 
of Babylon, which had been in ruins from time immemorial, 
and was choked up with sand-bars and full of debris, and 



INSCRIPTION OF NEBUCHADREZZAR II 155 

from the bank of the Euphrates as far as A-ibur-shabu(m) 
I rebuilt with bitumen and burned brick its side walls. 
In A-ibur-shabu(m), the street of Babylon, for a procession 
street of the great lord, Marduk, I constructed a bridge 
over the canal, and made its roadway broad. 

O Marduk, great lord, • 

Continuously 

Look with favour upon me, and 

A long life. 

Abundance of offspring, 

A firm throne, 

And an enduring 

Reign 

As a boon 

Do thou grant me! 



THE NEW YORK INSCRIPTION OF 
NEBUCHADREZZAR II 

Nebuchadrezzar, the righteous king, the humble, the 
pious, who knows reverence for the gods, who loves equity 
and righteousness, who cares for life, who places reverence 
for the great gods in the mouth of men, who puts in order 
the shrine of the gods, the maintainer of Esagila and 
Ezida, the legitimate son of Nabopolassar, King of Baby- 
lon, am I. 

At the time that Marduk, the great lord, raised me to 
the lordship of the land, and summoned me with an exalted 
name to the restoration of the city and the renovation of his 
shrines, E-babbara, the Temple of Shamash, which is in 
Sippar, which long before me had fallen into decay, was 
then like a heap of ruins, and Shamash, the great lord, did 
not favour any former king, and so did not give orders 
to rebuild it. As for me, his servant, the wise, the sup- 
pliant, who reverences his divinity, my heart pondered con- 
cerning the rebuilding of the shrine, I awaited (?) the sun. 



IS6 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

I lifted up my hands, I prayed to the sun, concerning the 
rebuilding of E-babbara I made supplication, thus: 

O Shamash, great lord. 

Accept the lifting up of my hands. 

Hearken unto my prayer! 

Concerning the rebuilding of that temple, I inquired 
of every oracle (?) of Shamash, Ramman, and Marduk, and 
Shamash, Ramman, and Marduk granted sure favour to 
my undertaking concerning the rebuilding of the Temple of 
E-babbara. For Shamash, the lord, the exalted judge of 
heaven and earth, the great warrior, the worthy hero, the 
lord who dictates righteous decisions, the great lord, my 
lord, his temple, E-babbara, which is in Sippar, I built with 
joy and rejoicing. 

O Shamash, great lord. 

When thou joyfully enterest E-babbara, thy shin- 
ing temple. 

Ever look with favour upon the costly undertak- 
ing of my hand! 

May my gracious deeds be established on thy lips! 

By thy sure command 

May I be sated with offspring! 

A long life and 

A firm throne do thou grant me! 

May my sway be long and 

Extend forever! 

Adorn my kingdom 

Forever 

With a righteous sceptre, 

With goodly rule, and 

With a staflf of justice. 

For the welfare of my people! 

Protect my people 

With strong weapons and 

With the onslaught of battle! 

Do thou, O Shamash, 

Truly answer me 



INSCRIPTION OF NABONIDUS 157 

In judgment and in dream! 

At thy noble command, 

Which can not be altered, 

May my weapons be drawn. 

May they wound, 

May they overthrow the weapons of the enemies ! 



INSCRIPTION FROM THE FOUR CLAY 

CYLINDERS OF NABONIDUS, KING 

OF BABYLON (555-538 b. c.) 

MENTIONING BELSHAZZAR, THE KING'S SON 
Found at the corners of the Temple of Sin at Mugheir 

Nabonidus, King of Babylon, patron of Esagila and 
Ezida, who fears the great gods, am I. 

As for E-lugal-(?)-si-di, the temple tower of E-gish- 
shir-gal, which is in Ur, which Ur-uk, a former king, had 
built, but had not completed — Dun-gi, his son, completed 
its construction. From the inscriptions of Ur-uk and 
Dun-gi, his son, I learned that Ur-uk had built this temple- 
tower, without completing it, and that Dun-gi, his son, 
had completed its construction. This temple-tower was 
now old, and upon the old platform-foundation which 
Ur-uk and Dun-gi, his son, had built, I undertook the re- 
construction of this temple-tower, as of old, with bitumen 
and burned brick, and for Sin, the lord of the gods of heaven 
and earth, the king of the gods, the god of gods, who in- 
habit the great heavens, the lord of E-gish-shir-gal, which 
is in Ur, my lord, I founded and built (it). 

O Sin, lord of the gods, king of the gods of heaven and 
earth, the god of gods, who inhabit the great heavens, 
upon thy joyful entrance into that temple may the good 
done to Esagila, Ezida (and) E-gish-shir-gal, the temples 
of thy great divinity, be established on thy lips! 

And do thou implant the fear of thy great divinity in 
the heart of its people, that they may not sin against thy 



158 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

great divinity, (and) like the heavens may their foundations 
stand fast! 

As for me, Nabonidus, King of Babylon, save me from 
sinning against thy great divinity! 

A life of far-distant days grant me as a present! 

And as regards Belshazzar, the first-born son, my off- 
spring, do thou implant in his heart the fear of thy great 
divinity! 

May he not fall into sin! 

May he be satisfied with fulness of life! 



THE STELE OF NABONIDUS 

* * * he planned (?) evil * * * his heart planned (?) 
rebellion. He did not grant (?) forgiveness, evil * * * 
Against Babylon [he went?]. He laid in ruins its temples, 
destroyed the reliefs, overturned the shrines (?); he took 
the hand of the Prince Marduk, and brought (him) to 
Asshur. He treated the land according to the measure of 
the wrath of the god. The Prince Marduk did not relax 
his anger. For twenty-one years he made his dwelling- 
place in Asshur. 

The days were fulfilled, the appointed time came; then 
was his wrath appeased which the king of the gods, the 
lord of lords, had planned against Esagila and Babylon, 
the dwelling-place of his lordship. 

As for the King of Assyria, who, on account of the 
wrath of Marduk, had brought about the destruction of 
the land, his own son killed him with a sword. 

* * * a helper he gave him, and he furnished him 
with an ally. The king of the Umman-manda, who was 
without a rival, he made obedient to his command, and 
brought to his help. Above and below, right and left, 
like a cyclone he laid waste (the land); he avenged Baby- 
lon, he multiplied vengeance. The king of the Umman- 
manda, the fearless, ruined the temples of the gods of As- 



THE STELE OF NABONIDUS 159 

Syria — ^all of them; and the cities on the border of Akkad, 
which were hostile to the King of Akkad, and had not 
come to his help, he ruined, and of their sanctuaries he did 
not leave one. He laid waste their cities more than was 
necessary, like a cyclone. The work of Marduk, which 
(consisted in) plundering, grieved the King of Babylon. 
He did not put his hands to the shrines (?) of the gods — 
any of them. He prospered and did not lie down on a 
bed * * * their gods * * * whose name Marduk had 
called to people the cities of the gods, which had been 
destroyed; who established with his hands the ruined 
mounds, the temples of the gods. 

Nana of Uruk, the lofty princess, who dwells in a house 
of gold, who puts seven lions to harness, whose power 
during the reign of Erba-Marduk, the king, the Uruk- 
kjeans had crushed, whose house they had torn down and 
whose set of lions they had turned loose, went forth from 
E-an-na in wrath, and resided (in a place which was) not 
her residence. A deity, who did not belong in E-an-na, 
they permitted to reside in her shrine. He brought Ishtar 
to her rights, restored her to her house, put to harness for 
her the seven lions, the mark of her divinity. The Ishtar, 
who did not belong here, he brought forth from E-an-na, 
and the goddess Nana, he restored to E-an-na, to her 
shrine. 

Ishtar, the mistress of Elam, the princess, who dwells 
in Susa * * * dwelling in * * * which is in * * * 
which, from time immemorial, no one had seen, of gish- 
shir-gal stone, which is as bright as day, and pure gold 
he restored her residence. Anunit, who dwells in Sippar 
of Anunit, whose residence an enemy had changed some 
time before to Arrapha, and whose shrine the Gutaeans 
had ruined, Neriglassar renewed, and he furnished her with 
a divinity-gown. Her house was in ruins. In Sippar of 
Am-na-nu he permitted her to take up her residence, and 
he re-established her offerings. 

When the days were fulfilled and he had gone the way 
of fate, Labashi-Marduk, his younger son, who knew not 



l6o ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

how to rule, took his seat against the will of the gods upon 
the royal throne, and * * ♦ to the palace (?) they brought 
me, and all of them threw themselves at my feet and kissed 
them, doing homage to my royal rule. By command of 
Marduk, my lord, I was raised to the rule over the land, 
while they cried out, " Father of the land! He has no 
equal! " 

I am the mighty legate of Nebuchadrezzar and Neri- 
glassar, the kings, my predecessors. Their troops were 
intrusted to my hands. I do not sin against their bidding, 
and I make glad their hearts. Evil-Merodach, the son of 
Nebuchadrezzar, and Labashi-Marduk, the son of Neri- 
glassar * * * they broke their commands * * * I prayed 
to them touching the approach (?) of the great star, and 
Sin. While I still communed with myself, the noble lord 
stood at my side, and spoke to me as follows: " The ap- 
proach (?) betokens no evil." In that dream Nebuchad- 
rezzar, the former king, and the lord, the minister, stood 
on a chariot. The minister spoke to Nebuchadrezzar as 
follows: " Speak with Nabonidus, and he will interpret for 
thee the dream which he saw." Nebuchadrezzar gave ear 
to him and spoke with me as follows: " Tell me what of 
good omen thou didst see." I was afraid of him, and I 
spoke to him as follows: " In my dream I saw a great star, 
Sin and Marduk, in the midst of the high heavens — au- 
spiciously." He addressed me by name * * * Venus, Sat- 
urn * * * Jupiter, a star * * * great, dwelling in the 
heavens, I made (?). Great (?) I made them. For a long 
life, a firm throne, an enduring reign, favour (shown to) 
my words before Marduk, my lord, I prayed to them. I 
lay down and in the middle of the night I saw Bau (Gula), 
my mistress, who makes the dead to live, (and) who gives 
long life. For eternal life for my soul, that she would 
turn her face in favour, I prayed to her. She turned her 
face in favour, and with her shining countenance she looked 
on me with interest, and granted (me) mercy. Into 
E-sha-pa-kalama-shum-ma I entered, and before Nabu, 
who makes my reign long, and who has intrusted me 



THE STELE OF NABONIDUS i6i 

with a righteous sceptre, and with a firm staff which 
enlarges the country, I sought out the seat of Tashmet, 
the goddess Gula, who grants Hfe, and she granted (?) (me) 
a long life (and) the overthrow of kings. Before Marduk, 
my lord, she looked with favour on my words. 

Marduk, my lord, was appeased (?) with reverence. 
I magnified (him) and with petition and prayer I sought 
out his seat and I read his prayers. I told him the words 
of my heart, as follows: I am the king, the favourite (?) of 
thy heart (?). While the kingdom is in my heart (=:=is 
my chief concern) do not make me too proud (?) to know 
thee, since thou, O lord of lords, hast intrusted me with 
more than other kings, whom thou hast called. While 
I exercise authority, prolong my days, let my years con- 
tinue indefinitely, and let me carry out the restoration 
* * * divinity * * * precious stones and gold to make 
his appearance brilliant; for Ea, my lord, who enlarges my 
dominion; Nabu, who rules the hosts of heaven and earth, 
who prolongs the days of my life; Tashmet, the mistress, 
who protects my life, for a gown of their great divinity I 
made splendid with great zeal. For Ea, my lord, a chair 
of pure gold, which no former king had made, as in days 
of old I made, and in E-kar-za-gin-na in his chamber I 
placed (it) for his seat. 

The king, who held constantly in mind, every day, 
without fail, the maintenance of Esagila and Ezida, am I. 

The doors of wood which are in the rooms of the temple 
of the gods of heaven and earth, the house of the decision of 
Marduk and Qarpanit, and the doorways of E-ki (?) on both 
sides of the Temple of E-mah, and the ten (?) gates of the 
goddess, my mistress, for the procession of ^arpanit, be- 
loved of Marduk, who lays firm the foundation (?) of my 
royal throne, I overlaid with bright silver. The gate of 
Gula, the gate of E-mah, whose doors for decoration (?) 
were made of wood, the splendid doors, their doorways I 
constructed anew of cedar, inlaid them with eshmaru-metal, 
made them as brilliant as the day, made them to appear as 
if covered with their original decorations, for the procession 



l62 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

of Bau I set them in place. Serpents of bronze, which are 
on the side walls of E-mah, and * * * who maintains, who 
brings large gifts to the great gods, am I. 

In the month Nisan, on the tenth day, when the king 
of the gods, Marduk, and the gods of heaven and earth 
take up their dwelling in E-sigisshe-sigisshe, the house of 
prayer, the house of the festival of the god, the lord of 
truth, one hundred talents, twenty-one manas of silver, five 
talents, seventeen manas of gold to the offerings of every 
year which from the tribute-presents (?), from the fulness of 
the land, all the riches of the mountains, the income from all 
settlements, the treasures (?) of the kings, the rich posses- 
sions, which Prince Marduk had intrusted to me, to Bel, 
Nabu, and Nergal, the great gods, who love my reign, who 
protect my life forever, offerings, such as their hearts de- 
sired, I brought before them. Twenty-seven hundred and 
fifty of the soldiers * * * (?) (?) which Marduk, the lord, 
had given to me in larger numbers than to the kings my 
predecessors, and which he had intrusted to me, as guards 
of the shrine (?), I presented to Bel, Nabu, and Nergal, my 
gods, who go at my side. 

After I had celebrated the festival of bit-akitu I caused 
Bel and the son of Bel to reside in their splendid residence. 
I brought into the large cities magnificent presents to g^ve 
(them) to Bel and Nergal. I went to Uruk, Larsa, and Ur, 
and I brought silver, gold (and) precious stones into the 
presence of Sin, Shamash, and Ishtar. The oracle of the 
goddess HAR in (?) the city of Ishtar in my march (?) 
* * * sacrifices without blemish * * * their (?) founda- 
tion. They did not reside in their residence. Marduk, my 
lord, waited on me and he intrusted to my hands the re- 
pairs of the shrines of the gods; (and) with his illustrious 
command, he ordered (as the work) of my reign the rec- 
onciliation of the gods, who were enraged, (and) the re- 
habiting of their residences. In Harran, E-huI-hul, which 
had been in ruins fifty-four years, on account of the de- 
structive raid of the Umman-manda, who had laid waste the 
temples — fifty-four years were declared (?) to him by the 



INSCRIPTION OF NABONIDUS 163 

gods as the time of reconciliation when Sin should return 
to his seat. 

Now that he was to return to his seat, Sin, the lord of 
the moon disk, was mindful of his exalted residence, and the 
gods, as many as had gone forth with him from his shrine, 
Marduk, the king of the gods, gave orders to assemble. 
The ***(?) of precious ashpu-stone, the royal stone, 
with which Ashurbanipal, the King of Assyria, had deco- 
rated the statue of Sin for a memorial of his name, and had 
built thereon (the majestic position of Sin on the * * * 
he had described) and had placed it on the neck of Sin — 
since, in days gone by, its figure had been damaged (?) 
through a destructive raid of an enemy, in order that his 
omens might not come into disuse in Esagila, the house, 
which protects the life of the great gods * * * 

[Column XI is omitted because of the many difficult pas- 
sages which can not be satisfactorily explained.] 



INSCRIPTION ON A CLAY CYLINDER 
OF NABONIDUS 

I, Nabonidus, the great king, the powerful king, the 
king of the world, the King of Babylon, the king of the 
four quarters of the world, the patron of Esagila and Ezida, 
whose destiny Sin and Ningal, while he was yet in the 
womb of his mother, determined as a royal destiny, the son 
of Nabu-balatsu-iqbi, the wise prince, who worships the 
great gods, am I. 

E-hul-hul, the Temple of Sin, which is in Harran, in 
which, from time immemorial. Sin, the great lord, had 
made a residence well-pleasing to him — ^against that city 
and temple his heart became angered, and he brought the 
Scythians to attack it, and he destroyed that temple and 
brought it to ruin. 

In my legitimate reign, Bel, the great lord, through 
love for my kingdom, was gracious, and showed mercy to 



164 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

that city and temple. In the beginning of my everlasting 
reign he made me to see a vision. Marduk, the great lord, 
and Sin, the light of heaven and earth, stood on either side. 
Marduk spake with me: " Nabonidus, King of Babylon, 
haul bricks with thy wagon-horses, rebuild E-hul-hul, and 
make Sin, the great lord, to take up his residence therein." 
Reverently I spake unto the lord of the gods, Marduk: 
" The Scythians have encompassed that house, which thou 
didst command to rebuild, and their forces are mighty." 
But Marduk spake with me: " The Scythians of whom 
thou hast spoken — ^they, their country, and the kings who 
marched with them are no more." On the approach of the 
third year they instigated Cyrus, King of Anzan, his petty 
vassal, to attack them, and with his few troops he routed 
the numerous Scythians. He seized Astyages, King of 
the Scythians, and took him as a captive to his own coun- 
try. (It was) the word of the great lord, Marduk, and Sin, 
the light of heaven and earth, whose command can not be 
annulled. At their illustrious command I was afraid; I 
became anxious and alarmed, and I was much troubled. I 
did not tarry, I did not draw back, I took no rest; I put 
my numerous troops on the march from Gaza, on the bor- 
der of the land of Egypt, from the Upper Sea beyond the 
Euphrates to the Lower Sea, the kings, princes, governors, 
and my numerous troops, which Sin, Shamash, and Ishtar, 
my lords, had intrusted to me, to rebuild E-hul-hul, the Tem- 
ple of Sin, my lord, who walks at my side, which is in Harran, 
and which Ashurbanipal, the King of Assyria, the son of 
Esarhaddon, the King of Assyria, a prince, my predecessor, 
had built. In a favourable month, on an auspicious day, 
revealed to me by Shamash and Ramman in a vision, with 
the wisdom of Ea and Marduk, with incantations, with the 
co-operation of the Brick-god, the lord of foundations and 
brick, with silver, gold, and precious stones, products of 
the forest, sweet-smelling cedars, amid joy and rejoicing, 
I laid its foundation and raised its brick-work on the plat- 
form-foundation of Ashurbanipal, the King of Assyria, who 
had found the platform-foundation of Shalmaneser, the 



INSCRIPTION OF NABONIDUS 165 

son of Ashurnagirpal. I poured date-wine, wine, oil, and 
honey over its walls, and I sprinkled its wood-work (?) 
therewith. I made its parts stronger and its construction 
more artistic than did the kings, my forefathers. I built 
that temple anew from its platform-foundation to its roof, 
and I completed its construction. I laid in rows upon it 
(as a roof) long cedar poles, the product of the Amanus; I 
set up in its doorways doors of cedar, whose odour was 
good; I overlaid its brick-work with silver and gold and I 
made it to shine like the sun. I stationed in its building as 
a present a wild bull of bright zahalu-metal, which forces 
back my foes. I placed two Lahmus of eshmaru, which 
overthrow my enemies, on the right and left in the Eastern 
Gate. I took the hands of Sin, Ningal, Nusku, and Sadar- 
nunna, my lords, from Babylon, my royal city, and with 
joy and rejoicing I made them take up a residence therein 
well-pleasing to them. I ofifered large, clean sacrifices in 
their presence, and brought forward my presents. I 
brought the ancient E-hul-hul and the entire city of Harran 
to a state of perfection, and I made it to shine with the 
brilliancy of the New Moon. 

O Sin, king of the gods of heaven and earth, who from 
time immemorial hast not resided in city or country, nor 
hast returned to his original seat, when thou enterest E-hul- 
hul, the temple, thy luxurious dwelling, may the good done 
to the city and that temple be on thy lips! 

May the gods, who dwell in heaven and earth, 
grant blessing to the Temple of Sin, their father and 
begetter! 

May Sin, the king of the gods of heaven and earth, 
with gracious eyes uplifted, look with joy upon me, Na- 
bonidus. King of Babylon, who has brought his temple 
to completion, and may he give me favourable signs 
monthly at the rising and setting! 

May he lengthen my days, prolong my years, and estab- 
lish my reign! 

May he vanquish my enemies, overthrow my adver- 
saries, and overwhelm my foes ! 



l66 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

May Ningal, the mother of the great gods, make 
kindly mention of me in the presence of Sin, her be- 
loved! 

May Shamash and Ishtar, his brilliant offspring, make 
gracious reference to me before Sin, their father and be- 
getter! 

May Nusku, the exalted minister, hear my prayers and 
make intercession for me! 

I found the inscription, written in the name of Ashur- 
banipal, the King of Assyria, and I did not alter it. I 
anointed it with oil, offered sacrifices, placed it with my in- 
scription, and restored it to its place. 

For Shamash, the judge of heaven and earth, E-bab- 
bara, his temple which is in Sippara, which Nebuchadrez- 
zar, a former king, had rebuilt, after searching for its plat- 
form-foundation without finding it — ^that house he rebuilt, 
but in forty-five years its walls had fallen in. I became 
anxious and humble; I was alarmed and much troubled. 
When I had brought out Shamash from within it and made 
him take residence in another- house, I pulled that house 
down and made search for its old platform-foundation; and 
I dug to a depth of eighteen cubits, and Shamash, the 
great lord of E-babbara, the temple, the dwelling well- 
pleasing to him, permitted me to behold the platform-foun- 
dation of Naram-Sin, the son of Sargon, which, during a 
period of thirty-two hundred years, no king among my 
predecessors had seen. In the month Tishrit, in a favour- 
able month, on an auspicious day, revealed to me by Sha- 
mash and Ramman in a vision, with silver, gold, costly 
and precious stones, products of the forest, sweet-smelling 
cedars, amid joy and rejoicing, I raised its brick-work — 
not an inch inward or outward — upon the platform-founda- 
tion of Naram-Sin, the son of Sargon. I laid in rows five 
thousand large cedars for its roof; I set up in its doorways 
high doors of cedar, thresholds and hinges (?). I built 
E-babbara, with its temple-tower E-ilu-an-azagga anew 
and I completed its construction. I took the hands of 
Shamash, my lord, and with joy and rejoicing I made him 



INSCRIPTION OF NABONIDUS 167 

take up a residence therein well-pleasing to him. I found 
the inscription, written in the name of Naram-Sin, the son 
of Sargon, and I did not alter it. I anointed it with oil, 
offered sacrifices, placed it with my inscription, and re- 
stored it to its place. 

O Shamash, great lord of heaven and earth, light of 
the gods, his fathers, offspring of Sin and Ningal, when 
thou enterest E-babbara, thy beloved temple, when thou 
takest residence in thy eternal shrine, look with joy upon 
me, Nabonidus — King of Babylon, the prince, thy sup- 
porter, who hath gladdened thy heart and built thy lofty 
dwelling-place — and my gracious works! 

Give me favourable signs daily at the rising and setting 
(of the sun) in the heavens and on earth! 

Receive my supplications and grant favour to my peti- 
tions ! 

May I hold the legitimate sceptre and staff, which thou 
hast intrusted to me, forever and ever! 

For Anunit, the mistress of battle, who beareth bow 
and quiver, who executeth the commands of Bel, her father, 
who overwhelmeth the enemy, who destroyeth the wicked, 
who marcheth before the gods, who giveth me favourable 
signs at the rising and setting of the sun — ^for the old plat- 
form-foundation of E-ul-bar, her temple, which is in Sip- 
para of Anunit (which for eight hundred years since the 
time of Shagashaltiburiash, King of Babylon, son of Kudur- 
Bel, no king had rebuilt), I made excavations and I dis- 
covered it. I found it and I laid its foundation and raised 
its brick-work upon the platform-foundation of Shagashalti- 
buriash, the son of Kudur-Bel. I built that temple anew, 
and I completed its construction. Anunit, the mistress of 
battle, who executeth the commands of Bel, who over- 
whelmeth the enemy, who destroyeth the wicked, who 
marcheth before the gods, I made to take residence there- 
in. I made the stated and free-will offerings larger than 
before, iand I set them before her. 

Do thou, O Anunit, great mistress, when thou enterest 
with joy into this temple, look with joy upon my gracious 



l68 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

works, and every month at sunrise and sunset do thou 
bring to Sin, thy father and begetter, my loyal homage! 

Whosoever thou art whom Sin and Shamash shall name 
to the kingdom, and in whose reign this temple may fall 
into decay and he may rebuild it — may he see the inscrip- 
tion written in my name, and may he not alter it! 

May he anoint it with oil, offer sacrifices, place it with 
the inscription written in his name, and restore it to its 
place! 

May Shamash and Anunit hear his prayer, look with 
favour on his commands, and march at his side! 

May they overthrow his foes! 

May they make gfracious reference to him daily before 
Sin, their father and begetter! 



THE ANNALS OF NABONIDUS 

[Two columns of the inscription, and parts of another, are 
: too much mutilated for translation.] 

[His troops] he collected, and he marched against Cyrus, 

King of Anshan, to conquer him * * * 
The troops of Astyages rebelled against him, and, taking 

him prisoner, they handed him over to Cyrus. 
Cyrus (went) to Ecbatana, the royal city. The silver, gold, 

possessions, property * * * 
of Ecbatana they carried away as spoil, and he brought (it) 

to Anshan. The possessions (and) property * * * 
7th year. The king in Tema; the son of the king, the 

nobles, and his soldiers in Akkad. [The king for 

Nisan] 
did not come to Babylon. Nabu did not come to Babylon; 

Bel was not brought forth, and the akitu-festival 

[was not celebrated] . 
They offered (gave) sacrifices in Esagila and Ezida to the 

gods of Babylon and Borsippa, as is [right]; the 

urigal poured out libations and guarded the house. 
8th year. 



THE ANNALS OF NABONIDUS 169 

9th year. Nabonidus, the king, in Tema; the son of the 

king, the nobles, and the soldiers in Akkad. The 

king did not come 
to Babylon for Nisan. Nabu did not come to Babylon; 

Bel was not brought forth, and the akitu-festival 

was not celebrated. 
They offered sacrifices in Esagila and Ezida to the gods of 

Babylon and Borsippa, as is right. 
The month Nisan. The fifth day. The mother of the 

king died in Durkarashu, which is on the bank of 

the Euphrates above Sippar. 
The son of the king and his soldiers mourned three days. 

A lamentation was arranged. In Sivan, in Akkad, 
a lamentation for the mother of the king was arranged. In 

Nisan, Cyrus, King of Parsu, mustered his troops, 

and 
crossed over the Tigris below Arbela. In lyyar, to the 

country * * * 
He slew its king (and) took away its possessions. He sta- 
tioned his own garrison there. 
After this time his garrison remained there with that of the 

king, 
loth year. The king in Tema; the son of the king, the 

nobles, and his troops in Akkad. [The king did 

not come to Babylon for Nisan.] 
Nabu did not come to Babylon; Bel was not brought forth, 

and the akitu-festival was not celebrated. In [Esa- 
gila and Ezida] 
they offered sacrifices to the gods of Babylon and Borsippa, 

as is right. In Sivan, on the twenty-first day * * * 
of Elammiya in Akkad * * * the representative in Uruk 

nth year. The king in Tema; the son of the king, the 

nobles, and his troops in Akkad. [The king did 

not come to Babylon for Nisan.] 
[Nabu did not come to] Babylon; Bel was not brought 

forth, and the akitu-festival was not celebrated. 

Sacrifices [in Esagila and Ezida] 



170 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



[to the gods of] Babylon and [Borsippa, as is right] they 

offered. 
[17th year.] * * * Nabu from Borsippa to go forth * * * 

* * * the king entered E-tur-kalam-ma. In the [month] 

* * * and the Lower Sea rebelled (?)*** 

[Nabu came to Babylon] ; Bel was brought forth and the 
akitu-festival was celebrated, as is right. In the 
month * * * 

the gods of Maradda, the god Zamama, and the gods of 
Kish, Beltis, and the gods 

of Har-sag-kalam-ma entered Babylon. By the end of Elul 
the gods of Akkad, 

those who are above as well as those below the firmament, 
entered Babylon. The gods of Borsippa, Kutha, 

and Sippar did not enter. In the month Tammuz, when 
Cyrus gave battle in Opis (and?) on 

the river Salsallat to the troops of Akkad, the people of 
Akkad 

he subdued (?). Whenever the people collected them- 
selves, he slew them. On the fourteenth day Sip- 
par was taken without battle. 

Nabonidus fled. On the sixteenth day, Gobryas, the gov- 
ernor of Gutium, and the troops of Cyrus entered 
Babylon 

without battle. Nabonidus, because of his delay, was 
taken prisoner in Babylon. Until the end of the 
month, the shields 

of Gutium surrounded the gates of Esagila. No weapons 
were brought into Esagila and the other temples, 

and no standard was advanced. On the third day of Mar- 
cheshvan, Cyrus entered Babylon. 

The harine lay down before him. Peace was established 
for the city. Cyrus proclaimed peace to 

all Babylon. He appointed Gobryas, his governor, gov- 
ernor in Babylon, 

and from Kislev to Adar, the gods of Akkad, which Na- 
bonidus had brought to Babylon, 



THE CYLINDER OF CYRUS 171 

returned to their own cities. On the night of the eleventh 
day of Marcheshvan, Gobryas against * * * 

and (?) he killed the son of the king. From the twenty- 
seventh day of Adar until the third of Nisan, a lam- 
entation [was arranged] in Akkad. 

All the people cast down their heads. On the fourth day, 
when Cambyses, son of Cyrus, went 

to E-sha-pa-kalamma-shum-mu, the prefect of Nabu, who 

* * * 

[when] he went (?), he brought a message in his hand, 

and when the hands of Nabu * * * 
javelins and quivers * * * son of the king (?) to * * * 

* * * Nabu turned to Esagila; sacrifices before Bel and 

* * * 



THE CYLINDER OF CYRUS (538-529 b. c.) 

* * * his troops (?) 

* * * quarters (of the world) 

* * * a weakling was appointed to the government of his 

land 

* * * a similar one he appointed over them, 

like Esagila he made * * * to Ur and the rest of the 

cities, 
a command unbefitting them * * * daily he planned and, 

in enmity, 
he allowed the regular offering' to cease; he appointed 

* * * he established within the city. As for the wor- 
ship of Marduk, king of the gods, who destroyed (?) 

* * * 

he showed hostility toward his city daily * * * his (peo- 
ple), he brought all of them to ruin through servi- 
tude without rest. 

The lord of the gods became furious with anger at their 
complaints, and [abandoned] their territory. The 
gods, who dwelt among them, left their abodes. 



172 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

in anger that he had brought (strange deities •) into Baby- 
lon. Marduk in * * * turned (?) to all the habita- 
tions whose sites had been ruined, 

and the people of Sumer and Akkad, who resembled 
corpses * * * he granted mercy. He searched 
through all lands, he saw him, 

and he sought the righteous prince, after his own heart, 
whom he took by the hand. Cyrus, King of An- 
shan, he called by name; to sovereignty over the 
whole world he appointed him. 

The country of Qutu, all the Umman-manda, he made sub- 
missive to him. As for the Black-headed People, 
whom he (Marduk) caused his (Cyrus') hands to 
conquer, 

in justice and right he cared for them. Marduk, the great 
lord, guardian of his people, looked with joy on his 
pious works and his upright heart; 

he commanded him to go to his city Babylon, and he caused 
him to take the road to Babylon, going by his side 
as a friend and companion. 

His numerous troops, the number of which, like the waters 
of a river, can not be known, in full armour, marched 
at his side. 

Without skirmish or battle he permitted him to enter Baby- 
lon. He spared his city Babylon in (its) calamity. 
Nabonidus, the king, who did not reverence him, he 
delivered into his hand. 

All the people of Babylon, all Sumer and Akkad, nobles 
and governors, prostrated themselves before him, 
kissed his feet, rejoiced at his sovereignty, showed 
happiness in their faces. 

The lord, who by his power brings the dead to life, who 
with (his) care and protection benefits all men — they 
gladly did him homage, they heeded his command. 

I am Cyrus, king of the world, the great king, the pow- 
erful king. King of Babylon, King of Sumer and 
Akkad, king of the four quarters (of the world), 

' With Prince Marduk. 



THE CYLINDER OF CYRUS 



173 



son of Cambyses, the great king, King of Anshan; grand- 
son of Cyrus, the great king. King of Anshan; great- 
grandson of Teispis, the great king. King of Anshan, 

of ancient seed-royal, whose reign Bel and Nabu love, 
whose sovereignty they regard necessary to their 
happiness. When I made my gracious entrance into 
Babylon, 

with joy and rejoicing I took up my lordly residence in 
the royal palace. Marduk, the great lord, [granted] 
me favour among the Babylonians, and I gave daily 
care to his worship. 

My numerous troops marched peacefully into Babylon. In 
all Sumer and Akkad, the noble race, I permitted no 
unfriendly treatment. 

I gave proper attention to the needs of Babylon and its 
cities. The Babylonians * * * as much as they 
desired * * * the servitude, which was not hon- 
ourable, was removed (?) from them. 

I quieted their sighing (and) soothed their sorrow. Marduk, 
the great lord, rejoiced over my [pious] deeds, and 

he graciously blessed me, Cyrus, the king who worships 
him, and Cambyses, my own son, and all my troops, 

while we, in his presence, and with sincerity, gladly lauded 
his exalted [divinity]. All the kings dwelling in 
royal halls, 

of all the quarters (of the world), from the Upper to the 
Lower Sea, dwelling * * * all the kings of the west 
country, who dwell in tents, 

brought me their heavy taxes, and in Babylon kissed my 
feet. From * * * as far as Asshur and Shushan, 

Agane, Eshnunak, Zamban, Meturnu, Durilu as far as the 
border of the land of Quti, the cities on the other 
side of the Tigris, whose sites were of ancient foun- 
dation — 

the gods, who dwelt in them, I restored to their places, and 
I gave them a habitation for all time. I collected all 
their people and restored (them) to their dwelling- 
places 



174 ASSVrIAN and BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

and the gods of Sumer and Akkad, whom Nabonidus, to 
the anger of the lord of the gods, had brought into 
Babylon, by the command of Marduk, the great 
lord, peacefully 

in their own shrines I made them dwell, in habitations giv- 
ing joy to their hearts. May all the gods whom I 
brought into their own cities, 

daily before Bel and Nabu pray that I may have a long life, 
may they speak a gracious word for me, and may 
they say to Marduk, my lord: " Cyrus, the king who 
worships thee, and Cambyses his son 

* * * their * * *." I permitted all the lands to dwell in 
quiet. 

[The remainder of the inscription is too much mutilated 
for translation.] 



BRICK OF CYRUS 

Cyrus, builder of 
Esagila and Ezida, 
son of Cambyses, 
the powerful king, am I. 



THE LARGE INSCRIPTION OF DARIUS 
FROM BEHISTUN 

[I AM Darius, the great king, king of kings, king of 
countries,] the Achaemenian, king of all men, a Persian, 
the King of Persia. 

Thus speaks Darius the king: My father is Hystaspes, 
the father of Hystaspes [is Arsamnes, the father of Arsam- 
nes is] Ariaramnes, the father of Ariaramnes is Shishpish 
(Teispes), the father of Shishpish is Achaemenes. 

Thus speaks Darius the king: For this reason [we are 



THE LARGE INSCRIPTION OF DARIUS 



1 75 



called Achaemenians, from of old] we [have been tested,] 
from of old (?) (members) of our family have been kings. 

Thus speaks Darius the king: Eight members of my 
family preceding me have ruled as kings; [I am the ninth; 
in two lines we are nine kings.] 

[Thus] speaks [Darius the king:] Under the protec- 
tion of Ahura-mazda I am king; Ahura-mazda gave me 
the sovereignty. 

Thus speaks Darius the king: These [are the countries 
which came to me; by the will of Ahura-mazda] I became 
their king: Persia, Elam, Babylonia, Assyria, Arabia, 
Migir (Egypt), the islands in the gulf, Sparda, Ionia, [Me- 
dia, Armenia, Cappadocia, Parthia, Drangiana,] Aremu 
(Aria), Humarizmu (Chorasmia), Bactria, Sogdiana, Paru- 
paraesana, Nammiri, Satagu, [Arachosia, Maka — in all 
twenty-three countries.] 

[Thus speaks Darius the king:] These are the coun- 
tries which obey me, under the protection of Ahura-mazda; 
they became subject to me, [they brought me] tribute, 
they did that [which I commanded them by night or day.] 

Thus speaks Darius the king: The prudent man within 
these lands [I have richly rewarded; the hostile I have 
severely punished;] under the protection of Ahura-mazda 
I have established my ordinances as laws in the midst of 
these countries; [they have done as they were com- 
manded] by me. 

Thus speaks [Darius the king:] Ahura-mazda gave 
me my sovereignty, Ahura-mazda was my strong support 
until [I attained] this sovereignty; [by the will of Ahura- 
mazda this kingdom] is subject to me. 

Thus speaks Darius the king: This is what I have done 
under the protection of Ahura-mazda since I have become 
king. [One of our family, Cambyses by name, the son 
of Cyrus] was king here before (me). The brother of this 
Cambyses was Bardiya (Smerdis); (they had) one father 
and one mother. [Now, Cambyses slew this Bardiya; 
when] Cambyses slew Bardiya, it was not [known] to the 
people that Bardiya had been slain. Later Cambyses 



176 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

[went] to Egypt; [when Cambyses] had gone [to] Egypt, 
then the people became hostile in heart, and treachery be- 
came rife in the provinces, in Persia, and in Media, [and 
also in the other provinces.] 

[Thus speaks Darius the king: There was a certain 
man, a Magian, Gaumata by name, who raised a rebellion] 
from Pishihumadu, where is a mountain, Arakatri by name; 
from this place, on the fourteenth day of the month of 
Adar, he [raised a rebellion; he deceived the people (say- 
ing), " I am Bardiya, the son of Cyrus, the brother of] 
Cambyses " ; afterward the whole people became hostile to 
Cambyses and went over to him — Persia and Media [as 
well as the other provinces; he seized the sovereignty. It 
was the ninth day of the month of Garmapada when] he 
seized [the sovereignty.] Thereafter Cambyses committed 
suicide. 

Thus speaks Darius the king: [This sovereignty, which 
Gaumata the Magian wrenched from Cambyses,] this (sov- 
ereignty) had belonged to our family from of old; after- 
ward this Gaumata the Magian [wrenched] the sover- 
eignty from [Cambyses — both Persia and Media, as well as 
the other provinces; he acted in accord with his own will,] 
he became king. 

Thus speaks Darius the king: There was no one, [nei- 
ther Persian nor Median, nor any of our family who] 
could take the sovereignty away from this Gaumata the 
Magian. The people feared him greatly; [he would kill 
many who had known the former Bardiya; for this reason 
he would kill the people, " that] they may not discover (?) 
that I am not Bardiya, the son of Cyrus." No one ven- 
tured to say anything against [Gaumata the Magian until 
I came.] Afterward I prayed to Ahura-mazda; Ahiira- 
mazda was my strong support; under the protection of 
Ahura-mazda [on the tenth day of the month Bagayadish, 
I with a few men slew] this [Gaumata] the Magian and 
the men (of note) who were with him. In the city 
Sihiubati, in a district Nisa by name which is in Media, 
[I slew him; I took the sovereignty away from him. By 



THE LARGE INSCRIPTION OF DARIUS 177 

the will of Ahura-mazda I became king.] Ahura-mazda 
gave me the sovereignty. 

Thus speaks Darius the king: The sovereignty which 
[had been taken] away [from our family I restored again;] 
I established [it in its original place,] I exercised it. [I 
restored] the temples of the gods which this Gaumata the 
Magian had destroyed, (and I) [restored sustenance for 
the people, the flocks, and the habitation of houses (?), 
which] this Gaumata the Magian had taken away from 
them; I restored the people to their place, Persia, Media, 
[and the other provinces. As (it was) formerly, I replaced 
what had been taken away]; under the protection of 
Ahura-mazda, I did this. I exercised care until I [rein- 
stated] our house in its place; [as (it was) formerly, when 
this Gaumata the Magian had not removed our house, [I 
exercised care (to make it)] under the protection of 
Ahura-mazda. 

[Thus speaks] Darius [the king: This is what I did 
aft-er I had become king.] 

Thus speaks Darius the king: After I had gone and 
slain Gaumata the Magian, there was a man [Atrina 
(Ashina) by name, the son of Upadarma, who] rose up [in 
Susa] and. spoke as follows: "I am the King of Elam"; 
thereupon the Elamites became hostile to me [and went 
over to that Atrina; he became king in Susa. And a man, 
a Babylonian,] Nidintu-Bel by name, the son of Aniri, rose 
up in Babylon, deceiving the people as follows: " I am 
[Nebuchadrezzar, the son of Nabonidus"; thereupon the 
entire Babylonian people] went over [to that Nidintu- 
Bel;] Babylon revolted, he seized the sovereignty of 
Babylon. 

Thus speaks Darius the king: [Thereupon I sent to 
Susa, that Atrina was brought bound to me] and I slew 
him. 

Thus speaks Darius the king: Afterward I marched 

to Babylon against [that Nidintu-Bel who called himself 

Nebuchadrezzar. The host] of Nidintu-Bel had taken up a 

position on ships (?) and occupied (?) the banks (?) of the 

12 



178 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

Tigris. [Thereupon I divided my army into two parts (?); 
I placed the one on camels, the other I supplied with 
horses.] Ahura-mazda was my strong support, under the 
protection of Ahura-mazda we crossed the Tigris. I smote 
[the army of Nidintu-Bel;] on the twenty-sixth of Kislev 
we fought the battle. 

[Thus] speaks [Darius the king:] Thereupon I 
marched to Babylon; before Babylon was reached there 
was a city by the name of Zazanu 00 the banks of the 
Euphrates; [hither that Nidintu-Bel] who said, " I am 
Nebuchadrezzar," [had come forth against me with his 
host to offer battle] ; thereupon we joined battle; Ahura- 
mazda was my strong support, under, the protection of 
Ahura-mazda (I smote) the host of Nidintu-Bel; [the 
enemy was driven into the water, the water bore him away. 
On the second] day [of the month of Anamaka] we fought 
the battle. 

Thus speaks Darius the king: Thereupon this Nidintu- 
Bel, accompanied by a few soldiers upon (horses) [went 
to Babylon. Afterward] I (too) went [to Babylon;] un- 
der the protection of Ahura-mazda I took Babylon and 
seized Nidintu-Bel; then I [slew this Nidintu-Bel] in 
Babylon. 

[Thus speaks] Darius [the king: While] I was [in 
Babylon], these are the provinces which revolted against 
me: Persia, Elam, Media, Assyria, [Egypt, Parthia, Mar- 
giana,] Satagu, Nammiri. 

[Thus speaks Darius the king: There was a man], Mar- 
tiya by name, the son of Shinshahrish; he lived in the city 
Kugunaka in Persia; he rose up in Elam [and he spoke 
to the people as follows: " I am] Imanisi, King [of Elam."] 

[Thus speaks Darius the king: At that time I was in 
friendly relations with Elam; the Elamites feared me; they 
seized] that Martiya, who was the chief over them, and of 
their own accord they slew him. 

[Thus speaks] Darius the king: [A man,] Parumartish 
(Fravartish) [by name, a Median, rose up in Media; he 
spoke to the people] as follows: " I am Hashatriti, of the 



THE LARGE INSCRIPTION OF DARIUS 



179 



seed of Umaku-Ishtar " ; thereupon the people of Media, 
as many as there were in the palace, [rebelled] against me 
[and went over to this Fravartish; he became king in] 
Media. 

[Thus speaks Darius the king: The Persian and Median 
army which was with me was small;] thereupon I sent 
the army to Media; (my) servant, Umidarna (Vidarna) by 
name, a Persian, [I placed at its head. I spoke to him 
as follows: " Go smite that Median army which does not 
call itself mine." Thereupon] Umidarna marched to Me- 
dia with the army. As he approached a city, Maru by 
name, which is in Media, [he joined battle with the Medes. 
(He) who was chief among the Medes did not maintain (his 
position). Ahura-mazda bore me aid;] under the protec- 
tion of Ahura-mazda my army smote these rebels. On the 
twenty-seventh day of the month of Tebet they engaged 
in battle; [there is a place, Kampada by name,] which 
is in Media; here they waited for me until I came to 
Media. 

[Thus speaks Darius the king: There was an Arme- 
nian, Dadarshish by name, a servant of mine; I sent him to 
Armenia; I spoke to him as follows: " Go,] smite the re- 
bellious army which does not obey me"; [thereupon Da- 
darshish went forth. When he arrived in Armenia the 
rebels assembled themselves, and marched against Dadar- 
shish] to give battle. Thereupon Dadarshish joined battle 
with them in a city called Zuzu in Armenia. [Ahura- 
mazda bore me aid; by the will of Ahura-mazda my army 
utterly smote that rebellious army. On the eighth day 
of the month of Thuravahara the battle was fought.] 

[Thus speaks Darius the king: A second time] the 
rebels assembled themselves and marched against Dadar- 
shish to give battle. Thereupon they joined battle [at a 
stronghold by the name of Tigra in Armenia. Ahura- 
mazda bore me aid; by the will of Ahura-mazda my army 
utterly smote that rebellious army. On the eighteenth 
day of the month of Thuravahara the] battle [was fought.] 
They killed five hundred and forty-six of them, and took 



l8o ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

five hundred and twenty alive. Later, for a third time, the 
rebels [assembled themselves and marched against Dadar- 
shish to give battle; at a stronghold by the name of Uh- 
yama in Armenia, they joined battle. Ahura-mazda bore 
me aid;] under the protection of Ahura-mazda my army 
smote the rebels. On the ninth day of the month Tishrit 
they fought the battle. [After this Dadarshish waited 
in(active?) for me until I came to Media.] 

Thus speaks Darius the king: My servant, Umisi 
(Vaumisa) by name, a Persian (I sent) to Armenia. [I 
spoke to him as follows: " Go, smite the army which is 
rebellious and does not call itself mine." Thereupon Vau- 
misa went, and when he came to Armenia] the rebels as- 
sembled themselves and marched against Umisi to give 
battle; afterward they engaged in battle [in a place by the 
name of Izitush in Assyria. Ahura-mazda bore me aid; 
by the will of Ahura-mazda my army utterly smote that 
rebellious army. On the fifteenth day of the month of 
Anamaka the battle was fought.] They killed two thou- 
sand and twenty-four of them. For a second time the 
rebels assembled and marched against Umisi to give battle; 
[at a place Autiyara by name, in Armenia, they fought 
the battle. Ahura-mazda bore me aid; by the will of 
Ahura-mazda my army] smote the rebels. On the thir- 
tieth day of the month of Aru they engaged in battle. 
They killed two thousand and forty-five of them, and took 
twenty-five hundred and fifty-nine alive. [After this Vau- 
misa waited in Armenia for me until I came to Media.] 

[Thus speaks Darius the king: Thereupon I went away 
from Babylon and (proceeded)] toward Media. As I ap- 
proached Media (there was) a city, Kundur by name, in 
Media; thither [marched that Fravartish, who called him- 
self king in Media, against me to give battle. Thereupon 
we fought a battle.] Ahura-mazda was my strong support; 
under the protection of Ahura-mazda, [I smote] the army 
of Parumartish. [On the twenty-sixth day of the month 
of Adukani we fought the battle.] 

[Thus speaks Darius the king: Thereafter that Fravar- 



THE LARGE INSCRIPTION OF DARIUS i8l 

tish] departed [thence with] a few horsemen and came to 
a district by the name of Raga in Media. Thereupon [I 
sent] an army [against them. Fravartish was seized and 
brought to me. I cut oflf his nose (and) ears, and I cut out 
his tongue, and I put out his eyes. At my court he was 
kept in chains;] all the people saw him. Later I crucified 
him in Ecbatana; [and the men who were his most promi- 
nent supporters I impaled in prison in Ecbatana.] 

[Thus speaks Darius the king: A man, Citrantakhma 
by name, a Sagartian, rebelled against me,] and spoke to 
the people as follows: " I am a king of the seed of Umaku- 
Ishtar." Thereupon I (sent forth) a Median army; [Takh- 
maspada, my servant, I made their chief. I spoke to them 
as follows: " Go, smite the army which has rebelled and 
does not call itself mine." Thereupon Takhmaspada de- 
parted with the army and] he engaged [in battle] with 
Citrantakhma. Ahura-mazda was my strong support; 
under the protection of Ahura-mazda, [my army utterly 
smote the rebellious army, and they seized Citrantakhma 
and brought him to me. Then I cut ofl his nose and ears 
and put out his eyes. He was kept in chains at my court;] 
all the people saw him. Afterward I crucified him in 
Arbela. The totality of the slain and living * * * 

[Thus speaks Darius the king: This is what was done 
by me in Media.] 

[Thus speaks Darius the king: Parthia and Hyrcania 
rebelled, and declared themselves (supporters) of] Paru- 
martish * * * Hystaspes my father lived in Parthia, and 
[the people forsook him [in a body?]. Thereupon Hys- 
taspes marched away with the army which (remained) true. 
At a place by the name of Vispauvatish, in Parthia, they 
fought the battle]. Ahura-mazda was my strong support; 
under the protection of Ahura-mazda, Hystaspes smote 
these rebels. On the twenty-second day [of the month of 
Viyakhna the battle was fought.] 

[Thus speaks Darius the king: Thereupon I sent a 
Persian army from Raga to Hystaspes;] when the army 
had come to Hystaspes, Hystaspes (took) that army [and 



l82 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

marched forth. At a place by the name of Patigrabana, 
in Parthia, he fought a battle with the rebels. Ahura- 
mazda bore me aid; by the will of Ahura-mazda, Hystaspes 
utterly smote that rebellious army. On the first day of the 
month Garmapada] they fought the battle. They killed 
sixty-five hundred and seventy of them, and took forty- 
one hundred and ninety-two alive. 

[Thus speaks Darius the king: Thereupon the land 
became mine. This is what was done by me in Parthia.] 

Thus speaks Darius the king: A province, Margu 
(Margiana) by name, rebelled against me. [They made] 
a man by the name of Parada (Frada) [a Margianian, their 
chief. Thereupon I sent my servant, a Persian, by the 
name of Dadarshish, satrap in Bactria, against that one. 
I spoke to him as follows: " Go, smite the army which 
does not call itself mine."] Thereupon Dadarshish 
marched forth with the army; they fought a battle with the 
Margians. [Ahura-mazda bore me aid; by the will of 
Ahura-mazda my army utterly smote that rebellious army. 
On the twenty-third day of the monfh of Atriyadiya the 
battle was fought]. [They killed] forty-two hundred and 
three of them, and took sixty-five hundred and seventy-two 
alive. 

Thus [speaks] Darius the king: [Thereupon the land 
became mine. This is what was done by me in Bactria.] 

[Thus speaks Darius the king: There was a man, 
Vahyazdata] ; he dwelt [in a place by the name of Tarava, 
in a reigion] by the name of [Yautiya,] in Persia. He rose 
up in Persia and spoke to the people [as follows: " I am 
Bardiya, the son of Cyrus." Thereupon the Persian people 
who were in the palace broke allegiance (?); they rebelled 
against me and went over to that Vahyazdata; he became 
king in Persia.] 

Thus speaks Darius the king: Thereupon I [sent forth] 
the Persian army [which was with me; I made a Persian, 
named Artavardiya, a servant of mine, their chief. The 
rest] of the Persian army marched with me to Media. 
Then Artavardiya [marched] with the army [to Persia. As 



THE LARGE INSCRIPTION OF DARIUS 183 

he came to Persia there was a city by the name of Rakha 
in Persia; hither this Vahyazdata, who called himself Bar- 
diya, had come with an army against Artavardiya to offer 
battle. Thereupon] they fought the battle. Ahura-mazda 
was my strong support; under the protection of Ahura- 
mazda [my army utterly smote that army of that Vahyaz- 
data. On the twelfth day of the month of Thuravahara 
the battle was fought.] 

[Thus speaks Darius the king: Thereupon] this 
Vahyazdata departed with a few horsemen for [Paishiyau- 
vada. Thither he marched again with an army against 
Vahyazdata to oflfer battle. At a mountain, Paraga by 
name, they engaged in battle.] Ahura-mazda was my 
strong support; under the protection of Ahura-mazda my 
army smote the army of Vahyazdata. [On the sixth day 
of the month of Garmapada the battle was fought; and 
they seized that Vahyazdata and took the men who were 
his chief supporters.] 

Thus speaks Darius the king: Thereafter I crucified 
this Vahyazdata and all the men who were with him; [in 
a city, Uvadaicaya by name, in] Persia, I did this. 

Thus speaks Darius the king: [That Vahyazdata, who 
called himself Bardiya, sent an army to Arachosia against 
a Persian named Vivana, my servant, the satrap] of 
Arachosia. (He spoke to them) as follows: " Go, smite 
that Vivana, and [the army which calls itself (that) of King 
Darius." Then the army which Vahyazdata had sent 
marched against Vivana to oflfer battle. At the strong- 
hold, Kapishakanish by name], they fought the battle. 
Ahura-mazda was my strong support; under the protec- 
tion of Ahura-mazda [my] army [utterly smote that re- 
bellious army. On the thirteenth day of the month of 
Anamaka the battle was fought.] 

[Thus speaks Darius the king: The rebels assembled 
themselves again and marched against Vivana to oflfer 
battle. In a region, Gandutava by name], they fought the 
battle. Ahura-mazda was my strong support; under the 
protection of Ahura-mazda, [my army utterly smote that 



1 84 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

rebellious army. On the seventh day of the month Vi- 
yakhna the battle was fought.] 

[Thus speaks Darius the king:] Thereupon this man, 
the chief of the army, whom Vahyazdata had sent with the 
army, [departed with a few horsemen. There is a strong- 
hold, Arshada by name, in Arachosia; he passed by this. 
Hereupon Vivana followed after them with the army on 
foot;] he seized him and slew him, and he also slew the 
men who were with him. The totality of the dead and the 
living of the army * * * 

[Thus speaks Darius the king: This is what I] have 
done in Arachosia. 

Thus speaks Darius the king: While I [was still] in- 
Persia and Media, [the Babylonians for a second time re- 
volted against me. A man by the name of Arahu, an 
Armenian, the son of Haldita, rose up in Babylon. There 
is a place by the name of Dubala; thence he rose up; he 
spoke to] the people of Babylon as follows: " I am Nebu- 
chadrezzar, the son of Nabonidus." Thereupon the people 
of Babylon [rebelled] against me [and went over to this 
Arakhu. He seized Babylon, he became king in Babylon.] 

[Thus speaks Darius the king: Thereupon I sent an 
army to Babylon. A Median, Vindafra by name, a servant 
of mine, I made their chief.] I sent [him] forth with 
orders as follows: " Go, smite the army of the rebels." 
[Thereupon Vindafra went forth with the army to Babylon. 
Ahura-mazda bore me aid; by the will of Ahura-mazda 
Vindafra took Babylon and] smote the army of Babylon, 
the rebels * * * (and) bound them (as captives). The 
army in whose midst * * * bound (?). Thereupon I gave 
orders as follows: Arahu and the men [who were his 
most prominent supporters shall be crucified in Babylon]. 

Thus speaks Darius the king: This is what I have done 
in Babylon. 

Thus speaks Darius the king: That which I [did came 
to pass solely through the grace of Ahura-mazda. Since 
I have been king I have fought nineteen battles; by the 
will of Ahura-mazda I smote them.] Nine of their kings I 



THE LARGE INSCRIPTION OF DARIUS 185 

took prisoners: One, Gaumata by name, the Magian, lied 
and spoke as follows: [" I am Bardiya, the son of Cyrus." 
This one made Persia rebellious. One, by the name of 
Atrina, the Susian, lied and spoke as follows-: " I am the 
King of Susa (Elam)." This one] made Elam rebellious. 
One, Nidintu-Bel by name, a Babylonian, lied and spoke 
as follows: " I am Nebuchadrezzar [the son of Nabonidus." 
This one made Babylon rebellious. One by the name of 
Martiya, a Persian, lied and spoke as follows: " I am Um- 
manish. King of Susa." This one] made [Susa] rebellious. 
One, Parumartish by name, a Median, lied and spoke as 
follows: " I am Hashatriti [of the seed of Umaku-Ishtar." 
This one made Media rebellious. One, Citrantakhma by 
name, a Sagartian, lied and spoke as follows: " 1 am King 
of Sagartia, of the seed of] Umaku-Ishtar." This one 
made Sagartia rebellious. One, Parada by name, a Mar- 
gianian, [lied and spoke as follows: " I am king in Mar- 
giana." This one made Margiana rebellious. One, Va- 
hyazdata by name, a Persian, lied and spoke as follows: 
" I am Bardiya, the son of Cyrus."] This one made Persia 
rebellious. One, Arahu by name, an Armenian, lied and 
spoke as follows: " I am Nebuchadrezzar, the son of Na- 
bonidus." This one made Babylon rebellious. 

Thus speaks Darius the king: [These nine kings] the 
hands of my army seized within [these battles.] 

[Thus speaks Darius the king: As for these provinces 
which became rebellious, a lie made them rebellious, so that 
they deceived] the people. Thereupon Ahura-mazda gave 
them into my hands; [according to my desire I treated 
them.] 

[Thus speaks Darius the king; O thou who art to be 
king in the future guard thyself carefully against lying.] 
Exact much of the man who lies when thou wouldst say, 
[" My country shall be unharmed."] 

[Thus speaks Darius the king: Ahura-mazda was my 
strong] support in what I did. The inscription which thou 
beholdest on the tablet * * * [May what I have done ap- 
pear credible to thee! Do not regard it as a lie * * *] 



l86 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

[Thus speaks Darius the king: As a worshipper of 
Ahura-mazda (I swear?) that this is true, not false, what I 
have done in every particular.] 

Thus speaks Darius the king: Under the protection of 
Ahura-mazda [many other things also were done by me 
which are not written in this inscription. For this reason 
they were not written, lest he who] shall read [this inscrip- 
tion later] shall say, these are lies. 

Thus [speaks] Darius the king: [As long as the former 
kings were (in power) they did not do what I have ac- 
complished solely through the grace of Ahura-mazda.] 

Thus speaks [Darius] the king: Now, according as I 
have done and the weighty * * * [may it appear credible. 
Do thou believe, wherefore destroy it not. If thou dost 
not destroy this inscription, but dost communicate it to 
the people, may Ahura-mazda be thy friend, thy family 
numerous, and] thy days long! But if thou dost conceal 
these words from the people, [then may Ahura-mazda slay 
thee, and may thy family come to naught!] 

[Thus speaks Darius the king: That which I have 
done] I did [solely] under the protection of Ahura-mazda. 
Ahura-mazda was my strong support, and the (other) gods 
[as many as there are.] 

[Thus speaks Darius the king: For this reason Ahura- 
mazda, and the other gods, as many as there are, bore me 
aid, because I was not hostile, was not false, did not] ex- 
ercise [despotism,] neither I nor my family; according to 
the laws [have I ruled. Against neither * * * nor * * * 
have I used force. The man who has supported my house, 
him have I protected well; he who has brought evil, him 
have I severely punished.] 

[Thus] speaks [Darius the king:] Whoever thou art 
who rulest after me, a man who lies or a man [who is 
rebellious do thou not befriend, but punish him severely.] 

[Thus speaks Darius the king:] When thou beholdest 
this inscription and these images, [destroy them not, but 
guard them so long as thou livest.] 

[Thus speaks Darius the king: When thou beholdest 



THE SMALLER ACH^EMENIAN INSCRIPTIONS 187 

this tablet and these images, and dost not destroy but 
guardest them for me as long as thy family continues, then 
may Ahura-mazda be thy friend; may thy family be numer- 
ous, may] thy days [be long,] and may Ahura-mazda pros- 
per [what thou doest!] 

[Thus speaks Darius the king: When thou beholdest 
this tablet and these images, and destroyest them, guard- 
est them not for me so long as thy family continues, then] 
may Ahura-mazda curse [thee, may thy family come to 
naught, and what thou doest may Ahura-mazda destroy!] 

[Thus speaks Darius the king: These are the rhen 
who] were by me when I [slew] this Gaumata [the Ma- 
gian, who called himself Bardiya. At that time these men 
assisted me as my supporters : one, Vindaf rana by name, son 
of] Uizparu, a Persian; one, Umitana by name, son of 
Suhra, a Persian; [one, Gaubaruva by name, son of Mar- 
duniya, a Persian; one, Vidarna, son of Bagabigna, a Per- 
sian; one, Bagabukhsha] by name, son of Zatu, a Per- 
sian; and one, Ardimanish by name, son of Ushuhku, [a 
Persian.] 

[Thus speaks Darius the king: Thou who later dost 
become king] * * * these * * * much * * * 



THE SMALLER ACHiEMENIAN 
INSCRIPTIONS 

I. CYRUS INSCRIPTION 
I AM Cyrus, the Achasmenian. 

II. SEAL INSCRIPTION OF DARIUS 
I am Darius, the great king. 

III. DARIUS INSCRIPTION FROM KERMAN 
I am Darius, the great king, king of kings, king of 
countries, king of this earth, the son of Hystaspes, the 
Achaemenian. 



I88 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



IV, THE SMALLER INSCRIPTIONS FROM BEHISTUN 

1. This is Gaumata the Magian, who lied, saying, " I 
am Barzia (Bardiya), the son of Cyrus." 

2. This is Ashina (Atrina), who lied, saying, " I am 
King of Elam." 

3. This is Nidintu-Bel, who lied, saying, " I am Nebu- 
chadrezzar, son of Nabonidus." 

4. This is Parumartish (Fravartish), who lied, saying, 
" I am Hashatriti (Khshathrita), of the seed of Umaku- 
Ishtar (Cyaxares)." 

5. This is Martiya, who lied, saying, " I am Imanisi, 
King of Elam." 

6. This is Shitrantahmu (Citrantakhma), who lied, say- 
ing, " I am of the seed of Umaku-Ishtar (Cyaxares)." 

7. This is Umizdatu (Vahyazdata), who lied, saying, " I 
am Barzia (Bardiya), the son of Cyrus." 

8. This is Arahu, who lied, saying, " I am Nebuchad- 
rezzar, the son of Nabonidus." 

9. This is Parada (Frada), who lied, saying, " I am a 
king, the ruler of Margu (Margiana)." 

V. THE LARGE NAQS-I-RUSTAM INSCRIPTION 

The great God of gods is Ahura-mazda (Ormazd), who 
has created the heavens and the earth, who also created 
mankind, who has granted favour to mankind, who cre- 
ated Darius, king of many kings. 

I am Darius, the great king, king of kings, king of 
countries, king of all the various tongues, king of the 
broad, large earth, son of Ushtazpa (Hystaspes), the Achse- 
menian, a Persian, the son of a Persian. 

Darius the king says: Under the protection of Ahura- 
mazda I have annexed the following countries to Persia; 
I exercise authority over them, and they bring me tribute; 
they carry out in submission whatever orders they receive 
from me, and they hold my commands in high regfard: 
Media, Elam, Parthia, Aremu (Aria), Bactria, Sogdiana, 



THE SMALLER ACH/EMENIAN INSCRIPTIONS 189 

Chorasmia, Zaranga (Drangiana), Arachosia, Sattagydia, 
the Gandarans, India, the Nammiri-Umurga, the Nam- 
miri * * *^ Babylonia, Assyria, Arabia, Egypt, Ar- 
menia, Cappadocia, Saparda, Ionia, the Nammiri of the 
other side of the sea, Izkuduru, the other lonians, who 
wear braid- work (?) upon their heads, Puta (Putiya), Kushu 
(Kushiya), the Maciya, Kirka (Karka). 

Darius the king says: When Ahura-mazda saw that 
these countries were hostilely inclined and overbearing to- 
ward each other, he gave them to me, and appointed me to 
sovereignty over them; I (became) king. Under the pro- 
tection of Ahura-mazda I pacified them, and what I com- 
mand them they carry out just as I desire. And if thou 
sayest. How did these countries become the property of 
Darius the king? then look upon all the figures of those who 
bear my throne; therein thou shalt recognise them. Then 
thou mayest understand how far the lance of a Persian man 
has gone; then thou mayest understand how far from his 
land a Persian man has made war. 

Darius the king says: All this which I have done I did 
under the protection of Ahura-mazda; Ahura-mazda was 
my strong support until I accomplished it. May Ahura- 
mazda protect me from all evil, and also my house, and 
this my country; I pray to Ahura-mazda; may Ahura- 
mazda gi-ant it! O man, what Ahura-mazda commands 
shall not fall heavily upon thee. 

VI. THE SMALLER INSCRIPTIONS FROM NAQS-I-RUSTAM 

1. Kubara, a Patishhurish, the spear-bearer of Darius 
the king. 

2. This is Azpahina, of Darius the king * * * 

3. These are the Maciya-men (?). 

VII. PERSEPOLIS INSCRIPTION (B) 

Darius, the great king, king of kings, king of countries, 
king of all the various tongues, son of Hystaspes, the 
Achaemenian, who has built this house. 



190 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



VIII. INSCRIPTION FROM HAMADAN 

A great god is Ahura-mazda, who has created this earth, 
who has created these heavens, who created mankind, who 
bestowed all this abundance on mankind, who made Darius 
a king, unique among the former kings, unique among the 
former rulers. 

I am Darius, the great king, king of kings, king of 
countries, of all the various tongues, king of this large 
broad earth, son of Hystaspes, the Achaemenian. 



IX. WINDOW INSCRIPTION 
Window casings * * * made in the palace of Darius. 



X. PERSEPOLIS INSCRIPTION (H) 

Great is Ahura-mazda, who is chief over all the gods, 
who has created the heavens and the earth and has cre- 
ated mankind, who bestows only favour upon mankind, 
whereby they live, who has created Darius the king, and 
has granted Darius the king sovereignty over this broad 
earth, in which are many countries — Persia, Media, and the 
other lands and other tongues, mountains, and the level 
country of this side of the sea and the other side of the 
sea, this side of the desert land and of the other side of 
the desert land. 

Darius the king says: Under the protection of Ahura- 
mazda, these are the countries which do that which I place 
on them as commands; (countries) which muster here: 
Persia, Media, and other lands and other tongues; the 
mountains and the level country of this side of the sea 
and the other side of the sea, of this side of the desert 
land and of the other side of the desert land. All that I 
have done I have accomplished under the protection of 
Ahura-mazda. May Ahura-mazda, together with all the 
gods, protect me and my rule! 



THE SMALLER ACHyEMENIAN INSCRIPTIONS 



191 



XI. PERSEPOLIS INSCRIPTION (G) 

Xerxes, the great king, king of kings, the son of Darius 
the king, the Achaemenian. 

XII. XERXES INSCRIPTION (D) 

A great god is Ahura-mazda, who has created this 
earth, who has created these heavens, who created man- 
kind, who has granted favour to mankind, who created 
Xerxes, the king, unique among many kings, unique 
among many rulers. 

I am Xerxes, the great king, king of kings, king of 
countries, (king) of all tongues, king of this large, broad 
earth, son of Darius the king, the Achaemenian. 

Xerxes the king says: Under the protection of Ahura- 
mazda I have built this gate, Visadahyu by name, and 
many other structures have I built in this land of Persia; 
what I have built and what my father has built, and those 
which are in existence and can be seen, all these we have 
built under the protection of Ahura-mazda. 

Xerxes the king says: May Ahura-mazda protect me, 
and what pertains to my sovereignty, and my countries, 
and what I have built and what my father has built, that 
also, whatever it be, may Ahura-mazda protect it! 

XIII. XERXES INSCRIPTION (E) 

A great god is Ahura-mazda, who has created this earth, 
who has created these heavens, who created mankind, who 
has granted favour to mankind, who bestowed the sov- 
ereignty on Xerxes, as unique among many kings, (as 
unique) among many rulers. 

I am Xerxes, the great king, the king of kings, the king 
of countries, king of all tongues, the king of this large, 
broad earth, son of Darius the king, the Achaemenian. 

Xerxes the great king says: That which I have done 
here, and that which I have done in another territory, all 
which I have done, I have accomplished under the pro- 



192 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



tection of Ahura-mazda. May Ahura-mazda, together with 
the other gods, protect me and my sovereignty and that 
which I have done! 

XIV. PERSEPOLIS INSCRIPTION (Ca) 

A great god is Ahura-mazda, who has created the 
heavens, and has created this earth, who created man- 
kind, who has granted favour to mankind, who created 
Xerxes the king, king of many kings, who alone rules over 
all the various lands. 

I am Xerxes, the great king, king of kings, king of 
countries, (king) of all the various tongues, king of this 
great, broad earth, the son of Darius the king, the Achae- 
menian. 

Xerxes, the great king, says: Under the protection of 
Ahura-mazda, my father, Darius the king, built this house. 
May Ahura-mazda, together with all the gods, protect me 
and what I have built, and what my father, Darius the 
king, has built; this also may Ahura-mazda, together with 
all the gods, protect! 

XV. PERSEPOLIS INSCRIPTION (Cb) 

A great god is Ahura-mazda, who has created the 
heavens and has created this earth, who created mankind, 
who has granted favour to mankind, who created Xerxes 
the king, king of many kings, who alone rules over all the 
various lands. 

I am Xerxes, the great king, king of kings, king of 
countries, (king) of all the various tongues, king of this 
great, broad earth, son of Darius the king, the Achae- 
menian. 

Xerxes the great king says: Under the protection of 
Ahura-mazda, Darius the king, my father, built this house. 
May Ahura-mazda, together with all the gods, protect me, 
and what I have constructed; and what Darius the king, 
my father, has constructed, this also may Ahura-mazda, 
together with all gods, protect! 



THE SMALLER ACH^MENIAN INSCRIPTIONS 



XVI. INSCRIPTION FROM ELVEND 



193 



A great god is Ahura-mazda, chief of the gods, who 
has created this earth, who has created these heavens, who 
created this humanity, who has granted favour to man- 
kind, who created Xerxes the king, unique among many 
kings, unique among former rulers. 

I am Xerxes, the great king, king of kings, king of 
countries, king of all lands, king of this great, broad earth, 
son of Darius the king, the Achaemenian. 

XVII. XERXES INSCRIPTION FROM VAN 

A great god is Ahura-mazda, chief of the gods, who has 
created the heavens and has created the earth, and has 
created mankind, who has granted favour to mankind, who 
created Xerxes the king, king of many kings, who alone 
rules over all the various countries. 

I am Xerxes, the great king, king of kings, king of 
countries, king of all the various tongues, king of this 
great, broad earth, son of Darius the king, the Achae- 
menian. 

Xerxes the king says: Darius the king, who is my 
father — under the protection of Ahura-mazda, many are the 
structures which he built; and he gave orders to build this 
mountain * * * but he did not write thereon. Later I 
gave orders to write (thereon). May Ahura-mazda, to- 
gether with all the gods, protect me and my sovereignty 
and what I have done! 

XVIII. INSCRIPTION OF ARTAXERXES MNEMON 

Artaxerxes, the great king, king of kings, king of the 
countries which are on the face of the whole earth, son 
of Darius the king, says: Darius the king was the son 
of Artaxerxes the ^cing, Artaxerxes the king was the son 
of Xerxes the king, Xerxes the king was the son of Darius 
the king, Darius the king was the son of Hystaspes of 
Achaemenian seed. 
13 



194 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



This building, by the name of Appadan, Darius, my 
great-great-grandfather, erected on yon mountain (?). In 
the time of Artaxerxes, my grandfather, fire destroyed it. 
Under the protection of Ahura-mazda, Anahitu, and Mitri 
[I built anew this structure by the name of Appadan]. 
May Ahura-mazda, Anahitu, and Mitri protect [me from 
all evil] and [not] destroy or ruin [what I have done] ! 

XIX. FRAGMENT (Sb) 

* * * Artaxerxes, the great king, * * * 

* * * earth, son of Darius * * * 

Artaxerxes the king under the protection of Ahura- 
[Mazda] * * * 

XX. INSCRIPTION OF ARTAXERXES I 

* * * unique [among many rulers], I am [Artaxerxes, 
the great king, king] of kings, king of countries, [king 
of all tongues], king of this [great, broad] earth, [son] 
of Xerxes [the king, son of Darius the king], the Achae- 
menian. 

Artaxerxes [the king says] : Under the protection [of 
Ahura-mazda] I have established this house [which I have 
built and which] my father [built]. May [Ahura-mazda] 
protect me [and what I have done] and my sovereignty 
[and my countries] ! 

XXI. VENICE INSCRIPTION (Q) 
Artaxerxesj the great king. 



INSCRIPTION OF ANTIOCHUS-SOTER, 
KING OF BABYLON (280-260 b. c) 

Antiochus, the great king, the powerful king, king of 
the world, King of Babylon, king of lands, patron of Esa- 
gila and Ezida, chief son of Seleucus, king of the Mace- 
donians, King of Babylon, am I. 



INSCRIPTION OF ANTIOCHUS-SOTER 195 

When my heart incited me to rebuild Esagila and Ezida, 
and I made bricks for Esagila and Ezida in the land of 
the Hittites with my white hands with oil * * * and to 
lay the foundation of Esagila and Ezida I * * * In the 
month Adar, on the twentieth day, in the forty-third year, 
I laid the foundation of Ezida, the eternal temple, the 
Temple of Nabu in Borsippa. 

O Nabu, exalted son, powerful leader of the gods, who 
for exaltation was bom (established), the first-born son of 
Marduk, oflfspring of Erua, the queen, who controls birth, 
look with favour, and by thy exalted command, which can 
not be altered, the overthrow of the country of my enemy, 
the victory of my power, suzerainty over my foes, a king- 
dom of righteousness, a reign (full) of rejoicing, years of 
good cheer, abundance of offspring, as a present to the 
kingdom of Antiochus, and of Seleucus, the king, his son 
[do thou grant] for all time! 

O Nabu, son of Esagila, first-born of Marduk, of high- 
est rank, ofifspring of Erua, the queen, when thou enterest 
with joy and rejoicing into Ezida, the eternal temple, the 
temple of thy divinity, the dwelling which cheers thy heart, 
at thy righteous command, which can not be hindered, may 
my days be long! 

May my years be many! 

May my throne be (firmly) established! 

May my reign become old! 

With thy exalted sceptre, that holds fast the circuit of 
heaven and earth, at thy bright mouth (illustrious com- 
mand) may they establish my good fortune! 

The lands from the rising of the sun to the setting of 
the sun, may my hands conquer! 

May I force tribute from them, and for the completion 
of Esagila and Ezida may I bring (it) ! 

O Nabu, chief son, when thou enterest into Ezida, the 
eternal temple, good fortune for Antiochus, king of lands, 
Seleucus, the king, his son, Stratonice, his consort, the 
queen — may their good fortune be (firmly) established at 
thy command! 



196 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

THE SYNCHRONOUS HISTORY OF 
ASSYRIA AND BABYLONIA 

Based on the collation of Winckler 

Karaindash, King of Kardu[niash], and Ashurbelni- 
sheshu, King of Assyria, made compacts with one another, 
and each of his accord gave an oath to the other concern- 
ing the boundary. 

Puzur-Ashur, King of Assyria, and Burnaburiash, King 
of Karduniash, held a conference and fixed the boundary 
of the territory by mutual consent. 

In the time of Ashuruballit, King of Assyria, the Kas- 
site troops rebelled against Karahardash, King of Karduni- 
ash, son of Muballitat-Sherua, daughter of Ashuruballit, 
killed him (and) made Nazibugash [son of Nobojdy, their 
king. 

To av[enge Karjahardash [Ashuruballit] marched 

* * * to Karduniash, killed [Najzibugash, King of Kardu- 
[ni]ash, made [Kuri]galzu, the younger son of Burnaburi- 
ash, king and set him on his father's throne. 

In the time of Belnirari, King of Assyria, Kurigalzu 
the younger (was) [the King of Karduniash] . Bel-nirari, 
King of Assyria, fought with him in Sugagi on the river 

* * * defeated him and carried away his troops, [his 
camp] and his supplies. From the border (?) of the land 
of Shubari [to] Karduniash they divided the land, took 
equal parts (and) fixed the boundary. 

Rammannirari, King of Assyria, (and) Nazimaraddash, 
King of Karduniash, fought with one another in Kar-Ishtar 
of Akarsallu. Rammannirari defeated Nazimaraddash, 
overthrew him (and) carried away his camp * * * Con- 
cerning the boundary of the territory — they fixed by mu- 
tual consent (?) their boundaries from the land of Pilaski 
on the other side of the Tigris (and from) Arman-Akar- 
sallu to Lulume, established them and took equal parts.* 

' A fragment follows : ♦ • * King of Karduni[ash] • * * in the midst 
of battle * * * 



THE EASTERN WORLD IN THE MIDDLE OF 
THE REIGN OF ASHURBANIPAL. 



THE HISTORY OF ASSYRIA AND BABYLONIA 197 

* * * ^ paid him homage * * * as far as Kullaar * * * 
Belkuduru9ur, King of Assyria, and [Ramman(?)balid- 

dina (?), King of Karduniash] fought. Belkuduruqur 
killed Ramman(?)baliddina (?) in battle. Ninibabaleshara 
* * * returned to his land, [collected] his [nume]rous 
forces * * * (and) marched to Asshur to conquer it. 
He fought therein, retreated [and returned to his land]. 

In the time of Zamamashumiddin, King of [Karduni- 
ash] * * * Ashurdan, King of Assyria, marched to Kar- 
du[niash], [captured] Zaban, Irria, Akarsal[lu, * * * car- 
ried away] their rich [spoil] to Assyria * * * 

* * * he re [treated] (and) returned to his country. 
[Nebuchadrezzar] marched after him, carrying his siege- 
engines to Zaanqi, the fortress of * * * to conquer (it). 
Ashurreshishi, King of Assyria, collected his chariots to 
march against him. Nebuchadrezzar, because his siege- 
engines were surrounded, burned his camp (?) with fire, 
retreated and returned to his country. Nebuchadrezzar, 
with chariots and infantry, marched to the fortress on the 
border of Assyria to conquer it. Ashurreshishi sent chari- 
ots (and) infantry to its relief, fought with him, defeated 
him, slew his forces, (and) carried away his supplies. They 
brought back forty of his chariots with trappings. They 
captured Karashtu, the leader of his forces. 

Tiglath-pileser, King of Assyria, (and) Marduk-nadi- 
nahe. King of Karduniash, set, for the second time, in the 
district of the city Arzuhina, in battle array all the chariots, 
which were above the lower Zab. In the second year he 
fought in Marriti, which is in upper Akkad. He captured 
Durkurigalzu, Sippar of Shamash, Sippar of Anunit, Baby- 
lon, Upi, great cities with their citadels. At that time he 
plun[dered] Akarsal[lu] as far as Lubdu (and) [subju- 
gated] all the land of Suhi as far as Rapiqu. 

In the time of Ashurbelkala, King of [Assyria], Mar- 
dukshapikkullat (was) the King of Kardu [niash] . They 
made friendship (and) per [feet] alliance with one another. 
In the time of Ashurbelkala, King of Assyria, Marduk- 

' Part of another broken tablet. 



198 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

shapikkullat was [driven out] by his country. Ramman- 
baliddina, son of Esakkuruna, son of Nobody, they made 
their king. Ashurbelkala, King of As[syria], married 
the daughter of Rammanbaliddina, King of Karduniash 
(and) brought her to Assyria with her rich dowry. The 
people of Assyria (and) of Karduniash * * * with each 
other * * * 

In the time of Rammannirari, King of Assjrria, Sha- 
mashmudammiq, King of Karduniash, set his battle array 
at the foot of Mount Yalman. Rammannirari, King of As- 
syria, defeated Shamashmudammiq, King of Karduniash, 
overthrew him and [carried away] chariots and his [horses 
trained] to the yoke. 

Shamashmudammiq, King [of Karduniash], was killed 
by Nabushumishkun. Rammannirari, King [of Assyria], 
fought with Nabushumishkun, King of [Karduniash], 
(and) defeated him * * * {he captured] * * * banbala, 
Huda[du(?)], many cities and brought their rich spoil [to 
Assyria]. He shut up [Nabushumishkun in] a fortress (?) 
of his country. Because their daughter to one another 

* * * they made [friendship] (and) a perfect alliance with 
one another. [The people of] Assyria (and) of Akkad 

* * * with one another. From Tel-Bari, which is above 
the Zab to Tel-Batani and Tel-Zabdani they fixed the 
boundary. 

[In the ti]me of Shalmaneser, King of [Assyria] 
[Nab]ubaliddin (was) King of Karduniash. They made 
[friend] ship and a perfect alliance with one another. In 
the time of Shalmaneser, King of [Assyria], [Nabu]balid- 
din. King of Karduniash, was [driven out] by his country. 
[Mar]duknadinshum took his seat on his father's throne. 
Mardukbelusati, his brother, rebelled against him, seized 

* * * They divided Akkad equally. Shalmaneser marched 
to the help of Marduknadinshum, King of Karduniash. 
He killed Mardukbelusati, the usurper (?), with his 
fellow-rebels. [He went up] to Kutha, Babylon [and 
Borsippa, and offered pure sacrifices] * * * [A break 
follows.] 



THE HISTORY OF ASSYRIA AND BABYLONIA 199 

* * * * [the boundary] they fixed. 
[Mardukbalatsuiq]bi, King of Karduniash * * * 

[Shamshi-]ramman, King of Assyria * * * defeated Mar- 
dukbalatsuiqbi and covered the plain [with the corpses of 
his sol] diets * * * 

* * * he shut him up. He captured that city (and) 
brought Bauhiddin with his property and the treasure of his 
palace to Assyria. He captured Durilu, Lahiru, Ganna- 
nati, Durpapsukal, Bitriduti, Me-turn[at], numerous cities 
of Karduniash and their citadels. He carried away — (as) 
rich spoil — their gods, (namely): Humhummu, Belit of 
Babylon, Belit of Akkad, Shimalia, Nergal, Anunit (?) 
* * * of Malik. He went up to Kutha, Babylon, and 
Borsippa, and offered pure sacrifices. He went down 
to Kaldu (and) received the tribute of the King of 
Kaldu, his officers (?)*** on the side of Karduni- 
ash * * * he re-established the boundary, [fixed] the 
territory. 

Rammannirari, King of Assyria, and * * * (Lines are 
badly broken). 

He brought back the captives; stated temple-tribute (?) 
of grain (?) he imposed upon them. The people of As- 
syria (and) of Karduniash * * * with one another * * * 
the territory and fi[xed] the boundary fairly. 

May the later prince, whomsoever they may establish in 
Akkad, write on power and conquest (and) add it to this 
tablet, which is eternal and never to be forgotten! Who- 
soever receives it, may he listen to all that is written (there- 
on), glorify the majesty of Assyria for all time, (and) drive 
out the wickedness of Akkad to all the quar[ters] (of the 
world). 

(Postscript.) [Property of Ashurbanipal] , King of As- 
syria. 

' From a broken tablet. 



200 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



THE BABYLONIAN CHRONICLE 

[Ik the third year of J^abonassar] , King of Babylon, 
[Tiglath-pileser] took his seat on the throne in Assyria. 
In the same year he marched down to Akkad, plundered 
the cities Rabbiku and Hamranu, and carried away the 
gods of the city Shapazza. 

In the time of Nabonassar, Borsippa separated itself 
from Babylon. The battle of Nabonassar against Borsippa 
is not recorded. 

In the fifth year of Nabonassar, Ummanigash took his 
seat on the throne in Elam. 

In the fourteenth year Nabonassar was taken ill and died 
in his palace. Nabonassar reigned fourteen years over 
Babylon. Nadin, his son, took his seat on the throne in 
Babylon. 

In the second year Nadin was killed in a revolt. Nadin 
reigned two years over Babylon. Shumukin, a governor, 
leader of the revolt, took his seat on the throne. Shumukin 
reigned two months, [twelve] days over Babylon. Ukin- 
zer * * * on the throne * * * [killed him (?)] and 
seized the throne. 

In the third year of Ukinzer, Tiglath-pileser, on his 
expedition to Akkad, destroyed Bit-Amukani and captured 
Ukinzer. Ukinzer reigned three years over Babylon. 
Tiglath-pileser took his seat on the throne in Babylon. 

In the second year, in the month Tebet, Tiglath-pileser 
died. Tiglath-pileser reigned * * * years over Akkad and 
Assyria; two years he reigned in Akkad. On the twenty- 
fifth day of the month Tebet, Shalmaneser took his seat on 
the throne in Ass)rria. He destroyed the city Shabara'in 
(or Shamara'in?). 

In the fifth year, in the month Tebet, Shalmaneser died. 
Shalmaneser reigned five years over Akkad and Ass)rria. 
On the twelfth day of Tebet, Sargon took his seat on the 
throne in Assyria. In the month Nisan, Merodachbaladan 
took his seat on the throne in Babylon. 



THE BABYLONIAN CHRONICLE 20I 

In the second year of Merodachbaladan, Ummanigash, 
King of Elam, fought a battle against Sargon, King of As- 
syria, in the district of Durilu, invaded Assyria and routed 
them completely. Merodachbaladan, with his army, who 
had come to the help of the King of Elam, did not come in 
time for the battle, but joined (?) him later. 

In the fifth year of Merodachbaladan, Ummanigash 
died. Ummanigash reigned * * * years over Elam * * * 
Kudur, son of his sister, took his seat on the throne in Elam 

* * * Merodach(?)baladan(?) * * * to the tenth year 

* * * 

[Lines badly broken.] 

In the [twelfth], year [of Merodachbaladan], Sargon 
marched down to Akkad and fought [against Merodach- 
baladan; and] Merodach[baladan at the head of his nobles 
fled to Elam. Merodachbaladan reigned over Babylon] 
twelve years. Sargon took his seat on the throne in 
Babylon. 

In the thirteenth year Sargon took the hand of Bel (and) 
captured Duriaku. 

In the fourteenth year the king (remained) in (his) 
country. 

In the fifteenth year, on the twenty-second day of the 
month Tishrit, the gods of the Sea Land were restored 

* * * feasts (?) were instituted. 

[In the sixteenth year Sar]gon [marched] to the land 
of Tabalu. 

[Lines badly broken.] 

The Babylonians were not scattered. The territory 

* * * he enlarged. Merodachbaladan and * * * He 
plundered his country * * * Having fortified (?) Larak 
and Sharraba * * * he set Belibni on the throne in 
Babylon. 

In the first year of Belibni, Sennacherib destroyed the 
cities Hirimma and Hararatum. 

In the third year of Belibni, Sennacherib marched down 
to Akkad and plundered Akkad. Belibni and his nobles 



202 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

were led away to Assyria. Belibni reigned three years 
over Babylon. Sennacherib set his (own) son Ashur- 
nadinshum on the throne in Babylon. 

In the first year of Ashumadinshum, Ishtarhundu, 
King of Elam, seized his brother Hallushu and imprisoned 
him. Ishtarhundu reigned eighteen years over Elam. 
Hallushu, his brother, took his seat on the throne in Elam. 

In the sixth year of Ashumadinshum, Sennacherib 
marched down to Elam, destroyed the cities Nagitu, Hilmu, 
Pillatu, and Hupapanu, and plundered them. Afterward 
Hallushu, King of Elam, marched to Akkad. At the end 
(?) of the month Tishrit (?) he entered Sippar (and) killed 
people. Shamash did not leave Ebabbara. Ashumadinshum 
was taken captive and led away to Elam. Ashumadinshum 
reigned six years over Babylon. The King of Elam set 
Nergalushezib on the throne in Babylon and invaded 
Assyria. 

In the first year of Nergalushezib, on the sixteenth day 
of the month Tammuz, Nergalushezib took Nippur (?)*** 
On the first day of the month Tishrit the Assyrian army 
entered Erech, (and) spoiled the gods of Erech and its 
people. Nergalushezib followed the Elamites. The gods 
of Erech and its people were carried away. On the eighth 
day of the month Tishrit he fought against the Assyrians 
in the district of Nippur, was captured in open battle, and 
led to Assyria. Nergalushezib reigned one year and six 
months over Babylon * * * On the twenty-sixth day 
* * * the people rebelled against Hallushu, King of Elam, 
imprisoned and killed him. Hallushu reigned six years 
over Elam. Kudur took his seat on the throne in Elam. 
After that Sennacherib marched down to Elam, devastated 
and plundered it from the land of Rashi to Bit-Bumaki. 
Mushezib-Marduk took his seat on the throne in Babylon. 

In the first year of Mushezib-Marduk, on the eighteenth 
(or twenty-eighth?) day of the month Ab, Kudur, King of 
Elam, was taken captive in a revolt and killed. Kudur 
reigned ten months over Elam. Menanu took his seat on 
the throne in Elam. In an unknown year Menanu col- 



THE BABYLONIAN CHRONICLE 



203 



lected the forces of Elam and Akkad, and in Halule at- 
tacked and invaded Assyria. 

In the fourth year of Mushezib-Marduk, on the fifteenth 
day of the month Nisan, Menanu, King of Elam, was over- 
powered, his mouth was stopped and he could not speak. 
On the first day of the month Kislev the city was captured. 
Mushezib-Marduk was taken captive and led away to As- 
syria. Mushezib-Marduk reigned four years over Babylon. 
On the seventeenth day of the month Adar, Menanu, King 
of Elam, died. Menanu reigned four years over Elam. 
Hummahaldash took his seat on the throne in Elam. 

In the eighth year there was no king in Babylon. On 
the third day of the month Tammuz the gods of Erech re- 
turned to Erech from Eridu. On the twenty-third day of 
the month Tishrit, Hummahaldash, King of Elam, was 
overpowered with fire and, died jn * * * Hummahaldash 
reigned eight years over Elam. Hummahaldash II took 
his seat on the throne in Elam. On the twentieth day of 
the month Tebet, Sennacherib, King of Assyria, was killed 
by his son in a revolt. Sennacherib reigned [twenty- 
three] years over Assyria. From the twentieth day of 
Tebet to the second day of Adar the revolt continued 
in Assyria. On the eighteenth day of the month Sivan, 
Esarhaddon, his son, took his seat on the throne in 
Assyria. 

In the first year of Esarhaddon, Zerkenishlishir, of the 
Sea Land, having arisen (?), encamped (?) against Ur 
* * * Before the Assyrian officers he fled, and [went ?] to 
Elam * * * In Elam the King of Elam seized him and 
[killed him] with the sword. In an unknown month in 
Nippur, the Tig-En-Na * * * 

In the month Elul the god Kadi and the gods [of 
Durilu] came to Durilu [* * * and the gods of Durshar- 
rukin] came to Dursharrukin * * * In the month Adar 



* * * 



In the second year the major-domo * * * -aheshuUim 
* * * the Tig-En-Na * * * were brought to Assyria and 
killed in Assyria. * * * Sidon was captured, and its spoil 



204 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

carried away * * * The major-domo called an assembly 
in Akkad. 

In the fifth year, on the second day of the month Tishrit, 
the Assyrian army conquered Bazza (Swamp-land?). In 
the month Tishrit the head of the Sidonian king was cut 
off and brought to Assyria. In the month Adar the head 
of the king of the lands Kundu and Sisu was cut off and 
brought to Assyria. 

In the sixth year the King of Elam entered Sippar and 
made a massacre. Shamash did not leave Ebabbara. The 
Assyrian army marched to Meluhha. Hummahaldash, 
King of Elam, died in his palace without being sick. Hum- 
mahaldash reigned five years over Elam. Urtag^, his 
brother, took his seat on the throne in Elam. In an un- 
known month Shumiddin, the Tig-En-Na, and Kudur, son 
of Dakuri, were brought to Assyria. 

In the seventh year, on the fifth day of the month Adar, 
the Assyrian army marched to Egypt. In Adar, Ishtar of 
Agade and the gods of Agade came from Elam and en- 
tered Agade on the tenth day of Adar. 

In the eighth year of Esarhaddon, in the month Tebet — 
the day obliterated — the land of Rurisa was conquered, and 
its spoil carried away. In the month Kislev its spoil 
reached Erech. On the eighth day of the month Adar the 
wife of the king died. 

In the tenth year, in the month Nisan.the Assyrian army 
marched to Egypt. On the third, sixteenth, and eight- 
eenth days of the month Tammuz — ^three times — ^a battle 
was fought in Egypt. On the twelfth day Memphis, its 
(i. e., Egypt's) royal city, was captured, its king escaped, 
his son * * * its spoil was carried away, the people * * * 
its property * * * 

[In the eleventh year the king remained] in Assyria. 
He killed [many of] the nobles with the sword. 

In the twelfth year the Assyrian king marched to 
Eygpt, became sick on the way, and died on the tenth 
day of the month Marcheshvan. Esarhaddon reigned 
twelve years over Assyria. His two sons took their seat 



THE BABYLONIAN CHRONICLE 205 

on the throne: in Babylon, Shamashshumukin; in Assyria, 
Ashurbanipal. 

In the first year of Shamashshumukin, in the month 
lyyar, Bel and the gods of Akkad left the city Asshur and 
reached Babylon in lyyar. In the same year the King of 
Kirbitu was captured. On the twentieth day of the month 
Tebet, Beleter * * * was captured and killed in Babylon. 

Part first — revised and prepared after its original. 
Table of Anabeleresh, son of Liblutu, son of Kalab-Nan- 
nar for Yaddin, son of Anabeleresh, son of Kalab-Nannar. 
Babylon, on the fifth day of the month * * * in the twen- 
ty-second year of Darius, King of Babylon and countries. 



THE ASSYRIAN EPONYM-LIST 



* * * shar * * * 
Ninib-zar * * * 
Tab-etir-[Ashur]. 
[As]hur-ladu (?). 
Tukulti Ninib, the 

king. 

888. Takkil-ana-beli[a]. 
Abu-Malik. 
Ilu-milki. 
Yari. 

Ashur-shezibani. 
Ashur - naqir - pal, the 
king. 
882. Ashur-iddin. 

* * * uttiaku.^ 
Sha-(ilu)MA-daniqa. 
Dakan-bel-na9ir. 
Ninib-pia-U9ur. 
Ninib-bel-uqur. 
Shangu-Ashur-lilbur. 

875. Shamash-upahir. 
874. Nergal-bel-kumua. 
873. Qurdi-Ashur. 
872. Ashur-li'u. 
871. Ashur-natkil. 
870. Bel-mudammiq. 
869. Dain-Ninib. 
868. Ishtar * * * 
867. Shamash-niiri. 

' Var. Imut (?or Mit?) aku. 



893- 
892. 

891. 

890. 

889. 



887. 

886. 
885. 
884. 
883. 



881. 
880. 
879. 
878. 
877. 
876. 



866. Mannu-dan-ana-ili. 
865. Shaniash-bel-U9ur. 
864. Ninib-malik. 
863. Ninib-etiranni. 
862. Ashur-malik. 
861. Nergal-ig-KA-danin. 
860. Tab-Bel. 
859. Shar-kalab-nishe.'' 
858. Shulmanu - asharidu 
(=Shalmaneser), the king. 
857. Ashur-bel-ukinni. 
856. Ashur-bania-u^ur. 
855. Abu-ina-ekal-lilbur. 
854. Dain-Ashur. 
853. Shamash-abua. 
852. Shamash-bel-uqur. 
851. Bel-bania. 
850, Hadil-epushu. 
849. Nergal-alik-pani. 
848. Bur-(ilu)-Ramana.' 
847. Ninib-mukin-nishe. 
846. Ninib-nadin-shum. 
845. Ashur-bania. 
844. Tab-Ninib. 
843. Takkil-ana-sharri. 
842. Ramman-rimani. 
841. Bel-abua. 
840. Shulmu-bel-lamur. 
839. Ninib-kibsi-u^ur. 

' Schrader: Shar-UR-nishe. 



' Var. Bur-Raman and Bir-Raman. 
206 



THE ASSYRIAN EPONYM-LIST 



207 



838. Ninib-malik. 

837. Qurdi-Ashur. 

836. Ner-shar. 

835. Nergal-mudamiq. 

834. Yahalu. 

833. Ululai. 

832. Sharpati-Bel. 

831. Nergal-malik. 

830. Hu-(Bak?)-ba-a. 

829. Ilu-mukin-ahi. 

828. Shulmanu - asharidu 

(Shalmaneser), the king. 
827. Dain-Ashur. 
826. Ashur-bania-uqur. 
825. Yahalu. 
824. Bel-bania. 
823. Shamshi-Ramman, the 

king. 
822, Yahalu. 
821. Bel-dan. 
820. Ninib-upahhir. 
819. Shamash-malik. 
818. Nergal-malik. 
817. Ashur-bania-u^ur. 
816. Sharpati-Bel. 
815. Bel-balat. 
814. Mushiknish. 
813. Ninib-asharidu. 
812. Shamash-kumua. 
811. Bel-qat-^abat. 
810. Ramman - nirari, the 

king. 
809. Nergal-malik. 
808. Bel-dan. 
807. C^il-Bel. 
806. Ashur-takkil. 
805. Ilu-ittia. 



804. Nergal-eresh. 

803. Ashur-kalab-nishe. 

802. Ninib-malik. 

801. Ner-shar. 

800. AN- * * * 

799. Mutakkil- * * * 

798. Bel-tar9i(ilu)MA. 

797. Ashur-bel-U9ur. 

796. Marduk-shadua. 

795, Ukin-abua. 

794. Mannuki (mat) As- 

shur. 
793. Mushallim-Ninib. 
792. Bel-iqishani. 
791. Ner-Shamash. 
790. Ninib-ukin-ahi. 
789. Ramman-mushammir, 
788. Qil-Ishtar. 
787. Balatu. 
786. Ramman-uballit. 
785. Marduk-shar-ugur. ' 
784. Nabu-shar-ugur. 
783. Ninib-na9ir. 
782. .(ilu)MA-li'u. 
781. Shulmanu - asharidu 

(Shalmaneser), the king. 
780. Shamshi-ilu. 
779. Marduk-rimani. 
778. Bel-lishir. 
"jyj. Nabu-ishid-ukin. 
'jyd. Pan-Ashur-lamur.^ 
775. Nergal-eresh. 
774. Ishtar-duri. 
773. Mannuki-Ramman. 
772. Ashur-bel-ugur. 
771. Ashur-dan, the king. 
770. Shamshi-ilu. 



* Var. Pan-Ashur-amaru. 



2o8 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



769. Bel-malik. 
768. Apliya. 
767. Qurdi-Ashur. 
766. Mushallim-Ninib. 

Ninib-ukin-nishe. 

^idqi-ilu. 

Pur-AN-sagale. 

Tab-Bel. 

Nabu-ukin-ahi. 

Laqibu. 

Pan-Ashur-lamur. 

Bel-takkil. 

Ninib-iddin. 

Bel-shadua. 

Qisu. 

Ninib-shezibani. 

Ashur-nirari, the king. 

Shamshi-ilu. 

Marduk-shallima(n)ni. 

Bel-dan. 

Shamash- ittalak - SUN 

(?). 

748. Ramman-bel-ukin. 
Sin-shallima(n)ni. 
Nergal-naqir. 
Nabu-bel-u^ur. 
Bel-dan. 

Tukulti - apal - Esharra 
(Tiglath - pileser) [the 
king]. 
742. Nabu-danina(n)ni. 
741. Bel-Harran-bel-U9ur. 
740. Nabu-etiranni. 
739. Sin-takkil. 
738. Ramman-bel-ukin. 



765- 
764. 

763- 
762. 
761. 
760. 

759- 
758. 
757- 
756. 
755- 
754- 
753- 
752- 
751- 
750. 
749- 



747- 
746. 

745- 
744- 
743- 



737. Bel-limura(n)ni, 

736. Ninib-malik. 

735. Ashur-shallima(n)ni. 

734. Bel-dan. 

733. Ashur-danina(n)ni. 

732. Nabu-bel-uqur. 

731. Nergal-uballit. 

730. Bel-ludari. 

729. Naphar-ilu. 

728. Dur-Ashur. 

727. Bel-Harran-bel-u^ur. 

726. Marduk-bel-ugur. 

725. Mahde. 

724. Ashur-hal- * * * 

723. Shulmanu-asharidu. 

722. Ninib-malik. 

721. Nabu-tarig. 

720. Ashur-I^-KA-danin. 

719. Sharru-ukin (Sargon). 

718. Zer-bani. 

717. Tab-shar(?)-Ashur. 

716. Tab-gil-Esharra. 

715. Takkil-ana-Bel. 

714. Ishtar-duri. 

713. Ashur-bani. 

712. Sharru-limura(n)ni. 

711. Ninib-alik-pani. 

710. Shamash-bel-ugur. 

709. Mannuki-Ashur-li'u. 

708. Shamash-upahhir. 

707. Sha-Ashur-du(ub)bu. 

706. Mutakkil-Ashur. 

705. Upahhir(ra)-Bel.i 

704. Nabu-dini-epush.* 

703. Kan<;il(?)ar. 



• Canon II, (a) [Sin-]ahe-erba, the king ; (i) Upahhirra-Bel. Canon V 
10, An assassin murdered the King of Assyria. Canon V 11, On the twelfth 
day of the month Ab, Sin-ahe-erba [? took his seat on the throne ?]. 

» Canon IV, (a) Sin-ahe-erba, King of Assyria ; (*) Nabu-dini-epush. 



ASSYRIAN EPONYM-LIST, WITH NOTES 



209 



702. Nabu-li'u. 


680. Dana(a)nu. 


701. Hananu. 


679. Ishtu-Ramman-aninu. 


700. Metunu. 


678. Nergal-shar-uqur. 


699. Bel-shara(n)ni. 


677. Abu-rama (or ramu). 


698. Shulmu - (Shulum-)- 


676. Bam(or Ban-)ba. 


shar. 


675. Nabu-ahe-iddin. 


697. Nabu-dur-uqur. 


674. Sharru-nuri. 


696. (Tab?)-Bel. 


673. Atar-ilu. 


695. Ashur-bel-u^ur.* 


672. Nabu-bel-u^ur. 


694. Ilu-ittia. 


671. Tebeta. 


693. Nadin(i)-ah. 


670. Shulmu-bel-lashme (or 


692. Za(ga)za(g;a)ai(aku?). 


-lashPshib?). 


691. Bel-limura(n)ni. 


669. Shamash-kashid-abi. 


690. Nabu-mukin-ah. 


668. Mar-larmi (or Mar- 


689. Gihilu. 


larim). 


688. Nadin-ahi. 


667. Gabbaru. 


687. Sin-ahe-erba.* 


666. * * * a. 


686. Bel-limura(n)ni. 




685. Ashur-danina(n)ni. 


[A break follows.] 


684. Mannu-zir(or zar)-ni. 




683. Mannuki-Ramman. 


(?). Belu-na'id. 


682. Nabu-shar-ugur. 


(?). Tabu * * * 


681. Nabu-ah-eresh. 


(?). Arba-[ila]. 


[Esar]haddon took his 


(?). Girza-[buna]. 


seat on the throne. 


(?). Silim-[Ashur?]. 



ASSYRIAN EPONYM-LIST, WITH NOTES 



860. * * * when Shul- 
manu-asharidu (Shalman- 
eser), son of Ashumaqir- 
pal, [took his seat on the 
throne] . 

859. In the eponym-year of 



Sharru-kalab-nishe * * * 

^r\ -l^ -r 'F 

858. In the eponym-year of 
Shulmanu-asharidu, King 
of Assyria * * * 

857. In the eponym-year of 



' Smith and Delitzsch, Nabu-. 
14 



' Canon III, Ashur-ahe-[erba]. 



210 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



Ashur-bel-ukin, the com- 
mander-in-chief * * * 

856. In the eponym-year of 
Ashur - bana - ugur, the 
rab-BI-LUB * * * 

855. In the eponym-year of 
Ashur - ina - ekalli - lilbur, 
the major-domo, (?)*** 

854. In the eponym-year of 
Dain-Ashur, the com- 
mander-in-chief * * * 

853. In the eponym-year of 
Shamash-abua, the gov- 
ernor of the city Nagibna 
(Nisibis), * * * 

852. In the eponym-year of 
Shamash-bel-ugur, of the 
city Kalah * * * 

851. In the eponym-year of 
Bel-bana(?), the major- 
domo * * * 

850. In the eponym-year of 

Hadil-ebushu, of the city 
* * * 

849. In the eponym-year of 
Nergal-ahk-mahri * * * 

848. In the eponym-year of 
Bir(ilu)Ramana * * * 

[A break after 848.] 

842. * * * 

841. * * * of the city of 

Ahi-Zuhina. To [the land 

of Tilli(?)]e.^ 
840. * * * of the land Ra- 

<;appa (Razeph). To the 

land (?) of * * * hi. 



839. * * * of the city Ahi]- 
Zuhina. To the land of 
Danabi. 

838. * * * of the land of] 
Shallat (?). To the land 
of Tabala. 

837. * * * of the land of 
Kir]ruri. To the land of 
Melidi (Melitene). 

836. * * * of the city Nine- 
veh. To the land of 
Namri (Namar). 

835. * * * (amelu)] itu. 
To the land of Que. 

834. * * * of the city Kakzi 
(? or Kalzi ?). To the 
land of Que * * * to the 
land of Que. The great 
god went out from Der. 

833. * * * To the land of 
Urartu (Armenia). 

832. * * * To the land of 
Unqi. 

831. * * * To the land of 
Ulluba. 

830. * * * To the land of 
Manna. 

829. * * * A revolt. 

828. * * * A revolt. 

827. * * * A revolt. 

826. * * * A revolt. 

825. * * * A revolt. 

824. * * * A revolt. 



8 1 7. [Ashur - bania - uqur] . 

To the land of Tillie (?). 

816. [Sharpati-Bel, of the 

' That is, an expedition to N. N. 



ASSYRIAN EPONYM-LIST, WITH NOTES 



211 



city Na]9ibina. To the 

land of Zarati. 
815. [Bel-balat, of * * *]. 

To Der. The great god 

went to Der. 
814. [Mushiknish, of the 

land of] Kirruri. To the 

land of Ihsana. 
813. [Nergal - malik, the 

commander - in] - chief. 

To the land of Kaldu. 
812. [Shamash - kumua, of 

the land of] Arbaha. To 

Babylon. 
811. [Bel-kata-gabit, of] 

Mazamua. In the land.^ 
810. [Ramman-nirari, King 

of] Assyria. To Media. 
809. [Nergal - malik, the 

commander in] - chief. 

To the city Guzana. 
808. [Bel -dan] * * * the 

major - domo. To the 

land of Manna. 
807. gil-Bel, the rab-Bi- 

Lub. To the land of 

Manna. 
806. [Ashur - takkil] the 

minister (?). To the land 

of Arpadda. 
805. [Ilu-ittia, an officer of] 

the land. To the city 

Hazazu. 
804. [Nergal-eresh, of the 

land of Ra]qappa. To 

the city of Balu. 



803. [Ashur-kalab-nishe, of 

the land of Ar]baha. To 

the sea-coast. A plague. 
802. [Ninib-malik, of the 

city A] hi-Zuhina. To 

the city Hubushkia. 
801. [Ner-shar, of Na]9i- 

bina. To Media. 
800. [AN * * * of the city 

Amedi. To Media. 
799. [Mutakkil * * *] the 

officer * * * of (?) the rab- 

shaks. To the land of 

Lusia. 
798. [Bel-tar9i-(ilu)MA, of 

the city] Kalah. To the 

land of Namri. 
797. [Ashur - bel - u^ur, of 

the land of] Kirruri. To 

the city Manquate, 
796. [Marduk - shadua, of 

the land of] Shallat. To 

the city Der. 
795. [Ukin - abua, of the 

land of] Tushhan. To the 

city Der. 
794. [Mannuki - Ashur, of 

the city] Guzana. To 

Media. 
793. [Mushallim - Ninib, of 

the land of Tillie]. To 

Media. 
792. [Bel - ikishani, of the 

city] Mehinish. To the 

city Hubushkia. 
791. [Ner-Shamash, of the 



• That is, the king remained in the land, 
taken. 



No expedition was under- 



212 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



land of] Isana. To the 

land of Itua. 
790. [Ninib - ukin - ahi, of 

the city] Nineveh. To 

Media. 
789. [Ramman - musham- 

mir, of the city] Kakzi 

(?). To Media. 
788. [gil-Ishtar, of * * * 

KI] kar-ru (?). 
787. [Balatu, of * * *]. 

To Media. Nabii entered 

the new temple. 
786. [Ramman - uballit, of 

the city Ri]musi. To the 

land of Ki-is(?)ki. 
785. [Marduk - shar - ugur. 

To the land of] Hubush- 

kia. The great god went 

to the city Der. 
784. [Nabu - shar - uqur, of 

the city Kur(?)ba-an. To 

the land of Hubushkia. 
783. [Ninib-na^ir, of the 

city] Mazamua. To the 

land of Itu. 
782. [(ilu) MA-li'u, of the 

city Naqib]ina. To the 

land of Itu. 
781. [Shulmanu - asharidu, 

King of Assyria. To the 

land of Urartu (Armenia). 
780. [Shamshi-ilu. the com- 
mander] -in-chief. To the 

land of Urartu. 
779. [Marduk - rimani the 

rab]-BI-LUB. To the 

land of Urartu. 



778. [Bel-Iishir, the ma- 
jor-] domo. To the land 
of Urartu. 

777- [Nabu-ishid-ukin] the 
minister (?). To the land 
of Itu. 

776. [Pan - Ashur - lamur] , 
the governor of the land. 
To the land of Urartu. 

775. [Nergal-eresh, of the 
land of Ra]9appa. To 
the land of cedars (Ama- 
nus). 

774. [Ishtar-duri, of the city 
Naqi]bina. To the lands 
of Urartu (and) Namri. 

773. [Mannuki - Ramman, 
of the land (?) of] Shal- 
lat (?). To the city Da- 
mascus. 

772. [Ashur - bel - uqur, of 
the city Kalah. To the 
land of Hatarika (Ha- 
drach). 

771. [Ashur-dan, King of 
As] Syria. To the city 
Gananati. 

770. [Shamshi-ilu, the com- 
mander] - in - chief. To 
the city Marad. 

769. [Bel-Malik, of the land 
of] Arbaha. To the land 
of Itu. 

768. [Apliya, of the city 
Ma]zamua. In the land. 

767. [Qurdi-Ashur, of the 
city Ah]i-Zuhina. To the 
land of Gananati. 



ASSYRIAN EPONYM-LIST, WITH NOTES 



213 



766. [Mushallim-Ninib, of 
the city] Tile (?). To 
Media. 

765. [Ninib - mukin - nishe, 
* of] the land of Kirruri. 
To the land of Hatarika. 
A plague. 

764. [Qidki-ilu, of] the land 
of Tushhan. In the 
land. 

763. [Pur-(ilu)-Sagale (?) 
o]f the city Guzana. 
A revolt in the city As- 
shur. In the month Sivan 
an eclipse of the sun took 
place. 

762. [Tab-Bel, o]f the city 
Amedi. A revolt in the 
city Asshur. 

761. [Ninib-mukin-ahi, o]f 
the city Nineveh. A re- 
volt in the city Arbaha. 

760. [Laqibu, o]f the city 
Kakzi (?). A revolt in 
the city Arbaha. 

759. [Pan-Ashur-lamur, of] 
the city Arba-ilu (Arbela). 
A revolt in the city Gu- 
zana. A plague. 

758. [Bel-takkil, of] the 
city Isana. To the city 
Guzana. Peace in the 
land. 

757. [Ninib-iddin, of the 
ci]ty Kur(?)ban. In the 
land. 

756. [Bel - shadua, of the 

' Variation ; To 



city] Pamunna (?). In 

the land. 
755- [Qisu, of the city] Me- 

hinish. To the land of 

Hatarika. 
754. [Ninib - shezibani, of 

the city] Rimusi. To 

the land* of Arpadda. 

Return from the city As- 
shur. 
753. [Ashur - nirari, the 

King of] Assyria. In 

the land. 
752. [Shamshi-ilu, the com- 
mander] -in-chief. In the 

land. 
751. [Marduk-shallima(n)- 

ni, the major-] domo. In 

the land. 
750. [Bel-dan the rab-BI]- 

LUB (?). In the land. 
749. [ Shamash ittalak - 

SUN(?)]theminister(?). 

To the land of Namri. 
748. [Ramman -bel-ukin], 

officer (?) of the land. 

To the land of Namri. 
747. [Sin-shallima(n)ni, of 

the land of] Ragappa. 

In the land. 
746. [Nergal-nagir, of] the 

city Naqibina. A revolt 

in the city Kalah. 
745. [Nabii - bel - ugur, of] 

the city Arbaha. On 

the thirteenth day of the 

month lyyar Tukulti- 

the city Arpadda, 



214 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



apal-Esharra (Tiglath-pi- 
leser) took his seat on the 
throne. In the month 
Tishrit he marched to the 
territory between the 
rivers. 

744. [Bel-dan, of the city] 
Kalah. To the land of 
Namri. 

743. [TukuIti-apal-Esharra, 
K]ing of Assyria, ^n the 
city Arpadda. A mas- 
sacre took place in the 
land of Urartu (Armenia). 

742. [Nabu - danina(n)ni] , 
the commander-in-chief. 
To the city Arpadda. 

741. [Bel - Harran - bel - 
uqur] , the major-domo. 
To the same city. Con- 
quered in three years. 

740. [Nabu-etira(n)ni], the 
rab-BI-LUB. To the 
city Arpadda. 

739. [Sin-takkil] , the min- 
ister (?). To the land of 
Ulluba.* A fortress oc- 
cupied. 

738. [Ramman - bel-ukin] , 
the governor. The city 
Gullani captured. 

737. [Bel-limura(n)ni], of 
the land Raqappa. To 
Media. 

736. [Ninib-malik], of Na- 
9ibina. To the foot of Nal 
Mountains. 

' Schrader : The city 



735- [Ashur-shallima(n)ni,J 

of the land Arbaha. To 

the land of Urartu. 
734. [Bel-dan], of the city 

Kalah. To the land of 

Pilishta. 
733. [ Ashur - danina(n)ni] , 

of the city Mazamua. To 

the land of Damascus. 
732. [Nabu-bel-ugur], of 

the city Sime. To the 

land of Damascus. 
731. [Nergal - uballit], of 

the city Ahi-Zuhina. To 

the city Sapiya. 
730. [Bel-ludari], of the 

city Tile (?). In the 

land. 
729. [Naphar-ilu], of the 

land Kirruri. The king 

seized the hands of Bel. 
728. [Dur- Ashur], of the 

city Tushhan. The king 

seized the hands of Bel. 

The city * * * 
727. [Bel - Harran - bel - 

uqur], of the city Guzana. 

To the city * * * [Shul- 

manu]-asharidu [took his 

seat] on the throne. 
726. [Marduk-bel-U9ur, of 

the city Ame]di. In the 

land. 
725. [Mahde, of the city] 

Nineveh. To * * * 
724. [Ashur-hal- * * * of 

cityKak]zi(?). To*** 

Birtu (blrtu = fortress). 



ASSYRIAN EPONYM-LIST, WITH NOTES 



2IS 



723. [Shulmanu - asharidu. 
King of Assyria]. T[o 



* * * 

* * * 

* * * 
720. * * * ru. 

719. * * * enjtered. 

718. * * * to the land of 
Ta]bala. 

717. * * * du?karru?. 

716. * * * Iranz]u, of Man- 
na. 

715. * * * prefects were 
appointed. 

714. * * * the cities Mu- 
qaqir (and) Haldia. 

713. * * * the nobles in 
the land of Ellip. 

712. * * * Bel (?) en- 
tered. 

711. * * * the city Muqa- 
9ir. 

710. * * * In the land. 

Fragment of 

708. Eponym-year of Sha- 
mash-upahhir * * * The 
nobles to the city Ku- 
niuh(hi) * * * 

707. Eponjrm-year of Sha- 
Ashur - dubbu, governor 
of the city Tushhan. 
The king returned from 
Babylon. The palaces 
and * * * On the twenty- 
second day of the month 
Tishrit the gods of Dur- 
sharru-ukin * * * 



* * * To the city Marq- 
asa. 

709. * * * To the city Bit- 
Zer-naid. The king at 
KishPbiedi? * * * Sharru- 
ukin (Sargon) seized the 
hands of Bel. 

708. * * * ri (?). The city 
Kumuha captured. A 
prefect appointed. 

707. [* * * eponym-year of 
Sha-Ashur-dubbu, gov- 
ernor of the city Tush- 
ha] n. The king returned 
from Babylon * * * 
from (?) the city Dur- 
Yakin went forth. 

706. * * * The city Dur- 
Yakin destroyed * * * 
their temples they en- 
tered. 

705. * * * In the land of 
Karalla * * * ? mahra?. 

a Similar List 

706. Eponym-year of Mu- 
takkil - Ashur, the gov- 
ernor of the city Guzana. 
The king * * * On 
the sixth day of the 
month lyyar the city 
Dur-sharru-ukin * * * 

705. Eponym-yearof Upah- 
hir-Bel, the governor of 
the city Amedi * * * Ac- 
cording to the oracle (?) 
the Kulummaites * * * 
An assassin murdered the 



2l6 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



King of Assyria * * * On 
the twelfth day of the 
month Ab, Sin-ahe-erba * 
[took his seat on the 
throne] . 
704. Eponym - year of 



Nabu-dini-epush,the gov- 
ernor of the city Nineveh 
* * * the cities Larak (?) 
and Sarabanu * * * the 
palace of the city Kakzu 
built * * * 



' Sennacherib. 



LETTERS 



THE TEL-EL-AM ARN A LETTERS 

I. LETTER FROM AMENOPHIS III, KING OF EGYPT, TO 
KADASHMAN-BEL, KING OF KARDUNIASH 

(Northern Babylonia or Assyria) 

This is the only known letter of Amenophis III. It is written in the 
Babylonian script, and is addressed to a king unknown before the discov- 
ery of the Tel-el-Amama letters. 

TO Kadashman-Bel, King of Karduniash, my brother, 
thus says Nibmuaria [Amenophis], the great king, 
the King of Egypt, thy brother: I am well. May 
it be well with thee, with thy house, with thy wives, with 
thy children, with thy nobles, thy horses, thy chariots, and 
in thy lands may there be an abundance of peace! I am 
well; with my house, with my wives, with my children, 
with my nobles, my horses, my chariots, my people it is 
very well, and in my lands there is an abundance of peace. 
I have indeed noted the word that thou didst write me — 
namely, " Thou verily desirest my daughter to wife, but 
from the time my father gave thee my sister to wife, no 
one has seen her (and no one knows) whether she is alive 
or whether she is dead." These are thy words which thou 
didst write me in thy letter. But thou hast never sent a 
wise man who was acquainted with thy sister, who could 
have conversed with her, or who could have recognised 
her, and could have conversed with her. [Here follow 
eight lines obscure and mutilated.] 

217 



2i8 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

And when thou writest thus: " When thou g^vest 
orders to my messengers and to thy wives to assem- 
ble in thy presence, and when thou [Amenophis] sayest 
to the messengers, ' Behold your lady, who stands be- 
fore you,' my messengers do not recognise her as my 
sister, who is with thee." Anent the fact that thou 
writest thus: " My messengers do not identify her," 
[I answer] , " Who then can identify her? " pray tell. Why 
dost thou not send a wise man who could bring back a 
genuine greeting from thy sister? Command, now, that 
(some) one should come and examine her household, and 
her relation to the king. And when thou writest thus: 
" Who knows whether she is the daughter of a beggar, 
or of a Gagayan, or a daughter of the land of Hanigalbat, 
or who knows whether she is from the land of Ugarit, she 
whom my messengers see? And who can inform them, 
that she who is with thee * * * not * * * or what could 
he not tell them? " Such are thy words. If thy sister 
were dead, why should it be concealed * * * [Seven lines 
here are hopelessly mutilated] * * * jn Egypt, and when 
thou writest thus: " Daughters * * * to wife for kings of 
Kar[duniash], and whether * * * when my messengers 
go there and converse with her * * * they should bring 
me a greeting (from her), (as evidence that) she is with 
thee." Such are thy words. When the kings of thy vicin- 
ity, great kings, take thy daughters (to wife), do they send 
thee everything that they have, or that she has? When 
thy sister, who is with me, receives anything, then I will 
send it to you as a token of esteem, for thou mightest 
give thy daughters to the ra-hul-ta, of thy vicinity. And 
when thou writest that I have disregarded the words of 
my father, thou dost not give his very words — " Establish 
genuine brotherhood between us." These words that thou 
writest are thine own words. Brothers, indeed, art thou 
and I, we two, but I am offended at thy messengers be- 
cause they reported to thee as follows: " He gave us noth- 
ing whatever." Whoever comes to Egypt, (and) they come 
before me, or, if only one of them comes, he receives silver. 



THE TEL-EL-AMARNA LETTERS 



219 



gold, oil, garments, every possible favour * * * another 
land. And when he reports * * * the first time mes- 
sengers came to thy father, they became offensive, and 
carried back an evil report. The second time they came 
they (also) returned an evil report; and so I say, whether 
I had given them anything, or whether I had given them 
nothing, they would have made the same report. And I 
did them (only good), and did not (withhold anything) from 
them. 

And when thou writest thus: "Thou spakest to my 
messengers as follows: ' Has not (thy) lord soldiers? and 
the damsel thou gavest me is not beautiful.' " These 
are thy words. Thy messengers have not reported to 
thee the facts in the case. Whether they reported that thou 
hadst or hadst not soldiers, why should I have asked him 
(them) whether thou hadst people, (or) whether thou 
hadst horses? But do not listen to the evil reports of the 
messengers whom thou sendest, for on account of their 
fear of thee they report falsely to escape (punishment at) 
thy hand. When thou sayest: " He has put my chariots 
among the chariots of his officers, so that the foreigner 
who should bring them back to my land could not distin- 
guish them." But the foreigner, who was thine own (sub- 
ject), did not distinguish them, and (still) the chariots were 
thine. (As to) the horses of my land, the chariots require 
all of my horses. When thou writest, by the hand of Rika, 
to furnish oil for * * * to the damsel, thou writest for 
a gift * * * 



II. LETTER FROM KADASHMAN-BEL, KING OF KARDUNIASH. 
TO NIMMURIA (AMENOPHIS III), KING OF EGYPT 

To Nimmuria, King of Egypt, my brother, as follows: 
Kadashman-Bel, King of Karduniash, thy brother. 

May it be well with thee, with thy house, with thy 
wives, with thy land, with thy chariots, with thy horses, 
with thy nobles, may it be very well! 



220 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

As for the damsel, my daughter, for the marriage of 
whom thou hast written me, she is mature and marriage- 
able; send (messengers) and let her be taken. In former 
times, when my father sent a messenger to thee, thou didst 
not detain him many days, but promptly sent him back, and 
thou didst also send my father a good present. 

Now, when I sent my messenger to thee, six years long 
thou didst detain him, and in six years thou hast sent me 
as a present (only) thirty minas of gold, which is like silver. 
This very gold was tested in the presence of thy messenger, 
and he saw (the test). When thou didst plan a great feast, 
thou didst not send thy messenger to say, " Come, now 
* * * and (bring) a present appropriate for the feast." 
These thirty minas of gold which thou didst send are 
(merely) a present for * * * [The remaining lines are 
mutilated.] 



III. LETTER FROM BURRABURIASH, KING OF KARDUNIASH, 
TO AMENOPHIS IV, KING OF EGYPT 

Shortly after the latter's accession to the throne 

To Niphuriria [Amenophis], King of Egjpt, as fol- 
lows: Burraburiash, King of Karduniash, thy brother. It 
is well with me. With thee, thy house, thy wives, thy sons, 
thy country, thy nobles, thy horses, thy chariots, may it 
be very well! 

(Ever) since my father and thy father sustained friendly 
relations with one another, they exchanged valuable pres- 
ents, and the choicest desire, each of the other, they did 
not refuse. Now, my brother has sent me as a present 
(only) two manehs of gold; but send me as much gold as 
thy father [Amenophis III] (would have sent). And if 
it be less, let it be half of what thy father would send. 
Why didst thou send me only two manehs of gold? Now, 
the work of (repairing) the temple is great; and vigorously 
have I undertaken its completion; (therefore) send me 



THE TEI^EL-AMARNA LETTERS 221 

much gold. And whatever thou mayest desire out of my 
country, send, that it may be dehvered to thee. 

In the time of Kurigalzu, my father, the Canaanites as 
a body sent to him as follows: " Against the frontier of the 
land, let us march, and invade it. Let us make an alliance 
with thee." Then my father sent them this (reply), as fol- 
lows: " Cease (trying) to form an alliance with me. If you 
cherish hostility against the King of Egypt, my brother, 
and bind yourselves together (with an oath), as for me, 
shall I not come and plunder you? — for he is in alliance 
with me." My father, for the sake of thy father, did not 
heed them. Now, (as to) the Assyrians, my own subjects, 
did I not send thee (word) concerning their matters? Why 
has (an embassy) entered thy country? If thou lovest me, 
let them have no good fortune. Let them secure no (ad- 
vantage) whatever. 

As a present I send thee three manehs of lapis lazuli 
and five spans of horses for five wooden chariots. 



rv. LETTER FROM TUSHRATTA, KING OF MITANI, TO 
AMENOPHIS III, KING OF EGYPT 

This is the choicest and finest of the British Museum collection, and 
almost perfectly preserved 

To Nimmuria [Amenophis III], the great king. King 
of Egypt, my brother, my son-in-law, who loves me, and 
whom I love, as follows: Tushratta, the great king, (thy) 
father-in-law, who loves thee, the King of Mitani, thy 
brother. I am well. May it be well with thee; with thy 
house, with my sister, and thy other wives, with thy sons, 
with thy chariots, vnth thy horses, with thy great men, with 
thy country and with all thy possessions may it be exceed- 
ingly well ! 

In early times, thy fathers maintained friendly relations 
with my fathers; thou hast, however, multiplied them, and 
with my father thou hast been on exceedingly friendly 
terms. Now, since thou and I are on terms of friendship, 



222 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

thou hast made it tenfold stronger than (that maintained 
between thy father and) my father. 

May the gods cause this our friendship to prosper! 
May Tishub-Bel and Amun decree that (it) perpetually 
endure as it is now! 

When my brother sent his messenger, Mani, (with a 
despatch reading) thus: " My brother, send me thy daugh- 
ter to be my wife, to be mistress of Egypt," I did not 
make my brother heart-sick, but continually played the 
part of a friend. And as my brother desired, I presented 
her to Mani. And he looked upon her; and when he had 
seen her he rejoiced very greatly. When he brings her in 
safety to the land of my brother may Ishtar and Amun 
make her in accord with my brother's desire! 

Gilia, my messenger, has brought me my brother's 
message; when I heard it it was exceedingly good, and I 
rejoiced greatly, and said, " For my part, even if friendly 
relations with my brother had ceased, we would, on the 
basis of this message, be friends forever." 

Now, when I wrote my brother and said, " For my part, 
we will be fast friends, and mutually helpful," I said to 
my brother, " May my brother increase (our friendship) 
tenfold beyond that (maintained) with my father! " 

And I made a request of my brother for much gold 
in the following words: " Let my brother assign to me 
more than (was assigned) to my father, and let him send 
it to me. Thou didst send my father much gold; a nam- 
har (vessel) of royal gold, a kiru (vessel) of royal gold, didst 
thou send him, (but) a tablet of gold that is as if it were 
alloyed with copper hast thou sent me." 

When I sent Gilia to my brother, and requested of him 
gold in the following terms: "As for me, let my brother 
assign me more than (was assigned) to my father, and let 
him send me much gold, even without measure. May 
my brother send me more than (was sent) my father! " 
And I also spake to my brother as follows: " Thy munition 
which my grandfather had prepared I will diligently for- 
ward (!) and also will complete the order (for the instru- 



THE TEL-EL-AMARNA LETTERS 



223 



ments)." I spoke also as follows: "The gold that my 
brother sends, let it be sent as the dowry for a wife." When 
my brother sent me gold, and (when) I asked, " Is it too 
little or not? " it was not too little, but in great plenty, 
and answered the required specifications. And when it 
answered so fully the requirements, I greatly rejoiced over 
it, and over everything that my brother sent I was very 
happy. 

Now, then, I have written to my brother, and may my 
brother, beyond (his love) to my father, increase his love 
to me! I have, indeed, asked gold of my brother, and the 
gold that I ask of my brother I desire for two purposes: in 
the first place for thy munition, and secondly for a wife. 
Let my brother (then) send me gold in great abundance, 
even without measure, and let him send more gold to me 
than (was formerly sent) to my father. For in the land of 
my brother gold is as (plentiful as) dust. May the gods so 
order that, while gold is now abundant in the land of my 
brother, he may increase its abundance tenfold! But let 
not the gold that I request distress my brother, and let 
not my brother distress me. So let my brother send me 
gold in abundance, without measure. And whatsoever my 
brother desires for his house let him send, and get it, for 
I will grant every request (!) that my brother makes. For 
this land is my brother's land, and this house is his house. 

Now I send my messenger, Gilia, to my brother, and let 
my brother not detain him, but let him return in haste. As 
I, when I hear of the prosperity of my brother, greatly re- 
joice, may I always hear of the prosperity of my brother! 
And the messages that we send may Tishub, the lord, and 
Amanum so order, that they may accomplish their pur- 
pose, and may they always remain as they now are! As 
we are (now) on terms of cordial friendship, so may we 
as now, always remain cordial friends! 

Now, as a present for my brother, one great golden 
vessel, ornamented (!) with lapis-lazuli stones * * * one 
heavy vessel ornamented ( !) with twenty lapis-lazuli stones, 
and nineteen gold (ornaments); in the centre of these were 



224 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



lapis lazuli chased in gold; another heavy vessel with forty- 
two hulalu-stones and forty gold (ornaments) * * * the 
centre was decked with hulalu-stones chased in gold. Ten 
span of horses, ten wooden chariots with all their appur- 
tenances, and thirty women I have sent as a present to my 
brother. 



V. LETTER FROM TUSHRATTA, KING OF MITANI, TO 
AMENOPHIS IV, KING OF EGYPT 

To Naphuria, King of Egypt, my brother, my son-in- 
law, who loves me, and whom I love. Tushratta, King of 
Mitani, thy father-in-law, who loves thee, thy brother. 
With me it is well. May it be well with thee, with thy 
houses, thy mother Ti, and the land of Egypt, my daughter 
Tatuhipa, thy wife, thy other wives, thy sons, thy nobles, 
thy chariots, thy horses, thy cities, thy land, and with all 
thy possessions may it be very well! 

Pirizzi and Bubri, my messengers, I sent to my brother 
as * * * and ordered them to express great sorrow. And 
then I sent them again. And this word, on the former 
occasion, I spake to my brother: " Mani, my brother's mes- 
senger, I will retain until my brother sends my messenger 
and (until) he arrives." * * * And now, my brother * * * 
has not sent them back, but has (rather) seriously detained 
them. The messengers should not wait at all, but they 
should hasten to return. Because of the messengers, why 
should I [distress] my brother? Why should we not each 
send [a messenger] to the other, to learn of the prosperity 
of the other, that we may daily (!) live in exceeding joy. 
Let my brother send my messenger at once, that I may 
know of my brother's prosperity * * * [About eight lines 
wanting] * * * (my messenger) I will send with a good 
message, and will hear a good message from my brother 

* * * and may my brother be gracious, and my brother 

* * * his whole heart, and may he not grieve my heart! 
And all the words which I spoke with thy father, Ti, thy 



THE TEL-EL-AM ARNA LETTERS 225 

mother, knows, and no one else knows them. Therefore, 
I say, ask Ti, thy mother, about them. She will tell thee 
how thy father was on cordial terms with me; and so 
now my brother should be on cordial terms with me, and 
let my brother not listen to anything hostile thereto. 



VI. A LETTER FROM THE KING OF ALASHIYA [CYPRUS!] 
TO THE KING OF EGYPT 

To the king of Egypt, my brother, as follows: The 
king of the land of Alashiya, thy brother. I am well ; with 
my houses, my wife, my sons, my nobles, my horses, my 
chariots, and throughout my lands, may it be very well! 
And with my brother may it be well; with thy houses, thy 
wives, thy sons, thy nobles, thy horses, thy chariots, and 
throughout thy lands, may it be very well! My brother, 
I have just sent my messenger with thy messenger to 
Egypt. Now, my brother, I have sent thee five hundred 
(pieces of) bronze, I have sent them as a present to my 
brother. Let not my brother be offended because there is 
so little bronze; for in my land the hand of Nergal, my 
lord, has slain all the people of my land, and there is no 
more (production of!) bronze: and let my brother not be 
offended. 

Send thy messenger in haste, with my messenger (on his 
return), and whatever bronze thou desirest, my brother, I 
will send thee. 

My brother, send me silver in great abundance; give 
me, my brother, silver as * * * And as for my brother, 
whatever thou, my brother, desirest, I will send thee. 

Again, my brother, the ox for which my messenger 
asked thee, give me, my brother. And fine oil, my broth- 
er, two kukupu vessels, send me, my brother, also send 
me one of the conjuring (!) eagles. 

Furthermore, my brother, the people of my land have 
contested with me with regard to taking my timber to the 
King of Egypt, and, my brother, asses, and * * * 
IS 



226 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

And again, a man of Alashiya has died in the land of 
Egypt, and his property is in thy land, and his son and his 
wife are with me. Let my brother collect the property of 
the man of Alashiya, and put it, my brother, into the hand 
of my messenger. 

Do not be offended, my brother, because thy messenger 
has been three years in my land, for the hand of Nerg^l is 
upon my land, and in my own house my wife gave birth 
to a child, which died. 

Send thy messenger with my messenger in very great 
haste, and I will send thee an appropriate present. 

And again, my brother, the silver for which I asked 
thee, let my brother send in large quantities! And the 
property (of the man of Alashiya), for which I asked, 
send. And all my desires of every kind, my brother, 
meet. And all thy desires made known to me I will 
satisfy. 

With the king of the Hittites, and the King of Shanhar, 
even with them have nothing to do; as for me, whatever 
presents they have sent me I will return to thee twofold. 

Thy messenger should come to me with authority, and 
my messenger should go to you with authority. 



VII. LETTER FROM ABD-ASHRATU TO THE KING OF 

EGYPT 

To the king, the sun, my lord, as follows: Abd-Ash- 
ratu, thy servant, the dust of thy feet. At the feet of my 
lord, the king, seven times (and) seven times I prostrate my- 
self. Indeed, I am the servant of the king, and the dog of 
his house, and the entire land of Amurri I am guarding for 
my lord, the king. I have requested Pahanti, my superior 
officer, again and again to furnish troops for the defence of 
the king's country. * * * [Several lines mutilated.] * * * 
May my lord, the king, ask him whether I do not defend 
the cities of Simyra and Ullaza! If my superior officer is 
in * * * of the king, the sun, then should I harvest the 



THE TEL-EL-AMARNA LETTERS 



227 



grain of Simyra? For all the countries for the king, my 
sun, my lord, I defend. And let my lord, the king, know 
it; and he has put me under Pahanati, my superior officer. 



VIII. LETTER FROM THE PEOPLE .OF THE CITY OF DUNIP 
TO THE KING OF EGYPT 

To the King of Egypt, our lord: The inhabitants of the 
city of Dunip, thy servant(s). May it be well with thee; 
at the feet of our lord I (we) prostrate ourselves. My lord, 
the city of Dunip, thy servant speaks as follows: Who, in 
former times, could have plundered Dunip and escape be- 
ing plundered by Manahbiria? * * * The gods and the 
* * * of the King of Egypt, our lord, dwell in the city 
of Dunip. Let our lord inquire of his elders (on this mat- 
ter) — but now we no longer belong to the King of Egypt. 
And now for twenty years we have kept on sending to the 
king, our lord, but our messengers remain with the king, 
our lord. And now, our lord, we have made request of the 
king, our lord, for Jadi-Addu, and may our lord grant him! 
For, O lord, the King of Egypt (once) granted him (to 
return), and why did the king, our lord, cause him, (while) 
on the way (home), to return (to Egypt)? 

And now Azira, thy servant, has heard of thy * * * 
and in the land Hatat has taken them by force. And if his 
(the king's) troops and chariots delay, the (forces of) Azira 
will make us like the city of Ni. When we shall mourn, the 
King of Egypt will be grieved, because of those things that 
Azira shall have done, for he will turn his hand against our 
lord. And when Azira enters the city of Simyra, Azira will 
treat us as he wishes, in the territory of our lord, the king, 
and on account of these things our lord will be grieved. 
And now Dunip, thy city, is weeping, and her tears are 
flowing, and there is no help within reach. 

For twenty years we have been sending to our lord, the 
king, the King of Egypt, but not one word has come to 
us from our lord, the king. 



228 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

IX. LETTER FROM AZIRI TO DUDU 
His intercessor at the court of the Egyptian king 

To my lord, Dudu, my father, as follows: Aziri, thy 
son, thy servant. At my father's feet I fall down. May 
it be well with my father! 

Now, O Dudu, I am gfiving what my lord desires, and 
whatever are the desires of the king, my lord, let him write, 
and I will gratify them. 

Again, behold, thou art in (that) place, my father, and 
all the wishes of Dudu, my father, write, and I will gratify 
them. 

Behold, thou art my father and my lord, and I am thy 
son, and the lands of Amuri are thy lands, and my house 
is thy house. And whatever thou desirest write, and I will 
gratify thy desire. 

Behold, thou sittest before the king, my lord * * * 
[Eight lines are badly interrupted by breaks] * * * the 
slanderous words against me, do not permit. 

Behold, I am a servant of the king, my lord, and the 
words of my lord, the king, the words of Dudu, my father, 
I will never transgress. 

And if the king, my lord, does not love me, but hates 
me, can I say anything? 



X. LETTER FROM AZIRI TO DUDU 
Intercessor at the Egyptian court 

To Dudu, my lord, my father: Aziri, thy servant. At 
the feet of my lord, I prostrate myself. Hatib is here, and 
has brought the cordial and good words of my lord, the 
king, and I very greatly rejoiced. My country also, and 
my brothers, servants of the king, my lord, and the serv- 
ants of my lord, Dudu, were very happy, when the utter- 
ance of my lord, the king, reached me. From the words of 



THE TEL-EL-AMARNA LETTERS 229 

my lord, my god, my sun, and from the words of Dudu, 
my lord, I do not depart. 

Behold, my lord,' Hatib is with me; he and I will go to- 
gether. My lord, the king of the Hittites has marched into 
the land of Nuhashshe, and the cities are not sufficiently 
strong to maintain their independence before the king of 
the Hittites. But (in case they could) Hatib and I would 
come. 

May my lord, the king, hear my words! My lord, I 
fear the face of my lord, the king, and Dudu. For indeed, 
my gods, and my messenger, and my kinsmen, are Dudu 
and the officers of my lord, the king, and I will come. 
And the following, (hear) O Dudu, and my lord, the king, 
and the officers: when any snares are hidden for Aziri, in 
a way which betokens evil, then thou shouldst say to my 
gods and to my god, that Hatib and I are servant(s) of 
the king. Dudu, thou shouldst know that I am coming 
to you. 



XI. LETTER FROM AZIRI TO HAI 
An Egyptian general 

To Hai, my brother: Aziri, thy brother. May it be 
well with thee, and with the troops of my lord, the king, 
may it be very well! In everything I seek the face of my 
lord, the king; I seek for the good. I, and my sons, and 
my brothers, are all good servants of my lord, the king. 
Indeed, Hatib and I will come in great haste. O Hai, 
Tnayest thou know that I am coming! From the words of 
my lord and from thy words I do not deviate. I am the 
servant of my lord. 

The king of the Hittites is stopping in Nuhashshi, and 
fear him, lest he should advance on Martu. For when the 
city of Dunip falls then * * * the way to the place where 
he is stopping. And I fear him, and for this reason I 
shall stop until he leaves. Hatib and I will come with 
all haste. 



230 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

XIL LETTER FROM THE KING OF EGYPT TO THE 
PRINCE OF AMURRA (AZIRI) 

Brought by Hanni 

To the Prince of Amurra: The king thy lord. The 
Prince of Gebal, thy brother, whom his brother * * * in 
the gate * * * " Take me and bring me into my city * * * 
I will compensate thee, for I have nothing with me now." 
So he spoke to thee in taking a prince, whom his brother 
in the gate * * * from his city. 

And when he was living in Sidon, thou deliveredst him 
over to the (hostile) princes, according to thine idea (of 
thy authority), but thou didst not know the hatred of the 
people. If thou art really a true servant of the king, why 
didst thou not cause him to be brought before thy lord, 
the king, thinking: " This prince sent to me, saying, ' Take 
me and bring me into my city' "? And even if thou art 
acting faithfully, all the words are not true which thou 
sentest me * * * the king thinks that all that thou sayest 
is not true. And it is indeed reported that thou hast made 
peace with the Prince of Kadesh, mutually to furnish food 
and drink, and it is true. Why hast thou done thus to 
make peace with a prince toward whom another prince 
is hostile? For if thou shalt prove faithful, and look to 
thine own and to his interests, then thou canst not keep the 
promises which thou didst formerly make. Whatever thine 
attitude toward them, thou canst not be with the king, thy 
lord. 

Now, these whom * * * into the fire, they are seeking 
to * * * thee, and to bum thee, and what thou very much 
lovest. But if thou wilt be submissive to thy lord, the king, 
then what is there that the king would not do for thee? 
But if thou dost persist in doing acts of unfriendliness, and 
dost cherish wickedness, thoughts of hostility in thy heart, 
then by (command of) the overseer of the king, thou wilt 
die, together with thy whole family. Now, be subservient to 
thy lord, the king, and thou shalt live. Thou knowest that 



THE TEL-EUAMARNA LETTERS 231 

the king does not wish to invade all Kinahhi. And since 
thou didst send word to me thus: " Let the king, my lord, 
leave me alone this year, and next year I will appear before 
my lord, the king; for my son is not here"; now, then, 
thy lord, the king, has left thee (alone) this (past) year, as 
thou didst request. But if thy son is with thee again, send 
(him) and come to visit the king, by whose glance all 
lands have life. And do not say, " I would prefer to omit " 
this year the going to thy lord, the king, and do not send 
thy son to thy lord, the king, that he might go in your 
stead. 

The king, thy lord, has indeed heard that thou sentest 
(word) to the king, as follows: " Let my lord, the king, 
send Hanni, the king's messenger, for the second time; then 
I will send by his hand the enemies of the king." Now, 
he is come to thee as thou didst request, therefore send 
them and let not one of them escape. Now, thy lord, the 
king, is sending thee the names of the enemies of the king 
by letter, by the hand of Hanni, the king's messenger; 
therefore send them to thy lord, the king, and let not one 
of them escape. And put shackles of bronze on their feet. 
Indeed, the people whom thou shouldst send to thy lord, 
the king, (are these) : " Sharru, together with all his sons, 
Tuia, Liia, together with all his sons, Jishyari, together 
with all his sons, the son-in-law of Malia, together with his 
sons, and his wives. The pamaha of Hanni is the paitiu, 
who will read the message; Dashirti, Paluma, Nimahi, the 
robber, in Amurri. 

Now know that the king, the sun in the heavens, is 
well, his warriors and his chariots are many, from the upper 
country to the lower country, the rising of the sun to the 
going down of the same everything is very prosperous. 

XIII. LETTER FROM AZIRI TO THE KING OF EGYPT 

To the great king, my lord, my god, my sun : Aziri thy 
servant seven times seven times at the feet of my lord, my 
god, my sun, I prostrate myself. Oh, my lord, I am thy 



232 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



servant, and in prostration before the king, my lord, I speak 
all my words before my lord. 

My lord, do not pay attention to the enemies who 
slander me in the presence of the king, my lord; I 
am thy servant forever. And since my lord, the king, 
mentions Hani (I reply): My lord, I was staying in 
Dunip, and did not know when he came. As soon as 
I learned of it, I set out after him, but did not overtake 
him. If Hani should return in good shape, let my lord, 
the king, ask him how I cared for him. My brother 
and Bati-il served him; oxen, sheep, and birds, his food 
and his drink they gave him. Horses and asses I gave for 
his journey. May my lord, the king, give heed to my words: 
When I go to visit my lord, the king, then Hani comes to 
meet me, and cares for me like a father or like a mother. 
And now my lord says, " From Hani thou hast taken 
flight." Thy gods and the sun know whether I was not 
staying in Dunip. 

Now, since my lord, the king, gave orders for the 
rebuilding of Simyra (I reply): The kings of Nuhashshe 
are hostile to me, and my cities by the orders of Hatib 
they are seizing, and consequently I have not rebuilt 
it. But now I will rebuild it in all haste. And may 
my lord know that half of the weapons which my lord, 
the king, gave me, Hatib has taken away. Both the gold 
and the silver which my lord, the king, gave me, Hatib 
has taken it all. And may my lord know it ! 

Again, also, my lord, the king, says, " Why didst thou 
care for the messengers of the king of the Hittites, and 
not care for my messenger?" (I reply), "This country 
belongs to my lord, and the king, my lord, has ap- 
pointed me prince." May there come a messenger of 
my lord, and all that I promised, my lord, I will give; 
may he grant living souls, ships, oil, weapons, and 
chariots (!) 



THE TEL-EL-AMARNA LETTERS 



233 



XIV. LETTER FROM RIB-ADDI OF GEBAL IN PHCENICIA 
TO THE KING OF EGYPT 

Rib-Addi addresses the lord of the lands, the king of 
the lands, the great king, the king of battle: May Ba'alat 
of Gebal grant power to the king, my lord! At the feet 
of my lord, my sun, seven times seven times I prostrate 
myself. 

Let my lord, the king, know that all is well with 
Gebal, the trusty handmaid of the king, from the time of 
his fathers; but now the king has allowed his faithful city 
to pass out from under his hand. Let my lord, the king, 
look about the lands of the house of his father (to see) 
whether the man who is in Gebal is not a faithful servant. 

Thou canst not complain of thy servant if the hostility 
of the confederates is effective against him and against the 
gods of thy land. Our sons and our daughters and our 
* * * will be lost, because we must give them to Jarimuta 
for our sustenance. My fields (are unproductive!) because 
there is no sowing. All my cities situated on the mountains 
and by the sea-shore have fallen into the hands of the con- 
federates. Gebal (only) and two cities still belong to me. 
And behold now Abd-Ashirta has taken Shigata for himself, 
and has said to the people of Ammia, " Kill your lord, and 
do as we are doing, and you will then have peace." And 
they have done according to his words, and have become 
like the confederates. 

And now behold Abd-Ashirta has sent to the people 
of Bit-Ninib (saying), "Assemble yourselves, and we 
will fall upon Gebal." If there were a man to save us 
from their hands, and could rescue (?) the lords of the 
lands, and all lands should act with the * * * then thou 
couldst be judge over all lands, and the boys and the girls 
would always live in safety. And if the king (himself) 
should pass along, though all the lands were in rebellion 
against him, what could they do to us? Thus they (the 
people) would be generally prosperous. But I greatly fear 



234 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



that there is no man to rescue me out of their hands; like 
a bird which is taken in a net, so shall I be in the city of 
Gebal. Why dost thou neglect thy country? Behold, I 
sent to the king's palace, but they paid no attention to 
my message. 

Now, (since) Amanappa is with thee; ask him; he 
knows, and has seen the distress which has fallen upon me. 
May the king heed the words of his servant, and give life 
to his servant, that his servant may live! Then will I 
guard his faithful city until * * * our gods * * * and 
let the king look upon his country, and * * * upon * * * 
may it seem good to my lord, the king, to send his * * * 
and that I should hold to my place, and should come 
before my lord, the king. And may it be plain to thee 
what I am doing in my * * * Indeed, I am thus thought- 
ful by day and by night. 



XV. LETTER FROM RIB-ADDI TO THE KING OF EGYPT 

Rib-Addi says to the king of the lands, the great king, 
the king of battle: May Ba'alat of Gebal bestow power on 
the king, my lord! At the feet of my lord, my sun, seven 
times and seven times I prostrate myself. Know, since 
Amanappa came to me, all the confederates have turned 
against me by the demand of Abd-Ashirta. Now, let my 
lord give heed to the words of his servant, and despatch 
a garrison for the defence of the king's city until the ad- 
vance of the home guards. If there were no home guards 
all the lands would fall into the hands of the confederates. 
Since the city of Mar * * * (has espoused) the cause of 
Abd-Ashirta, they are trying to capture Gebal and Beyrut, 
and all the lands will fall into the hands of the confederates. 
The two cities that (still) remain to me they are trying to 
snatch from the king's power. Let my lord send a gar- 
rison to his two cities until the advance of the home guards, 
and despatch me rations; and there is nothing for them to 
drink. Like a bird which has been taken in a net, so am 



THE TEL-EL-AMARNA LETTERS 



235 



I in the city of Gebal. Now, in case the king is not able 
to save me from his enemies, the lands will fall into the 
power of Abd-Ashirta * * * (he is) a dog and (will take) 
the king's lands for his own. 

XVI. LETTER FROM RIB-ADDI TO THE KING OF EGYPT 

Rib-Addi to my lord, the king: At thy feet seven and 
seven times I prostrate myself. I have written several 
times (to thee), but * * * (broken) * * * my lord, the 
king, has paid no attention to my words; and I despatched 
my messenger to court, but (he came back) empty-handed, 
without any garrison with him. And when my brothers 
saw that not (even) in my legal proceedings was I up- 
held (!), not to me, as to the princes, my brothers * * * 
and I went over to Ammunira, and my brother left me, to 
seize (!) Gebal, (and) to turn the city over to the sons of 
Abd-Ashirta. When my brother shall see that my mes- 
senger has come (from Egypt) empty-handed, without any 
garrison, he will oppose me, and so become guilty, and 
drive me from the city. 

Let not the king, my lord, disregard this thing! In- 
deed, I am not able to go to Egypt. Age and disease 
are burdensome to me. Let my lord, the king, know 
that the gods of Gebal are aggravated and exceedingly 
troubled, for my sins are against the gods! Thus I do 
not go before my lord, the king. But then I have sent 
my son, the servant of the king, my lord, to the king, 
my lord. Let the king hear the words of his servant, 
and may the king, my lord, send troops to hold (!) Gebal, 
that the foe (!) may not enter (it) * * * I have sent to 
it * * * the troops of my lord, the king, to occupy it. 
Behold them * * * my adherents in the city, and the ene- 
my will abandon it. Should the troops march out, and 
seize (!) it on the day of its capture, then will the city revert 
to my lord, the king. Let my lord know, then, that I am 
his faithful servant. While I am in the city I will protect 
it for my lord. 



236 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

Let my lord, the king, take great care that the city be 
not turned over to the sons of Abd-Ashirta. For my 
brother has stirred up the city, in order to turn it over to 
the sons of Abd-Ashirta. Let not my lord, the king, neg- 
lect his city. Because there is in it much silver and gold; 
in its temples there is much property if they should cap- 
ture it. As my lord, the king, proposes to do for his serv- 
ant, let him do, and let him give the city of Bur-selem for 
my home. Now, I shall be at Ammunira if this city is lost. 
Against Bur-selem the sons of Abd-Ashirta will make a 
hostile demonstration, if I should go to Ammunira. For 
the sons of Abd-Ashirta, since they are gaining on me, 
and there is a message from the king for me, I say to my 
lord: Behold Gebal is their city; there is considerable of 
the king's property in it, the heritage from our father. 

Formerly when the king had neglected any of the cities 
of his country * * * Behold, then, I have sent thy servant, 
my son, to my lord, the king, and may the king send him 
back with all haste, and with him troops to garrison the 
city! If my lord, the king, * * * me and brings me back 
to the city, I will defend it, as formerly, for my lord the 
king * * * (several lines broken) * * * Let my lord, the 
king, give heed to [the words of] his servant * * * [may 
he send] troops, and may the troops occupy the city with 
all speed, and hold it! If the king is thinking the matter 
over, let my lord, the king, not neglect the city * * * con- 
cerning that baneful act * * * which he formerly com- 
mitted against my lord, the king, * * * the troops of my 
lord, the king, may my lord, the king, send quickly! 



XVIL LETTER FROM ZIMRIDA OF SIDON TO THE KING 
OF EGYPT 

To the king, my lord, my gods, my sun, th,e breath of 
my life says: Zimrida, the Prince of Sidon. 

At the feet of my lord, my gods, the sun, the breath of 
my life, at the feet of my lord, my gods, my sun, the 



THE TEL-EL-AMARNA LETTERS 



237 



breath of my life, seven and seven times I prostrate myself. 
Let the king, my lord, know of the prosperity of Sidon, 
the handmaid of the king, my lord, which he put into 
my hand. 

And when he heard the message of the king, my lord, 
which he wrote to his servant, then my heart was glad; 
I lifted my head, and my eyes gleamed when I heard the 
message of the king, my lord. Let the king know then 
that I am at the disposal of the troops of the king, my 
lord. I dispose of everything, as the king, my lord, orders. 
And may the king, my lord, know that the power of the 
enemy against me is very great; all the cities which the 
king put into my hand have fallen into the power of the 
invaders. 

And may the king commit me to the hand of the man 
who commands at the head of the troops of the king, 
that I may inquire about the cities which have fallen into 
the power of the invaders, and that I may restore them 
to my hand, and to the service of the king, my lord, as 
my fathers (served him) formerly! 



XVIII. LETTER FROM ABI-MILKI, OF TYRE, TO THE 
KING OF EGYPT 

To the king, my lord: Abi-miiki, thy servant, seven 
and seven times at the feet of the king, my lord, I pros- 
trate myself. I am dust under the sandals of the king, 
my lord. I have heard what the king has written to his 
servant * * * what he ordered to do I do with exceeding 
great pleasure. Again, since the troops of the king, my 
lord, forsook me, the Prince of Sidon, my brother, has re- 
fused to allow me to go to the (main)land to get wood, 
to get drinking water. 

[The remaining ten lines are badly mutilated.] 



238 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



XIX. LETTER FROM SHUWARDATA TO THE 
KING OF EGYPT 

To the king, my lord, my gods, my sun, saying: Shu- 
wardata, thy servant, the dust of thy feet. At the feet of 
the king, my lord, my gods, my sun, seven and seven 
times I prostrate myself. The king, my lord, g^ve me a 
commission to wage war against the city of Keila. I car- 
ried on war and was victorious, and my city was restored 
to me. 

Why did Abd-hiba [of Jerusalem] write to the peo- 
ple of Keila, "Accept money and become my ally"? 
May the king, my lord, know that Abd-hiba has taken my 
city from me! Again, let the king, my lord, inquire 
whether I have taken a man, or one single ox or an ass 
from him or from his right (!)*** Again, Lapaja is 
dead, he who took our cities; and Lapaja was truly in 
league (!) with Abd-hiba, and * * * plundered our cities. 

[The last five lines are badly broken.] 



XX. LETTER OF ABD-HIBA, OF JERUSALEM, TO THE 
KING OF EGYPT 

To the king, my lord, thus says Abd-hiba, thy servant: 
At the feet of my lord, the king, seven and seven times I 
prostrate myself. 

What have I done against the king, my lord? They 
have slandered me before the king, my lord, thus: " Abd- 
hiba has rebelled against the king, his lord." Behold, as 
for me, neither my father nor my mother appointed me 
to this place. The mighty arm of the king set me over 
the house of my father. Why should I be guilty before 
the king, my lord? As sure as the king lives, I said to 
the officer of the king, my lord, " Why art thou favour- 
able to the invaders, and unfavourable to the princes? " 
For this they slander me before the king, my lord. 

When I say, " The land of the king, my lord, will be 



THE TEL-EL-AMARNA LETTERS 239 

destroyed," then they slander me before the king, my lord. 
Let the king, my lord, know when the king, my lord, 
had placed a garrison * * * Janhamu took (it) (!). [Five 
lines badly broken.] There is no garrison there. But let 
the king have care for his territory * * * for his land; the 
cities of the king, my lord, which had belonged to Ili- 
milki are gone; all the country of the king will be lost 
(to him). Let the king, my lord, have care for his terri- 
tory. 

Should I say, " I will go to visit the king, my lord, 
and see the sorrow of the king, my lord," the enemies 
against me are strong, and I can not go to the king, my 
lord. May it seem good to the king, my lord, to send a 
garrison, that I may visit and see the sorrow of the king, 
my lord! As truly as the king, my lord, lives, as truly 
as an officer marches forth, I say: The territory of the king 
is being destroyed. If thou dost not give heed to me, all 
the princes will be lost, and the king, my lord, will have 
no (more) princes (in this territory). 

Let the king give his attention to the princes, and let 
the king, my lord, send troops. The king has no lands 
(left). The invaders have plundered all the lands of the 
king. If troops should come this year, the lands of the 
king, my lord, would be securely his, but if no troops 
should come, the lands of the king, my lord, would be 
lost. To the scribe of the king, my lord: Abd-hiba, thy 
servant. Declare these words clearly to the king, my lord: 
" All the territory of the king, my lord, is being destroyed." 



XXI. LETTER FROM ABD-TIRSHL OF HAZOR, TO THE 
KING OF EGYPT 

To the king, my lord, saying: Abd-tirshi, of Hazor, thy 
servant. At the feet of the king, my lord, seven and seven 
times at the feet of the king, my lord, I prostrate myself. 
Behold, I am the faithful servant of the king, my lord, 
and I, indeed, am defending the city of Hazor, together 



240 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

with its villages, for the king, my lord. May the king, my 
lord, rejoice and reflect upon everything that has happened 
to Hazor, thy faithful city, and to thy servant! 



XXIL LETTER FROM JAPAHI, OF GEZER, TO THE 
KING OF EGYPT 

To the king, my lord, my gods, my sun, the sun in the 
heavens, saying: Japahi, of Gezer, thy servant, the dust 
of thy feet, the groom of thy horses. At the feet of the 
king, my lord, my gods, my sun, the sun in the heavens, 
seven and seven times I prostrate myself upon my breast 
and back. I have heard the words of the messenger of the 
king, my lord, with great clearness. And let the king, my 
lord, the sun in the heavens, look well to his land, for the 
invaders are mighty against us; and let the king, my lord, 
stretch forth his hand toward me, and let the king, my lord, 
save me from the hand of the invaders, that the invaders 
may not destroy us! 



XXIIL LETTER FROM JITIA, OF ASHKELON, TO THE 
KING OF EGYPT 

To the king, my lord, my gods, my sun, the sun of 
heaven: Jitia, a man of the city of Ashkelon, thy servant, 
the dust of thy feet, the groom of thy horses. At the 
feet of the king, my lord, the sun of heaven, seven and 
seven times I prostrate myself. The officer of the king, 
my lord, whom the king, my lord, the sun of heaven, sent 
to me — I have heard his words with great clearness. I am, 
indeed, guarding the king's place which is under my care. 



XXIV. LETTER FROM ZIMRIDA, OF LACHISH, TO THE 
KING OF EGYPT 

To the king, my lord, my gods, my sun, the sun of 
the heavens: Zimrida, a man of the city of Lachish, thy 
servant, the dust of thy feet. At the feet of the king, my 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LETTERS 



241 



lord, the sun of the heavens, seven and seven times I cast 
myself down. As to the messenger of the king, my lord, 
whom he sent to me, I have clearly heard his words, and I, 
indeed, will do according to his command. 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LETTERS 

I. A LETTER FROM BEL-IBNI TO THE KING 
(K. 524 ; H. 282) 

Bel-ibni was a man of high rank, a general in the armies of Sardana- 
palus, and served with distinction during the revolt of Shamash-shum-ukin 
and in the campaigns against Elam and the warlike Chaldeans of south- 
ern Babylonia. As to his birth and family relations we have little infor- 
mation. He had, however, a brother, Belshunu, and a nephew, his sister's 
son, Mushezib-Marduk. The nephew held a high military command under 
Bel-ibni ; Belshunu, seized by Nabu-bel-shumate at the time of his revolt, 
was thrown into prison, loaded with chains, and held in captivity for a 
considerable period — an injury which goes far to account for the impla- 
cable animosity exhibited by Bel-ibni toward the Chaldean prince. Bel- 
ibni himself, according to a proclamation of the king to the people of the 
Gulf District, held the rank of manzaz pani, a dignity reserved for the 
most exalted nobility and the highest officers of state, the possessors of 
which, as the name implies, enjoyed the right of access to the royal pres- 
ence, and of a place near the king's person on all occasions of ceremony. 

To the lord of kings, my lord, thy servant Bel-ibni! 
May Ashur, Shamash, and Marduk decree length of days, 
health of mind and body, for the lord of kings, my lord! 

Shuma, the son of Shum-iddina, son of Gakhal — son 
of Tammaritu's sister — fleeing from Elam, reached the 
(country of the) Dakkha. I took him under my protection 
and transferred him from the Dakkha (hither). He is ill. 
As soon as he completely recovers his health, I shall send 
him to the king, my lord. 

A messenger has come to him (with the news) that 

Nadan and the Pukudeans of Til * * * had a meeting 

with Nabu-bel-shumate at the city of Targibati, and they 

took a mutual oath to this effect: "According to agree- 

j6 



242 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

ment we shall send you whatever news we may hear." To 
bind the bargain (?) they purchased from him fifty head of 
cattle, and also said to him, " Our sheep shall come and 
graze in the pasture (?), among the Ubanateans, in order 
that you may have confidence in us." Now (I should ad- 
vise that) a messenger of my lord, the king, come and give 
Nadan plainly to understand as follows: " If thou sendest 
anything to Elam for sale, or if a single sheep gets over to 
the Elamite pasture (?), I will not let thee live." The king, 
my lord, may thoroughly rely upon my report. 



II. A LETTER FROM BEL-IBNI TO THE KING 
(K. 13 ; H. 281) 

To the lord of kings, my lord, thy servant Bel-ibni! 
May Ashur, Shamash, and Marduk grant health of mind 
and body, long life, and a lengthy reign to the lord of kings, 
my lord! 

The news from Elam is as follows: Ummakhaldash, the 
former king, who fled, but returned again and seated him- 
self upon the throne, has become alarmed and left the city 
of Madaktu. His mother, his wife, his sons, and all his 
family having removed, he crossed the river Ulaeus, and 
went southward (?) to Talakh. The Nagir Ummansimash, 
Undadu the Zilliru, and all his partisans have gone in 
the direction of Shukharisungur, now saying, " We will 
dwell in the Khukhan country," and now again " in 
Kha'adalu." 1 

All these parts are in terror of the troops of the lord of 
kings, my lord. The Elamites are ravaged as though (by) 
a plague; they are in a state of utter calamity; they are in- 
vaded by panic. When need came upon their land, the 
whole country fell away from their side. All the Sakkha- 
deans and the Sallukkeans are in a state of revolt, saying, 
" Why did ye slay Umkhuluma? " When Ummakhaldash 

' In their irresolution they were unable to form a decided and consist- 
ent plan. 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LETTERS 243 

entered Madaktu, calling together all his partisans, he up- 
braided them as follows: " Did I not say to you before I 
fled that I wished to seize Nabu-bel-shumate and give him 
up to the King of Assyria, in order that he might not send 
his troops against us? You heard me, and can bear wit- 
ness to my words." Now, if it please the lord of kings, 
my lord, let me convey the royal signet to Ummakhaldash, 
with reference to the capture of Nabii-bel-shumate. I shall 
send it secretly to Ummakhaldash. If the lord, the king, 
should say, " They are * * *,^ shall I send my message to 
them secretly?" (I would suggest that) when the royal mes- 
senger reaches them accompanied by an escort of troops, 
that accursed scoundrel Nabu-bel-shumate will hear of it, 
and, paying a ransom to the nobles, will buy himself off. If 
the gods of the lord of kings, my lord, would only bestir 
themselves, they would catch him with his bow unstrung, 
and send him to the lord of kings, my lord. 

They collect all the tax corn (?) in Elam, and, putting 
it in charge of the sharnuppu,^ they live on it. As long as 
Umkhuluma was alive, Nabu-bel-shumate, on receiving his 
share, would lavish it upon his partisans. This tax corn (?), 
in charge of the sharnuppu, they levy from Talakh as far 
as Rade, and throughout the country of Salluk. Now, 
Nabu-bel-shumate, and Nishkur-bel, his major-domo, 
whenever they catch a sharnuppu, seize him, saying: 
" Whenever you applied to Umkhuluma for our provisions, 
he used to give them to you. You have slain the people 
of our house with famine. You shall straightway restore to 
us our stolen provisions, at the rate of ten bar for one qa " 
(?). They withhold it from Ummakhaldash, and, though 
he has applied (?) for it repeatedly, he can not get it from 
them. Whenever I hear anything which the lord of kings, 
my lord, would wish to hear * * * 

[The few remaining lines are too badly mutilated for 
translation.] 

* Apparently some term of reproach. The sense is, " Shall I stoop to 
send a secret message to these villains ? " 
' An Elamite official title. 



244 .ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



III. A LETTER FROM BEL-IBNI TO THE KING 
(K. lo; H. 280) 

To the lord of kings, my lord, thy servant Bel-ibni! 

May Ashur, Shamash, and Marduk bestow health 
of mind, health of body, length of days, long years of 
reign, upon the lord of kings, the king of the world, 
my lord! 

When I left the Gulf District, I sent five hundred sol- 
diers, servants of my lord, the king, to the city of Sab- 
danu, with these orders: " Establish a post (?) in Sabdanu, 
and make raids into Elam; slay and take prisoners! " 
When they reached the city of Irgidu, a city lying two 
leagues this side of Susa, they slew Ammaladin, Prince of 
lashi'an, his two brothers, three of his uncles, two of his 
nephews, Dalan, son of Adiadi'a, and two hundred free- 
born citizens — they had a long journey before them — ^and 
made one hundred and fifty prisoners. The authorities of 
Lakhiru and the people of Nugu, when they saw that my 
troops had got to their rear, becoming alarmed, sent a mes- 
sage, and entered into terms with Mushezib-Marduk, my 
sister's son, a servant of my lord the king, whom I had 
placed in command of the post (?), saying, " We will be- 
come subjects of the King of Assyria." So assembling all 
their force, they marched with Mushezib-Marduk into 
Elam * * * 1 They bring (?) the following report from 
Elam: Ummanigash, son of Amedirra, has revolted 
against Ummakhaldash. From the river Khudkhud as far 
as the city of Kha'adknu the people have sided with him. 
Ummakhaldash has assembled his forces, and now they 
are encamped opposite each other on the banks of the 
river. Iqisha-aplu, whom I have sent to the palace, 
is well informed about them. Let him be questioned 
at the palace. 

' The text is here too badly mutilated for translation. 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LETTERS 245 

IV. A LETTER FROM NABU-USHABSHI TO THE KING 
(K. 528 ; H. 269) 

Nabu-ushabshi, the writer of the two letters here translated, was an 
Assyrian official of Erech in southern Babylonia, and lived in the reign 
of Sardanapalus. He seems to have suffered severely from the revolt of 
Bel-iqisha to which he refers, and his advice in regard to the reduction of 
Gambulu was doubtless in full accord with his personal feelings. 

To the king of the world, my lord, thy servant Nabu- 
ushabshi! 

May Erech and E-anna bless the king of the world, my 
lord! I pray daily to Ishtar of Erech and to Nana for the 
life of the king, my lord. 

The king, my lord, has sent me (this message) : " Put 
troops on the march, and send them against Gambulu." 
(Now) the gods of the king, my lord, know well that since 
Bel-iqisha revolted from my lord the king, and went to 
Elam, destroyed my father's house, and came to slay my 
brother, daily 1 * * * With regard to what the king, my 
lord, has sent (to command), I will go and carry out the 
behest of my lord the king. In case (however) the in- 
habitants of Gambulu will not become submissive by these 
means, (then) if it be agreeable to my lord the king, let an 
envoy of my lord the king come; let us assemble all Baby- 
lonia; and let us go with him, win back the country, and 
give it to my lord the king. 

I send (my advice) to my lord the king; let my lord the 
king do as he pleases. Preserve this letter. 



V. A LETTER FROM NABU-USHABSHI TO THE KING 
(K. 79 ; H. 266) 

To the king of the world, my lord, thy servant Nabu- 
ushabshi! 

May Erech and E-anna be gracious to the king of the 
world, my lord! I pray daily to Ishtar of Erech and to 
Nana for the life of my lord the king. 

' For the next five lines the text is almost entirely obliterated, but 
probably contained the statement that the writer prays daily for revenge 
upon those who have thus injured him. 



246 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

Pir'i-Bel, son of Bel-eter, having gone forth with his 
father to Elam some ten years ago, came from Elam to 
Babylonia with his father. Having come (hither), they 
practised in Erech all that was evil toward Assyria. Having 
subsequently retired to Elam, his father, Bel-eter, died in 
Elam, and he in the month of Marcheshvan, having 
brought letters to me and to * * * the governor, we sent 
(?) the letters which he brought by Daru-sharru to (?) 
* * * * If he tell the king, my lord, " I am come from 
Elam," let not the king, my lord, believe him. From the 
month of Marcheshvan, when we sent to my lord the king 
the letters he brought, until the present time he has not 
been to Elam. Should the king, my lord, desire confirma- 
tion of these words, Idu'a, the servant of Kudurru, who 
brought?) to Erech these reports about him (?) * * * ^ 
let these men tell my lord the king how these treasonable 
letters were written, and if my lord the king does not un- 
derstand about these letters which we sent in Marcheshvan 
to my lord the king by Daru-sharru, let my lord the king 
question Daru-sharru the satellite. I send to my lord in 
order that he may be informed. 



VI. MESSAGE OF THE KING TO SIN-TABNI-UQUR 
(K. 824 ; H. 290) 

Sin-tabni-usur, to whom the following letter is addressed by King Sar- 
danapalus, was the son of Ningal-iddina, and was governor of Ur, in 
southern Babylonia. Ummanigash, mentioned as one of the calumniators 
of Sin-tabni-ujur, was one of the three sons of Urtaku, King of Elam, 
who took refuge at the Assyrian court when their father was dethroned 
and murdered by his brother Teumman. 

Message of the king to Sin-tabni-ugur. It is well with 
me; may thy heart be of good cheer! 

With reference to thy message about Sin-sharra-uqur, 
how could he speak evil words of thee, and I listen to them? 
Since Shamash perverted his understanding,* and Ummani- 

' The text is here completely broken away. The translation is resumed 
at line 10 of the reverse. ' The text is here very uncertain. 

• The meaning is that he must be out of his senses to make such 
accusations. 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LETTERS 247 

gash slandered thee before me, they have sought thy death, 
but Ashur, my god, withholds me (from that), and not 
willingly could I have put to death my servant and the 
support of my father's house. No! — for thou wouldst (be 
willing to) perish along with thy lord's house — (never) could 
I consent to that. He and Ummanigash have plotted thy 
destruction, but because I know thy loyalty I have con- 
ferred even greater favour (than before) upon thee; is it 
not so? These two years thou hast not brought foe and 
need upon thy lord's house.^ What could they say against 
a servant who loves his lord's house, that I could believe? 
And with regard to the service which thou and thy brother 
Assyrians have rendered, about which thou sendest (word), 
what ye have done is well; the guard for me which ye have 
kept 2 * * * and this * * * which is most honourable in 
my sight, and a favour which I shall requite to thee till (the 
times of our) children's children. 



VII. A LETTER FROM SHA-ASHUR-DUBBU TO THE KING 
(K. 469 ; H. 138) 

The city of Dur-Sharrukin, or " Sargonsburg," mentioned near the end 
of the letter, and for which the timber spoken of was probably required, 
was founded, after a long-cherished plan, by the great king whose name 
it commemorates, and completed in the latter years of his reign. On the 
22d of Tishri (September), 707, in the eponymy of Sha-Ashur-dubbu, the 
images of the gods were carried through its streets in solemn procession, 
and established in their temples, and in April of the following year the 
king formally took up his residence in his new capital. One year later 
(70s), he fell by the hand of an assassin (Tiele, " Bab.-Assyr. Geschichte," 
p. 248). The site of Dur-Sharrukin, occupied by the modern village of 
Khorsabad, was explored in the years 1843-1844 by the French consul at 
Mosul, fimile Botta, who discovered the palace of Sargon, with a wealth 
of sculptures and inscriptions, which were conveyed to Paris, and now 
form part of the Louvre collection. 

To the king, my lord, thy servant Sha-Ashur-dubbu! 
A hearty greeting to the king, my lord! Greeting to the 
fortresses, to the country of the king, my lord! 

' Although in that time he had ample opportunity to do so. 
' Text mutilated. 



248 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

I sent two of my officers, accompanied by six men and 
provided with a warrant, after some deserters who were in 
the city of Penza. Two chiefs of battalion went along with 
them. The soldiers took down rations, of which they par- 
took (en route). The brother of the Shuprian, having 
shared their meal with them, they set out and travelled 
along together. The Shuprian had laid an ambush before- 
hand, (but) the two officers, with the six soldiers, got out 
(of it, and) rescued both the chiefs of battalion. I sent 
word to them, " Establish (there) a military post." I shall 
make an investigation, (and) if they are in my country I 
shall lay hands on the rascals. I went and brought up 
troops into the fortress. Let the king, my lord, send 
orders that the Taziru and the Itu of my lord the king, 
who have appointed their deputies here, may come (them- 
selves) and stand guard with me, until they get this 
timber away. The king, my lord, shall decide. My men 
are doing duty in Dur-Sharrukin, (but) the cavalry are 
here with me. 



VIII. A LETTER FROM NABU-SHUM-IDDINA TO THE SON 
OF THE KING (K. 629 ; H. 69) 

Nabu-shum-iddina (" Nabu has given a name"), who, in the letter 
here presented describing a religious ceremony and solemn procession in 
honour of the god, styles himself the prefect of the Temple of Nabu, ap- 
pears to have lived in the reign of Esarhaddon ; and the prince to whom 
the letter is addressed was probably Sardanapalus, and was evidently the 
heir to the throne, since a wish is expressed for the long duration of his 
future reign. A letter to the king from the same writer, or from a person 
of the same name (K. 1017 ; Harper, No. 66), is too badly mutilated to 
yield any connected sense, but mentions (rev. 11. i, 2) the crown-prince, 
and the name of Sardanapalus, of which traces are preserved, is evi- 
dently to be restored before the title. 

Fourteen letters (Nos. 60-73) are published in Harper's work under the 
name of Nabu-shum-iddina. Of Nos. 72 (K. 1272) and 73 (K. 5509) merely 
the opening words remain ; and the context of Nos. 67 (K. 1050) and 70 
(K. 1070) is rendered unintelligible by the mutilation of the tablet. No. 
66 has just been referred to, and all the rest are reports of the arrival of 
horses. Whether the priest of Nabu and the writer about horses were 
identical is open to doubt. The formula of greeting is certainly the same 
in the letters of both persons, but it is not a very characteristic one. The 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LETTERS 249 

Invocation to Nabu and Marduk is common to many writers ; precisely 
the same formula is found, for example, in the letter of Nabu-najir 
(" Nabu protects ") to the king (Harper, No. 178 = K. 4S2). 

To the prince, my lord, thy servant Nabu-shum-iddina! 

A hearty, hearty greeting to the prince, my lord! May 
Nabu and Marduk bless the prince, my lord! 

On the third day of the month of lyyar the city of Calah 
will consecrate the couch of Nabu, (and) the god will enter 
the bedchamber. On the fourth (will take place) the re- 
turn of Nabu. The prince, my lord, shall decide. I am 
the prefect of the house of Nabu, thy god, (so) I (of course) 
shall go. 

At Calah the god will come forth from the palace in- 
closure (?), (and) from the palace inclosure (?) will go 
to the grove. A sacrifice will be offered. The charioteer 
of the gods, coming from the stable of the gods, will take 
the god forth, bring him back, and convey him within. 
This is the route of the procession. 

Of the jar-bearers, whoever has a sacrifice (to offer) will 
offer it. Whoever offers up one qa ^ of his food, may enter 
the house of Nabu. May they ' perfectly execute the ordi- 
nances of the gods, to the life and health of the prince, my 
lord. What (commands) has the prince, my lord, to send 
me? May Bel and Nabu, who granted help in the month 
of Shebat, guard the life of the prince, my lord! May they 
make thy sovereignty extend to the end of time! 



IX. A LETTER FROM NABU-SHUM-IDDINA TO THE 
SECRETARY OF STATE (K. 547 ; H. 62) 

The general tone of the following letter, and the reference to the gods 
Bel and Nabu contained in it, would seem to favour the identification of 
the writer with the priest of Nabu who, in the preceding letter (K. 623), 
invokes the same deities in behalf of the prince. 

To the secretary of state, my lord, thy servant Nabu- 
shum-iddina! Greeting to my lord! 

May Nabu and Marduk, Ishtar of Nineveh, Ishtar of 
Arbela, bless my lord! May they keep thee whole! May 

' A measure. ' Those officiating at the ceremony. 



250 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



thy heart ever be of good cheer! May Bel and Nabu 
establish prosperity in the homes of the people of Nineveh, 
and prosperity with thee also! 



X. A LETTER FROM ISHDI-NABU TO THE SON 
OF THE KING (K. 589 ; H. 187) 

Ishdi-Nabu (" Nabu is my foundation "), an Assyrian official who prob- 
ably flourished in the reign of Esarhaddon (681-668 B. c), is the writer of 
four letters published in Harper's collection (Nos. 186-189). The prince 
who is here addressed was doubtless Sardanapalus. 

To the prince, my lord, thy servant Ishdi-Nabu! A 
hearty greeting to the prince, my lord! May Bel, Nabu, 
Belit, the divine queen of Kidimuri, and Ishtar of Arbela 
grant health of mind and body, life, and happiness to the 
prince, my lord! 

I convey the gracious messages of Nabu to the prince, 
my lord. Greeting to all the guard! May the heart of 
the prince, my lord, be of good cheer! 



XI. A LETTER FROM NABU'A TO THE KING 
(K. 551 ; H. 142) 

The importance attributed to omens, and the great attention paid to 
their interpretation by the Assyro-Babylonians, is attested by the very 
large number of tablets dealing with the subject found in the ruined tem- 
ples and palaces of the ancient Mesopotamian empires. These texts, 
which would seem to have accumulated from a very remote period, con- 
tain explanations of omens derived from phenomena of every description, 
terrestrial as well as celestial, and were consulted as the standard au- 
thorities whenever, as often happened, such information was desired. 

The astrologer Nabu'a doubtless had in mind a passage from one of 
these tablets when he wrote the letter here translated. At precisely what 
period this votary of astral science lived and practised his art it is impos- 
sible to say with certainty ; but it was in all probability under one of the 
Sargonide kings. 

To the king, my lord, thy servant Nabu'a! 

May Nabu and Marduk bless the king, my lord! 

On the seventh day of the month Kislev a fox entered 
the city, and fell into a well in the grove of the god Ashur. 
They got him out, and killed him. 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LETTERS 251 



XII. A LETTER FROM BALASI AND NABU-AKHE-ERBA TO 
THE KING (K. 565 ; H. 77) 

Balasi, the author of six letters published in Harper's work (Nos. 74- 
79), all relating to astrology, divination, and kindred matters, and also of 
a number of astrological reports, was an Assyrian priestly astrologer 
who lived in the reign of Esarhaddon (681-668 B. c). He was, there- 
fore, a contemporary of Arad-Ea, Arad-Nana, and Nabu-shum-iddina, 
examples of whose correspondence are given in Nos. K, 629, K. 1024, 
S. 1064, K. 519. 

To the king, our lord, thy servants Balasi and Nabu- 
akhe-erba! Greeting to the king, our lord! May Nabu 
and Marduk bless the king, our lord ! 

As for Ashur-mukin-pale'a,* about whom the king, our 
lord, has sent to us, may Ashur, Bel, Nabii, Sin, Shamash, 
and Ramman bless him! 

May our lord the king behold his welfare! 

The conditions are auspicious for the journey. The 
second of the month is an auspicious day; the fourth, ex- 
tremely auspicious. 



XIIL A LETTER FROM ARAD-EA TO THE KING 
(K. 1024; H. 28) 

Arad-Ea (" servant of Ea ") was a priest and astrologer who flourished 
in the reign of Esarhaddon (681-668 B. c). 

To the king, my lord, thy servant Arad-Ea! Greeting 
to my lord the king! May Nabu, Marduk, Sin, Ningal, 
(and) Nusku bless the king, my lord! 

Sin, Ningal '^ * * * shall grant life, and length (of 
days) to the king, my lord. I pray day and night for 
my lord's life. 

' Son of King Esarhaddon, and brother of Sardanapalus. 
' The text is obliterated, but the names of other gods doubtless fol- 
lowed here. 



252 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



XIV. A LETTER FROM ARAD-NANA TO THE KING 
(S. 1064; H. 392) 

According to the statement of Herodotus (i, 197), the Babylonians did 
not employ physicians, but brought their sick to the market-place in order 
to receive the advice of such persons as might be able to suggest a remedy 
derived from their personal experience or from that of their friends. The 
statement is entirely erroneous. The fact that physicians existed and 
were held in high esteem both in Assyria and Babylonia is abundantly 
attested by the cuneiform inscriptions. They belonged to the priestly 
class, and in their practice combined magic with more rational methods. 

Among the epistolary tablets are a few letters from physicians, and 
from these also it may be gathered that these ancient practitioners did 
not entirely depend upon magic arts, as may be seen from the two exam- 
ples here presented. The writer, in both cases, is Arad-Nana ("servant 
of Nana"), who flourished in the reign of Esarhaddon (681-668 B. c), and 
was probably court physician of that monarch. Five of his letters are 
published in Harper's work (Nos. 108-111 and 392). 

To the king, my lord, thy servant Arad-Nana! A hearty 
greeting to my lord the king! May the deities Adar and 
Gula grant health of mind and body to my lord the king! 

All goes well in regard to that poor fellow whose eyes 
are diseased. I had applied a dressing covering his face. 
Yesterday, toward evening, undoing the bandage which 
held it (in place), I removed the dressing. There was pus 
upon the dressing the size of the tip of the little finger. 
If any of thy gods has put his hand to the matter, that (god) 
must surely have given express commands. All is well. 
Let the heart of my lord the king be of good cheer! Within 
seven or eight days he will be well. 



XV. A LETTER FROM ARAD-NANA TO THE KING 
(K. 519; H. 108) 

To the king, my lord, thy servant, Arad-Nana! Greet- 
ing most heartily to my lord the king! May Adar and Gula 
grant health of mind and body to my lord the king! A 
hearty greeting to the son of the king * * * 1 

With regard to the patient who has a bleeding from his 
nose, the Rab-mugi '' reports, " Yesterday, toward evening, 

' Obverse lines 9-14 are here omitted. » An official title. 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LETTERS 



253 



there was much hemorrhage." Those dressings are not 
scientifically applied. They are placed upon the alae of 
the nose, oppress the breathing, and come off when there 
is hemorrhage. Let them be placed within the nostrils, 
and then the air will be kept away and the hemorrhage re- 
strained. If it is agreeable to my lord the king I will go 
to-morrow and give instructions; (meantime) let me hear 
how he does. 



XVL A LETTER FROM ISHTAR-DURI TO THE KING 
(K. 504; H. 157) 

All circumstances point to the reign of Sargon (722-705 B. c.) as the 
period in which Ishtar-duri (" Ishtar is my wall") flourished, and, as an 
Ishtar-duri was eponym in the year 714, we shall probably not be far 
wrong if we conclude that the writer of the letter and the eponym were 
one and the same person. 

To the king, my lord, thy servant Ishtar-duri ! Greet- 
ing to the king, my lord! 

I send forthwith to my lord the king, in company with 
my messenger, the physicians Nabu-shum-iddina and Nabu- 
erba, of whom I spoke to the king, my lord. Let them 
be admitted to the presence of the king, my lord, and 
let the king, my lord, converse with them. I have not 
disclosed (to them) the true facts, but have told them 
nothing. As the king, my lord, commands, (so) has it 
been done. 

Shamash-bel-UQur sends word from Der: " We have no 
inscriptions to place upon the temple walls." I send, there- 
fore, to the king, my lord, (to ask) that one inscription be 
written out and sent immediately, (and that) the rest be 
speedily written, so that they may place them upon the 
temple walls. 

There has been a great deal of rain, (but) the harvest is 
gathered. May the heart of the king, my lord, be of good 
cheer! 



254 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



XVII. A LETTER FROM * * * . BEL-IQISHA AND BABILA 
TO THE KING (K. 660 ; H. 86) 

The "receipt "of wine for the month of Tebet (January-February), 
spoken of in the following letter, was probably the produce of the royal 
vineyards for the preceding autumn, which was now ready for storage, 
although it is possible that reference is had to a tax or tribute of wine 
delivered in this month. 

To the king, our lord, thy servants * * * Bel-iqisha, 
and Babila! Greeting to our lord the king! May Ashur 
* * * Bel, and Nabu grant length of days for never-ending 
years to our lord the king! 

The king, our lord, shall decide.^ Since the receipt for 
the month Tebet is bottled,'' and there are no places of shel- 
ter (for it), we would (wish to) put it into the royal store- 
houses for wine. Let our lord the king pass an order that 
the (proper store-)houses may be indicated to us, and we 
shall be relieved of embarrassment.' The wine of our lord 
the king is of great quantity; where shall we put it? 



XVIII. A LETTER FROM TAB-gil^ESHARA TO THE KING 
(K. 515 ; H. 89) 

Tab-gil-Eshara, who was governor of Ashur under Sargon (722-705 
B. c), may well have lived on into the reign of Sargon's son and successor 
Sennacherib (705-681 B. c), and therefore it is not impossible that the 
ships mentioned in the letter may have constituted part of the fleet built 
by the latter monarch in 696-695. There is no record of the possession 
by the Assyrians of a permanent navy, and these vessels, having served 
the purpose for which they were constructed, may well have been either 
broken up or acquired by individuals for commercial purposes. 

To the king, my lord, thy servant Tab-gil-Eshara! 

Greeting to the king, my lord! 

May Ashur and Belit bless the king,, my lord! 

That ship of mine in which the grand vizier conveyed 
money down (the river), is now stopping at Bab-bitqi, and 
the ship of the governor of Arrapakhitis is carrying on a 
ferry at Opis. My lord the king shall decide. We trans- 
port in her straw, fodder, (and) such matters (?). 

' That is, whether it is proper that our intention shall be carried out. 
• That is, in leather bottles. ' Literally, " hold up our heads." 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LETTERS 255 

Let now the ship of the governor of Arrapakhitis come 
and carry on a ferry at Bab-bitqi, and let mine go to Opis 
so that we may transport straw and fodder in her (there). 
The men of the governor of Arrapakhitis are already con- 
ducting a ferry at Bab-bitqi. 



XIX. A LETTER FROM SARA'A TO THE SECRETARY OF 
THE PALACE (K. 1274 ; H. 220) 

Letters from women are extremely rare. In the present instance the 
Lady Sara'a makes an appeal in behalf of some slaves who have besought 
her intercession. 

To my lord, the secretary of the palace, thy handmaid 
Sara'a! May Bel, Belit * * *,^ Belit of Babylon, Nabu, 
Tashmet, Ishtar of Nineveh, and Ishtar of Arbela bless my 
lord! May they grant my lord long life with health of 
mind and body! 

The governor of Bit-Na'alani has sold to Marduk-erba 
the slaves — seven in number — whom he had from my lord. 
These people are now here, (and) have come to me, saying, 
" Inform the secretary of the palace, before we are conveyed 
to the house of Marduk-erba." My lord, the officer who 
executed the contract is now with them. 



XX. A LETTER FROM BEL-UPAQ TO KUNA HIS FATHER 
(K. 1239 ; H. 219) 

For the date of the writer, Bel-upaq ("Bel gives heed"), there is not 
sufficient evidence. 

Letter of Bel-upaq to Kuna his father! 

Greeting to my father! 

I pray daily to Nabu and Nana for my father's life, and 
I pay heedful reverence to Ezida in thy behalf. When I 
consulted the god of the temple in regard to thee, he fixed 
upon the fourth of the month as the propitious occasion. 
Thy workmaster is fully instructed in regard to every mat- 
ter so far as his (the god's) words are propitious. 

• The name of another god has been obliterated here. 



CONTRACTS 



I. SALES AND PURCHASES 

I. A SLAVE 
Contract of the eighth year of Nebuchadnezzar II 

SHAMASH-UBALLIT and Ubartum, children of Za- 
kir, the son of Pashi-ummani, of their free-will have 
delivered Nanakirat and her unweaned son, their 
slave, for nineteen shekels of money, for the price agreed, 
unto Ka^ir and Nadin-Marduk, sons of Iqisha-aplu, son of 
Nur-Sin. Shamash-uballit and Ubartum guarantee against 
insubordination, the claim of the royal service, and eman- 
cipation. Witnesses: Na'id-Marduk, son of Nabu-na^ir, 
son of Dabibi; Bel-shum-ishkun, son of Marduk-zir-epish, 
son of Irani; Nabu-ushallim, son of Bel-akhi-iddin, son of 
Bel-apal-U9ur. In the dwelling of Damqa, their mother. 
And the scribe, Nur-Ea, son of Ina-Isaggil-ziri, son of Nur- 
Sin. Babylon, twenty-first of Kisilimu, eighth year of 
Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon. 

[This tablet afifords a good example of the sale of a 
slave. In this case the persons who sell guarantee that the 
slave will neither become insubordinate, nor prove to be 
subject to any governmental claims, nor prove to have been 
emancipated by adoption. The word rendered " emanci- 
pation " means literally "adoption," but adoption by a 
freeman was an early form of emancipation. 

This sale is from the reign of the Nebuchadnezzar of 
Biblical fame, dating from 597 b. c. The same kind of con- 
tracts, as the next one quoted will show, were made seven- 
teen hundred years earlier.] 

256 



SALES AND PURCHASES 257 



2. A SLAVE 
Contract from the reign of Rim-Sin, before 2300 B. c. 

^ini-Ishtar has bought a slave, Ea-tappi by name, from 
Ilu-elatti, and Akhia, his son, and has paid ten shekels of 
silver, the price agreed. Ilu-elatti, and Akhia, his son, will 
not set up a future claim on the slave. In the presence of 
Ilu-iqisha, son of Likua; in the presence of Ilu-iqisha, son 
of Immeru; in the presence of Likulubishtum, son of Appa, 
the scribe, who sealed it with the seal of the witnesses. 
The tenth of Kisilimu, the year when Rim-Sin, the king, 
overcame the hostile enemies. 

[This transaction is like the preceding, except that 
the sellers simply guarantee to make no further claim upon 
the slave. It dates from about 2300 b. c, and is interest- 
ing as an index of the legal development of that far-off 
time.] 

3. WHEAT 
Contract from the thirty-fifth year of Darius, 487 B. c. 

Six talents of wheat from Shamash-malku, son of 
Nabu-napshat-su-ziz, to Shamash-iddin, son of Rimut. In 
the month Siman, wheat, six talents in full, he will deliver 
in Shibtu, at the house of Shamash-iddin. Witnesses: 
Shamash-iddin, son of Nabu-ugur-napishti; Abu-nu-emuq, 
son of Sin-akhi-iddin; Sharru-Bel, son of Sin-iddin; Aban- 
nimiqu-rukus, son of Malula. Scribe, Aradya, son of 
Epish-zir. Shibtu, eleventh of Kislimu, thirty-fifth year of 
Darius, king of countries. 

[This tablet is a good illustration of the simple transac- 
tions in food-stuffs, of which we have many, and of which 
one or two additional examples are given below. The 
farmers usually contracted as in this document the sale of 
their produce far in advance of the harvest. In this in- 
stance the sale was made six months before the grain would 
be ripe and could be delivered.] 
17 



2S8 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

4. DATES 
Contract from the thirty-second year of Darius, 490 B. c. 

One talent one qa of dates from the woman Nukaibu, 
daughter of Tabnisha, and the woman Khamaza, daughter 
of * * * to the woman Aqubatum, daughter of Aradya. 
In the month Siman they will deliver one talent one qa 
of dates. Scribe, Shamash-zir-epish, son of Shamash- 
malku. Shibtu, Adar the sixth, thirty-second year of 
Darius, King of Babylon and countries. 

[Shibtu, the place of this transaction, was a suburb of 
Babylon. In addition to the points illustrated by the pre- 
ceding, this shows how women, especially of the lower 
rank, carried on business for themselves. The father of 
Aqubatum, as his name, Aradya (my slave) shows, had been 

a slave.] 

5. REAL ESTATE 

Contract from the early Babylonian period, before 2000 B. c. 

Q!ini-Ishtar, the son of Ilu-eribu, and Apil-Ili, his broth- 
er, have bought one third Shar of land with a house con- 
structed, next the house of ^ini-Ishtar, and next the house 
of Minani; one third Shar of arable land next the house of 
Qini-Ishtar, which fronts on the street; the property of 
Minani, the son of Migrat-Sin, from Minani, the son of 
Migrat-Sin. They have paid four and a half shekels of 
silver, the price agreed. Never shall further claim be 
made, on account of the house of Minani. By their king 
they swore. (The iiames of fourteen witnesses and a scribe 
then follow.) Month Tebet, year of the great wall of Karra- 
Shamash. 

[This is a transaction from the early days of Babylonian 
history. It exhibits a form of transfer and title which has 
a flavour of modern business method about it.] 

6. A STANDING CROP 
Contract from the seventh year of Cyrus, 532 B. c. 

From a cultivated field which is situated on the alley of 
Li'u-Bel, Itti-Marduk-balatu, the son of Nabu-akhi-iddin, 



RENTALS 



259 



the son of Egibi, has made a purchase from Tashmitum- 
damqat, daughter of Shuzubu, son of Shigua, and Nadin- 
aplu, the son of Rimut, son of Epish-Ilu. Itti-Marduk-balatu 
has counted the money, the price of the crop of that field 
for the seventh year of Cyrus, King of Babylon, king of 
countries, into the hands of Tashmitum-damqat and Nadin- 
aplu. (The names of two witnesess and a scribe then fol- 
low, and the tablet is dated at) Babylon, Ululu thirteenth, 
the seventh year of Cyrus. 

[This contract belongs to a class intermediate between 
rental and the sale of land. Instead of either, the standing 
crop is sold.] 

II. RENTALS 

1. Old Babylonian contract, earlier than 2000 B. c. 

Akhibte has taken the house of Mashqu from Mashqu, 
the owner, on a lease for one year. He will pay one shekel 
of silver, the rent of one year. On the fifth of Tammuz 
he takes possession. (Then follow the names of four wit- 
nesses. It is dated) the fifth of Tammuz, the year of the 
wall of Kar-Shamash. 

[This is the simplest form of rental, and comes from the 
early Babylonian times. Sometimes the transaction was 
not so simple, as the next tablet will show.] 

2. Contract from the thirty-fifth year of Darius, 487 B. C. 

In addition to the rent of the house of Shamash-iddin, 
son of Rimut, for this year, fifteen shekels of money in 
cash (shall go) to Iskhuya, son of Shaqa-Bel, son of the 
priest of Agish. Because of the payment he shall repair 
the weakness (of the house), he shall close up the crack 
of the wall. He shall pay a part of the money at the be- 
ginning, a part of the money at the completion. He shall 
pay it on the day of Bel, the day of wailing and weep- 
ing. In case the house is unfinished by Iskhuya after the 
first day of Tebet, Shamash-iddin shall receive four shekels 
of money in cash into his possession at the hands of Isk- 



26o ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

huya. (The names of three witnesses and a scribe then 
follow. The tablet is dated) at Shibtu, the twenty-first of 
Kislimu, the thirty-fifth year of Darius. 

[This contract is most interesting. Iskhuya, apparently 
a tenant of Shamash-iddin, undertakes to repair the house 
in which he is living. In addition to the rent for the year 
he is to receive fifteen shekels in money, in two payments, 
at the beginning and the completion of the work. The 
last payment is to be made on the day of Bel, which seems 
to be identical with the first of Tebet, a week later than the 
contract was made. In case the repairs were not then 
completed, Iskhuya was to forfeit four shekels. Such 
business methods are not, therefore, altogether modern. 

The next tablet reveals a still more intricate transac- 
tion.] 

3. Contract from the thirty-sixth year of Artaxerxes, 428 b. c. 

Baga'miri, son of Mitradatu, spoke of his own free-will 
to Belshum-iddin, son of Murashu, saying: " I will lease my 
cultivated field and uncultivated land, and the cultivated 
field and uncultivated land of Rushundati, my father's de- 
ceased brother, which is situated on the bank of the canal 
of Sin, and the bank of the canal Shilikhti, and the dwell- 
ing houses in the town of Galiya, on the north, adjoining 
the field of Nabu-akhi-iddin, son of Ninib-iddin, and ad- 
joining the field of Banani-erish, a citizen of Nippur; on 
the south, adjoining the field of Minu-Bel-dana, son of 
Balatu; on the east, the bank of the canal of Sin; on the 
west, the bank of the canal of Shilikhti, and adjoining the 
field of Rushundati, the overseer (?) of Artaremu — all to 
use and to plant for sixty years. The rent of the culti- 
vated field will be twenty talents of dates; and the uncul- 
tivated field (I will lease) for planting." Afterward Bel- 
shum-iddin, son of Murashu, accepted his oflFer with refer- 
ence to the cultivated field and the uncultivated field, his 
part and the part of Rushundati, his uncle, deceased; he 
shall hold for sixty years the cultivated portion of it for 
a rental of twenty talents of dates per year, and the un- 



CONTRACTS CONCERNING LABOUR 261 

cultivated portion for planting. Each year in the month 
Tishri, Bel-shum-iddin unto Baga'miri will give twenty 
talents of dates for the use of that field. The whole rent 
of his field for sixty years Baga'miri, son of Mitradatu, has 
received from the hands of Bel-shum-iddin, son of Murashu. 
If, in the future, before sixty years are completed, Baga'- 
miri shall take that field from Bel-shum-iddin, Baga'miri 
shall pay one talent of silver to Bel-shum-iddin for the work 
which he shall have done on it and the orchard which he 
shall have planted. In case any claim should arise against 
that field, Baga'miri shall settle it and pay instead of Bel- 
shum-iddin. From the month Nisan, of the thirty-sev- 
enth year of Artaxerxes, the king, that field, for use and 
for planting, shall be in the possession of Bel-shum-iddin, 
son of Murashu, for sixty years. (The names of thirty wit- 
nesses and a scribe follow, eleven of whom left the im- 
pressions of their seals on the edges of the tablet. L. 34 
states that) the print of the thumb-nail of Baga'miri was 
placed on the tablet instead of his seal. (L. 37 contains the 
information that) the tablet was written in the presence 
of Ekur-belit, daughter of Bel-balatu-ittannu, mother of 
Baga'miri. (The date is) Nippur, Tishri second, thirty- 
sixth year of Artaxerxes. 

[This complicated contract is of unusual interest, since 
the lease is for so long a period; the rent is paid in ad- 
vance, and the lessee is in the same instrument guaranteed 
against all future contingencies.] 



III. CONTRACTS CONCERNING LABOUR 

I. Contract from the reign of Shamshu-iluna, about 2200 B. c. 

Mar-Sippar has hired for one year Marduk-na^ir, son 
of Alabbana, from Munapirtu, his mother. He will pay as 
wages for one year two and a half shekels of silver. She 
has received one half shekel of silver, one she,* out of a 
year's wages. 

' The she was jhs °i a shekel. 



262 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

[This is a contract from the reign of Shamshu-iluna, of 
the first Babylonian dynasty, about 2200 b. c. It is one 
of many of like character.] 

2. Contract from the thirty-fourth year of Darius, 488 B. c. 

One coat of mail, insignum of power which will pro- 
tect, is to be made by the woman Mupagalgagitum, daugh- 
ter of Qarikhiya, for Shamash-iddin, son of Rimut. She 
will deliver in the month Shebat one coat of mail, which 
is to be made and which will protect. 

[This tablet is dated in the thirty-fourth year of 
Darius I (488 b. c), and was regarded as an important 
transaction, since it is signed by four witnesses and a 
scribe.] 

3. Contract from the thirty-fifth year of Artaxerxes, 429 B. c. 

Bel-akha-iddin and Bel-shunu, sons of Bel * * * and 
Khatin, son of Bazuzu, spoke unto Bel-shum-iddin, son 
of Murashu, saying: " As to the ring in which an emerald 
has been set in gold, we guarantee that for twenty years 
the emerald will not fall from the gold ring. If the em- 
erald falls from the gold ring before the expiration of 
twenty years, Bel-akha-iddin, Bel-shunu (and) Khatin 
will pay to Bel-shum-iddin ten manas of silver." (The 
names of seven witnesses and a scribe are appended. 
The date is) Nippur, Elul eighth, the thirty-fifth year of 
Artaxerxes. 

[The transaction needs no comment. The wealthy rep- 
resentative of the house of Murashu obtained from the firm 
of jewellers which sold him the ring a guarantee that the 
setting would last for twenty years; if it does not, they are 
to forfeit ten manas. 

The tablet illustrates the following topic equally well, 
since the three men, Bel-akha-iddin, Bel-ishuna, and Kha- 
tin, are clearly copartners.] 



COPARTNERSHIPS 263 

IV. COPARTNERSHIPS 

I. Old Babylonian contract, earlier than 2000 B. c. 

SiN-KALAMA-iDi, son of Ulamasha, and Apil-ilu-shu, 
son of Khayamdidu, have borrowed from Arad-Sin six- 
teen shekels of money for the garnering of the harvest. 
On the festival of Ab they will pay the wheat. [Names of 
three witnesses and a scribe follow, and the tablet is dated 
in the year of a certain flood. It is not stated in the reign 
of what king it was written, but it clearly is an old Baby- 
lonian document, written more than 2000 b. c. 

The two farmers who borrow the money on their crop 
are partners.] 

2. Contract of the thirty-sixth year of Nebuchadnezzar II, 568 B. c. 

Two manas of money belonging to Nabu-akhi-iddin, 
son of Shula, son of Egibi, and one half mana seven shekels 
of money belonging to Bel-shunu, son of Bel-akhi-iddin, 
son of Sin-emuq, they have put into a copartnership with 
one another. Whatever remains to Bel-shunu in town or 
country over and above, becomes their common property. 
Whatever Bel-shunu spends for expenses in excess of four 
shekels of money shall be considered extravagant. (The 
contract is witnessed by three men and a scribe, and is 
dated at) Babylon, first of Ab, in the thirty-sixth year of 
Nebuchadnezzar. 

[Nabu-akhi-iddin was a capitalist — a member of the 
great Egibi family. He contributed four manas of capital 
to this enterprise, while Bel-shunu, who was to carry on 
the business, contributed one half mana and seven shekels, 
whatever property he might have, and his time. His ex- 
penses in the conduct of the business up to four shekels 
may be paid from the common funds.] 

3. Contract from the fortieth year of Nebuchadnezzar II, 564 B. c. 

Memorandum of the shares of Iddin-Marduk and 
Nabu-ukin, from the month Tebet, of the fortieth year 



264 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

of Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, unto the month 
Markheswan, of the forty-second year. One third mana of 
money Iddin-Marduk drew on his accoiint in the month 
Tebet, of the forty-first year. One third- mana of money 
Nabu-ukin drew on his account in the month Tebet, of the 
forty-first year. Fifteen shekels of Nabu-ukin's money, 
coined in shekel pieces, from * * * was gfiven to Iddin- 
Marduk for the house of Limniya on the fifteenth of Ulul, 
of the forty-second year; a fourth shekel of coined money, 
which was for a nutu-skin, given into the same hands. 
One half shekel of money was given for palipi naskhapu; 
one third of a shekel of money was given into the same 
hands for beef; two giri of money was given for meat; one 
shekel of money was given for Li^i-nuri; two shekels of 
money, which was for Karia, was given into the same 
hands. City of * * * Markheswan * * * One mana fifty 
shekels are counted into the possession of Lishiru and 
Bunini-epish. 

[From this document we learn that Iddin-Marduk and 
Nabu-ukin formed a copartnership in the month Tebet, 
of Nebuchadnezzar's fortieth year. A year from that date 
each of the partners drew out twenty shekels. In the 
month Ulul of the next year a number of small amounts 
were delivered to Iddin-Marduk for various specific pur- 
poses, and a larger amount, perhaps in payment of an ob- 
ligation of the firm, was paid to two other men.J 

4. Contract from the reign of Xerxes, 4S4-464 B. c 

* * * Month Markheswan * * * son of Bel-etiru, the 
shepherd * * * Ibni-zir-ilani, in the month * * * and 
the herdmen * * * spoke, thus he said to them * * * 
" I separate my life from the life of my brother and from 
the life of Lubuir, my partner. Six strong oxen * * * " 
* * * from the * * * day, Bara * * * and Usu * * * 
unto my life * * * Bel-shunu * * * Xerxes, King of 
Babylon and Batil * * * he will write and give me. 

[This much-mutilated contract is dated in the reign of 
Xerxes, on the twenty-first of Adar; the year is broken 



LOANS AND MORTGAGES 265 

away. Although it is so broken, it shows that two broth- 
ers had been in partnership with a third person as a com- 
pany of shepherds, and that one of the brothers was in 
the act of withdrawal from the firm to enter into partner- 
ship with another man.] 



V. LOANS AND MORTGAGES 

1. Contract of the fourteenth year of Nabopolassar, 611 B. c. 

^ One mana of money, a sum belonging to Iqisha-Mar- 
duk, son of Kalab-Sin, (is loaned) unto Nabu-etir, son of 
* * * son of * * * Yearly the amount of the mana 
shall increase its sum by seven shekels of money. His 
field near the gate of Bel is Iqisha-Marduk's pledge. 

(This document bears the name of four witnesses, and is 
dated) at Babylon, Tammuz twenty-seventh, in the four- 
teenth year of Nabopolassar, (the father of Nebuchadnez- 
zar). 

[This is a mortgage on real estate in security for a loan. 
The interest was at the rate of eleven and one third per 
cent.] 

2. Contract of the sixth year of Nebuchadnezzar II, 598 B. c. 

One mana of money, a sum belonging to Dan-Marduk, 
son of Apia, son of the Dagger-wearer, (is loaned) unto Ku- 
durru, son of Iqisha-apla, son of Egibi. Yearly the amount 
of the mana shall increase its sum by eight shekels of 
money. Whatever he has in city or country, as much as 
it may be, is pledged to Dan-Marduk. 

(The date is) Babylon, Adar fourth, in Nebuchadnez- 
zar's sixth year. 

[The rate of interest in this case was thirteen and one 
third per cent.] 

3. Contract of the fifth year of Nabonidus, 550 B. c. 

One and a half manas of money belonging to Iddin- 
Marduk, son of Iqisha-apla, son of Nur-Sin, (is loaned) unto 



266 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

Ben-Hadad-natan, son of Addiya and Bunanit, his wife. 
Monthly the amount of a mana shall increase its sum by a 
shekel of money. From the first of the month Siman, 
of the fifth year of Nabonidus, King of Babylon, they shall 
pay the sum on the money. The call shall be made for 
the interest money at the house which belongs to Iba. 
Monthly shall the sum be paid. 

[This loan was made Aru third, in the fifth year of 
Nabonidus. No security was given the creditor, but he 
received an interest of twenty per cent.] 



VI. BANKRUPTCY 

I. Contract of the second year of Evil-Merodach, 560 B. c. 

Two thirds of a mana of money, a loan from Bel-zir- 
epish, son of Shapik-zir, son of the smith, to Nabu-apla- 
iddin, son of Balatu, son of the * * *^ a loan upon the Gin 
(of land) which was delivered unto the creditor, and (on) 
the house of Nabu-apla-iddin, (which) Nergal-sharra-ugur, 
son of Bel-shum-ishkun, has bought for money. One third 
mana of money for the payment wherewith the creditor is 
to be paid Marduk-apla-iddin, son of Bel-zir-epish, son of 
the smith, has received as agent for Nergal-sharra-u^ur 
from Nabu-akhi-iddin, son of Shula, son of Egibi. The 
receipt for two thirds manas (which) Bel-zir-epish (loaned) 
to Nabu-apla-iddin, Marduk-apla-uqur, his son gave to 
Nergal-sharra-uqur. Until Marduk-apla-ugur unto the 
scribes of the king shall speak and shall receive the seal 
of possession, Nabu-akhi-iddin, son of Nabu-shum-iddin, 
son of Bel-shuktanu, shall hold the certificate of the receipt 
of the two thirds manas of money. 

(This instrument is dated) Babylon, Nisan twenty- 
sixth, of the second year of Evil-Merodach. 

[It exhibits how in a case of bankruptcy the interests of 
the creditor were conserved in the sale of the mortgaged 
property. It also proves that in Babylonian law the whole 



BANKRUPTCY 267 

value of the estate was not in such cases sacrificed to the 
creditor, but that the debtor could obtain the equity in his 
property which actually belonged to him.] 

2. Contract from Neriglissar's accession year, 559 b. c. 

Fifty-two and a half shekels of money, belonging to 
Iqisha-apla, son of Gilua, son of Sin-shadunu (are received) 
from Nabu-apla-iddin, son of Balatu, son of the * * *, 
upon the price of the house of Nabu-apla-iddin, which he 
purchased for cash for the palace. The balance remaining, 
twenty-six and a quarter shekels of money, Iqisha-apla, 
son of Gilua, son of Sin-shadunu, has received from the 
hand of Nabu-akhi-iddin, son of Shula, son of Egibi, and 
has given the receipt for fifty-two and a half shekels from 
Nabu-apla-iddin unto Nabu-akhi-iddin. 

[This document is dated the ninth day of the intercalary 
month of Neriglissar's accession year. The place is Baby- 
lon. The scribe who wrote it, Iqisha-apli's son. A mort- 
gage on the house of Nabu-apla-iddin, which a tablet dated 
in the reign of Evil-Merodach shows was then held by two 
persons, had been transferred to the hands of Iqisha-apla. 
It appears from the present transaction that half of the 
mortgage had been paid oflf. Apparently the remaining 
half could not be paid, and the house was sold. The pur- 
chaser was in this case the king, Neriglissar, who had but 
recently ascended the throne. Like many other regal 
purchasers he was short of funds, and was compelled to 
borrow the money from the head of the Egibi firm. The 
king appears to have taken the house for the sum of twenty- 
six and a quarter shekels, the half of the loan which re- 
mained unpaid, and to have compelled the holder of the 
mortgage to surrender to the banker all further claim to 
the property. Might made right in this case, and the 
equity was lost.*] 

■ Cf. Evetts, Ev. M. 16, and Peiser, " Rechtsleben," iii, 24. It should 
be said in justice to Neriglissar that there is some obscurity attaching to 
the case. In the first contract, which secured the two original creditors, 
there was a stipulation that in case the mortgage was not entered and 



268 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

VII. POWER OF ATTORNEY 

1. Contract of the first year of Evil-Merodach, 561 B. c. 

Itti-Nabu-balatu, the son of Shula, the son of Egibi, 
acts in place of Bel-kishir, his brother, (who) has not gone 
into business. With reference to their securities and what- 
ever property belonged to Shula, their father, (which) they 
have shared with one another, in so far as it belongs to 
Bel-kishir, it shall go into the business, and whatever profit 
arises from traffic (literally, the street), however much he 
may gain in this way, he shall bring all unto and to Bel- 
kishir deliver. His hand for this he raised. 

(This document is attested in the usual manner, and 
dated) Markheswan thirteenth, of Evil-Merodach's first 
year. [It clearly empowers one brother to act in business 
for another.] 

2. Contract of the twelfth year of Artaxerxes, 452 B. c. 

[Eighteen shekels] of money, rent belonging to [Arad- 
Anu-ilu-la-ilu-iprus and Shapi,] [sons of] Arad-belanu, of 
* * * From the month Tebet, of the twelfth year of 
Artaxerxes, Bel-akhi-iddin, son of Bel-abu-akhi, shall re- 
ceive eighteen shekels of money from the empowered at- 
torney,^ Imsa-sharru-arda, son of Bel-iddin, on behalf of 
Arad-Anu-ilu-la-ilu-iprus and Shapi. He shall enter into 
the Temple of Sharru, into the little temple, the shrine, and 
shall deposit in the treasury the money, and the singer and 
the scribe shall receive it for the exalted divinity from the 
hand ^ of Bel-akhi-iddin, son of Bel-abu-akhi, on behalf of 
Khuru, the slave of Arad-Anu-ilu-Ia-ilu-iprus, and * * * 
Sharru-shu, son of Dan-ila. 

sealed by the proper legal authorities, the rights under it should revert to 
Neriglissar. The action in this tablet may, therefore, have been taken in 
consequence of some irregularity. Nevertheless, even then the equity 
was lost through the greater power, knowledge, or craftiness of Neri- 
glissar. 

• The expression " ina qatu " means literally " by the hand of," but, as 
Peiser has pointed out, is the technical expression for "power of attorney." 

' This might also be rendered " the empowered attorney." 



MARRIAGE 269 

[This document is dated in the twelfth year of Arta- 
xerxes. It appears that the two brothers mentioned in 
it wished to make provision for a slave of one of them, 
who was perhaps being cared for at the Temple of Sharru. 
One man, perhaps their tenant, was empowered to pay to 
another the rent of a house of theirs; he in turn was em- 
powered to take it to the temple and see that certain men 
receive it.] 



VIII. MARRIAGE 

I. Contract of the reign of Shamshu-ilu-na, about 2200 b. c. 

RiMUM, son of Shamkhatum, has taken as a wife and 
spouse Bashtum, the daughter of Belizunu, the priestess (?) 
of Shamash, daughter of Uzibitum. Her bridal present 
shall be * * * shekels of money. When she receives it 
she shall be free. If Bashtum to Rimum, her husband, 
shall say, " Thou art not my husband," they shall strangle 
(?) her and cast her into the river. If Rimum to Bashtum, 
his wife, shall say, " Thou art not my wife," he shall pay 
ten shekels of money as her alimony. They swore by 
Shamash, Marduk, their king Shamshu - ilu - na, and 
Sippar. 

[This marriage took place about 2200 b. c. The bride 
was a slave, and gained her freedom by marriage, and hence 
the penalty imposed upon her in case she divorced her 
husband is greater than that imposed on him in case he 
divorced her.] 

2. Contract of the thirteenth year of Nebuchadnezzar II, 591 B. C. 

Dagil-ili, son of Zambubu, spoke to Khamma, daugh- 
ter of Nergal-iddin, son of Babutu, saying: " Give me La- 
tubashinni, thy daughter; let her be my wife." Khamma 
heard, and gave him Latubashinni, her daughter, as a 
wife; and Dagil-ili, of his own free-will, gave Ana-eli-Bel- 
amur, a slave, which he had bought for half a niana of 
money, and half a mana therewith to Khamma instead of 



270 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

Latubashinni, her daughter. On the day that Dagil-ili 
another wife shall take, Dagil-ili shall give one mana of 
money unto Latubashinni, and she shall return to her place 
— her former one. (Done) at the dwelling of Shum-iddin, 
son of Ishi-etir, son of Sin-damaqu. 

[This contract is dated at Babylon, in the thirteenth 
year of the Biblical Nebuchadnezzar, and is an example of 
marriage by purchase — a form of marriage which had prac- 
tically fallen into disuse at this time.] 

3. Contract of the sixth year of Nabonidus, 549 B. c. 

Nabu-nadin-akhi, son of Bel-akhi-iddin, son of Arad- 
Nergal, spoke to Shum-ukin, son of Mushallimu, saying, 
**Give as a wife Ina-Esaggil-banat, thy daughter, the virgin, 
to Uballit-su-Gula, my son." Shum-ukin hearkened to 
him, and gave Ina-Esaggil-banat, his virgin daughter, to 
Uballit-su-Gula, his son. He gave to Nabu-nadin-akhi one 
mana of money, Latubashinni, Ina-qilli-biti-nakhat, Tasli- 
mu, and the outfit for a house with Ina-Esaggil-banat, his 
daughter, as her dowry. Shum-ukin has gfiven to Nabu- 
nadin-akhi Nana-kishirat, his slave toward the, one mana 
of money of the dowry, instead of two thirds of a mana of 
money, at the full price. Shum-ukin will pay to Nabu- 
nadin-akhi one third of a mana of money, the balance of 
one mana, and he shall receive his dowry completed to one 
(mana) in what it lacks. 

[This document is dated in the sixth year of Naboni- 
dus, and is a good example of marriage with a dowry.] 



IX. DIVORCE 

I. Contract of the third year of Nabonidus, 552 b. c. 

Na'id-Marduk, son of Shamash-balatsu-iqbi, will give, 
of his own free-will, to Ramua, his wife, and Arad-Bunini, 
his son, per day four qa of food, three qa of drink; per year 



ADOPTION 



271 



fifteen manas of goods, one pi sesame, one pi salt, which is 
at the store-house. Na'id-Marduk will not increase it. In 
case she flees to Nergal * * * the flight shall not annul 
it. (Done) at the office of Mushezib-Marduk, priest of 
Sippar. 

[This document, which bears the date of the third year 
of Nabonidus, is apparently a legal divorce, in which the 
wife is granted alimony. The marriage contracts, given 
abov» under VIII, make it unnecessary further to illustrate 
the workings of Babylonian divorce laws. In VIII, i, the 
bride was a slave, and at her marriage was given, appar- 
ently by her husband, a small sum of money and her free- 
dom. He might, therefore, divorce her by giving her a 
small alimony of ten shekels; but if she divorces him, she 
was to be put to death. This contract was not peculiar to 
the early period of its date, but has parallels in the later 
period in the case of brides who were slaves. In VIII, 2, 
the case is different. The husband purchased a free bride; 
hence, if he divorced her, he must give her an alimony 
six times as great as that given to the emancipated slave 
of the previous contract. In VIII, 3, the bride received 
a dowry, so that no provision for divorce was necessary, 
since, as the court decisions given below prove, the dowry 
was always the property of the wife. In case of her di- 
vorce the husband lost it, hence this was a check on di- 
vorce, while it assured the wife a living in case divorce 
occurred.] 



X. ADOPTION 

I. Old Babylonian contract from before 2000 B. c. 

Arad-Iskhara, son of Ibni-Shamash, has adopted 
Ibni-Shamash. On the day when Arad-Iskhara to Ibni- 
Shamash, his father, shall say, " Thou art not my father," 
he shall bind him with a chain and sell him for money. 
When Ibni-Shamash to Arad-Iskhara, his son, shall say, 
" Thou art not my son," he shall depart from house and 



272 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



household goods; but a son shall he remain and inherit 
with his sons. 

[This tablet, which dates from before 2000 b. c, needs 
no explanation. It makes the form and conditions of adop- 
tion sufficiently clear.] 

2. Contract of the ninth year of Nabonidns, 544 b. c. 

Bel-kaqir, son of Nadinu, son of Sagillai, spake thus 
to Nadinu, his father, son of Ziri-ya, son of Sagillai: " To 
Bit-turni thou didst send me and I took Zunna as my wife, 
and she has not borne me son or daughter. Bel-ukin, 
son of Zunna, my wife, whom she bore to her former hus- 
band, Niqudu, son of Nur-Sin, let me adopt and let him 
be my son; on a tablet record his sonship, and seal and be- 
queath to him our revenues and property, as much as there 
is, and let him be the son taken by our hands." Nadinu 
was not pleased with the word Bel-kagir, his son, spoke to 
him. Nadinu had written on a tablet, " For the future any 
other one is not to take their revenues and property," and 
had bound the hands of Bel-kagir, and had published in 
the midst, saying: " On the day when Nadinu goes to his 
fate, after him, if a son shall be bom from the loins of Bel- 
kaqir, his son shall inherit the revenues and properties of 
Nadinu, his father; if a son is not bom from the loins of 
Bel-kagir, Bel-kaqir shall adopt his brother and fellow-heir, 
and shall bequeath his revenues and the properties of Na- 
dinu his father to him. Bel-kaqir may not adopt any 
other one, but shall take his brother and fellow-heir unto 
sonship on account of the revenues and properties which 
Nadinu has bequeathed." 

(From this point the tablet is too broken for translation 
until we reach the witnesses. It was dated) at Babylon in 
the ninth year of Nabonidus. 

[This document illustrates not only the method of 
adoption, but the way in which that process might be made 
impossible by the will of an ancestor in cases involving 
property.] 



ADOPTION 



273 



3. Contract of the thirteenth year of Nabonidus, 542 B. c. 

Iqisha-apla, son of Kuduru, son of Nur-Sin, had sealed 
a tablet of adoption for his slave, Rimanni-Bel, whose 
name he called Rimut, in consideration of his living and 
clothing. After that the tablet of adoption wras sealed. 
Rammani-Bel, whose name is called Rimut, went away and 
did not give companionship, nourishment, and clothing. 
Esaggil-ramat, daughter of Ziri-ya, son of Nabai, wife of 
Iddin-Marduk, son of Iqisha-apla, son of Nur-Sin, has 
taken him, given him shelter and befriended him, and 
has given him friendship, nourishment, and clothing. 
Iqisha-apla, son of Kuduru, son of Nur-Sin, of his own 
free-will broke the tablet of adoption and sealed him 
and has delivered him to Esaggil-ramat, and Nubtai, his 
daughter, the daughter of Iddin-Marduk, son of Nur-Sin. 
He shall serve Esaggil-ramat and Nubtai, her daughter; 
after Esaggil-ramat, he is given unto Nubtai, her daughter. 
Whoever shall annul this word and present bond, which 
Iqisha-apla has bound and given to Esaggil-ramat and 
Nubtai, his daughter, may Marduk and Qiarpanit command 
his destruction! 

(This instrument is dated) at Babylon, in the thirteenth 
year of Nabonidus. 

[We saw above (VIII, i) that marriage was a means 
of emancipation; the tablet last given shows that adoption 
was a still more common method of accomplishing it. In 
the case before us, a man who, judging from the genera- 
tions of his descendants mentioned, must have been very 
old, emancipated or adopted his slave on condition that 
the slave should take care of him. The slave thus adopted 
ran away and fell into the hands of the granddaughter of his 
former master, whereupon that master destroyed the tablet 
of adoption, and issued another tablet, which bound the 
fugitive in slavery to his granddaughter and great-grand- 
daughter forever.] 



18 



274 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



XL INHERITANCE 

A good example of a will has already been given (X, 2). It appears 
there that wills like that of Nadinu would stand in spite of the wishes of 
some of the heirs. We may here illustrate the division of estates among 
the heirs. 

I. Contract of the third year of Cyrus, 535 B. c. 

Tablet concerning the division into Gin of an estate, 
the dowry of Banat-Esaggil, their mother, which Marduk- 
iddin-akhi, son of Nabu-bel-shinati, son of Nur-Papsukal, 
divided and of which he gave to Tukultum-Marduk, son of 
Nabu-bel-shinati, son of Nur-Papsukal, his brother, his por- 
tion. Thirty-three and two thirds cubits, the upper long 
side on the north, twenty cubits bordering on the street of 
* * *, the side of the house of Ina-qibi-Bel, son of Balatu, 
son of the Rab-Uru, and the side of the house of Nabu- 
uballit, son of Kabtiya, son of Nabu-shimi; thirty-three 
cubits and eight hands, the lower long side on the south, 
by the side of the house of Marduk-iddin-akhi, son of Nabu- 
bel-shinati, son of Nur-Papsukal; thirteen cubits eight 
hands, the upper short side on the west, bordering on the 
street Katnu-a^u, thirteen cubits eight hands, the lower 
short side on the east, eight cubits eight hands (being on) 
an alley which is eight fingers wide, on the side of the street 
Katnu-la-aqu; the sum is eight and two thirds Gin, the 
measurement of the estate, the portion of Tukultum-Mar- 
duk, together with two Gin, the difference * * *, which 
the chief justice, the shukkaltum and the judges have writ- 
ten upon the tablet and have granted to Tukultum-Mar- 
duk, son of Nabu-bel-shanati, son of Nur-Papsukal, from 
Marduk-iddin-akhi, son of Nabu-bel-shanati, his brother. 
Marduk-iddin-akhi has thus given it to Tukultum-Marduk. 
An exit, an inalienable privilege which belongs to the share 
of Tukultum-Marduk, Marduk-iddin-akhi, son of Nabu- 
bel-shanati, son of Nur-Papsukal, will not remove from 
Tukultum-Marduk, his brother. Their suit with one an- 
other concerning their estate is ended. They will not move 
against one another on the basis of the suit about the 



INHERITANCE 



27s 



estate. In order that neither may undertake it they have 
issued duplicate (tablets). 

[This instrument was executed at Borsippa in the third 
year of Cyrus. The subjoined diagram will make the divi- 
sion of the estate clear: 





Street 


« 


t 


3 

rt u 
•-7 u 
in 
ctn 

d 




9 


Inheritance of Tukultum-Marduk 




3, 
t 

c 


§ 




Inheritance of Marduk-iddin-akhi 


1 1 

1 * 1 

1 1 

1 1 
1 I 

1 t 








Street 









* House of Ina-qibi-Bel. f House of Nabu-uballit. 

J The inalienable right of exit possessed by Tukultum-Marduk. 
§ This space is not a part of the street Katnu-la-aju, but more likely 
the extra two Gin mentioned in the text. 



2. Contract of the second year of Nabonidus, 553 B. c. 

Gugua, daughter of Zaqir, son of an Isinian, of her own 
free-will has sealed one mana of money, which with Nabu- 
akhi-iddin, son of Shula^ son of Egibi, is deposited — one half 
mana five shekels of money which is loaned to Tabnia, son 
of Nabu-ushallim, son of Sin-shadanu, for which a house 
is mortgaged; one third mana of money, which is loaned to 
Tashmitu-ramat, daughter of Arad-Bel, son of Egibi; a pro- 
ductive field, situated on the canal of the town Kish; (all) 
her dowry; and allotted it to Ea-zir-ibni, her eldest son. 
One and a half manas six shekels of money Gugua has ap- 
portioned, in the absence of Ea-zir-ibni, to her younger 
sons, Nabu-akhi-uballit, Nergal-ishi-etir, Itti-Shamash-ba- 
latu, and Zamama-pir-uqur. Ea-zir-ibni shall not molest 
them in consequence of it. One mana of money, which is 



276 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

deposited with Nabu-akhi-iddin; one half mana, which is in 
the possession of Tabnia, one third mana, which is in the 
possession of Tashmitu-ramat, Gugua has allotted, to- 
gether with the cultivated field, to Ea-zir-ibni, her eldest 
son. As long as Gugua lives, Ea-zir-ibni shall give, from 
the income of his money, food and a living to Gugua, his 
mother. Whatever it contains, Gugua shall not out of 
affection give away, nor make a division in the foregoing. 
Ea-zir-ibni need fear no creditor. 

[This document, dated at Babylon in the second year 
of Nabonidus, illustrates how some Babylonians disposed 
of property before death. Gugua was evidently a widow. 
She divided her estate among her sons, giving to the eldest 
the largest portion, on condition that during her lifetime 
he should feed and clothe her. In return she guarantees 
to alienate none of his inheritance, nor to run him into 
debt.] 



XII. LEGAL DECISIONS 

I. Tablet from the accession year of Nabonidus, 555 B. c. 

Belilit, daughter of Bel-ushezib, son of the road- 
master (?), deposed to the judges of Nabonidus, King of 
Babylon, saying: " In the month Ab, of the first year of 
Neriglissar, King of Babylon, I sold Bazuzu, my slave, for 
half a mana five shekels of money to Nabu-akhi-iddin, son 
of Shula, son of Egibi; ^ I took his note, but he has not 
paid the money." The judges of the king heard, and they 
summoned Nabu-akhi-iddin and set him before them. 
Nabu-akhi-iddin produced the receipt, which Belilit had 
given, that she had received the money, the price of Ba- 
zuzu, and showed it to the judges. Ziriya, Nabu-shum- 
lishir, and Ebilu had embezzled the money of Belilit, their 
mother; he established it before the judges. The judges 
deliberated and they took from Belilit one half mana five 

' This transaction is still extant. C£. Strassmaier, 6th O. C, No. 113, 
and Evetts, Ner. 23, 



LEGAL DECISIONS 277 

shekels of money, as much as he had paid, and gave it to 
Nabu-akhi-iddin. 

(This decision, which is signed by six judges and the 
clerk of the court, is dated) at Babylon, in the accession 
year of Nabonidus. 

[It is clear from this case that a false suit did not, ac- 
cording to Babylonian law, result in a simple dismissal; a 
fine, equal to the sum unjustly sued for, was imposed on the 
plaintiff and paid to the defendant. This must have been 
a powerful deterrent to unjust claims, since they were likely 
to result in benefiting the defendant by as much as the 
plaintiff sought to injure him. J 

2. Tablet of the ninth year of Nabonidus, 546 B. c. 

Bunanit, daughter of the Kharizite, deposed to the 
judges of Nabonidus, King of Babylon, saying: " Ben- 
Hadad-natan, son of Nikbata, took me as his wife, and 
received three manas of money as my dowry. I bore him 
one daughter. I and Ben-Hadad-natan, my husband, 
gained by selling and buying with the money of my dowry, 
and we bought eight Gin of an estate, land not far beyond 
the midst of Borsippa, for nine and two thirds manas of 
money, including two and a half manas of money which 
was borrowed from Iddin-Marduk, son of Basha, son of 
Nur-Sin; we added to the other, and paid ^ for the price of 
that estate; and we traded together in the fourth year of 
Nabonidus, King of Babylon. Since my dowry was with 
Ben-Hadad-natan, my husband, I asked for it, and Ben- 
Hadad-natan, in the kindness of his heart, sealed and de- 
vised to me for the future the eight Gin of that estate which 
is in Borsippa, and declared it on my tablet, saying: ' Two 
and a half manas of money which Ben-Hadad-natan and 
Bunanit from Iddin-Marduk borrowed was paid toward 
the price of that estate; they transacted it together.' That 
tablet he sealed, and wrote upon it the curse of the great 
gods. In the fifth year of Nabonidus, King of Babylon, 

• The documents recording these transactions have been recovered. 
One of them is published above (V, 3). 



2;8 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

I and Ben-Hadad-natan, my husband, adopted Ben-Ha- 
dad-amara. We wrote the tablet of his adoption, and we 
announced the dowry of Nubta, my daughter, two manas 
ten shekels of money, and the furniture of a house. Fate 
took my husband, and now Iqbi-ilu, the son of my 
father-in-law, has laid a claim to the estate and all which 
he had sealed and devised to me and upon Nabu-nur-ilani, 
whom we purchased through the agency of Nabu-akhi- 
iddin. I have brought it before you; make a decision." 
The judges heard their complaint; they discussed the tab- 
lets and documents which Bunanit brought before them, 
and they granted Iqbi-ilu no power over the house in 
Borsippa, which instead of her dowry had been devised 
unto Bunanit, over Nabu-nur-ilani, whom she and her hus- 
band had bought for silver, nor over anything belonging to 
Ben-Hadad-natan. To Bunanit and Ben-Hadad-amara they 
established them in consequence of their tablets. Iddin- 
Marduk is paid and receives his two and a half manas of 
money, which they paid on the price of that estate. After- 
ward Bunanit shall receive the three and a half manas of 
her dowry, and besides her share Nubta shall receive Nabu- 
nur-ilani, according to the will of her father. 

[The record of this suit, which bears the date of the 
ninth year of Nabonidus, received the signatures of six 
judges and two clerksl None of the judges are the same 
as those who signed the record of Belilit's suit except 
Nergal-banunu, who was then clerk of the court, but had 
at the time of Bunanit's suit become chief justice.] 



XIII. SOME OTHER PHASES OF COURT 
PROCEDURE 

I. Tablet of the eighth year of Cyrus, 529 b. c, 

Nabu-akhi-uballit, son of Shu * * *, the inspector 
of the city Shakhrin * * *, on the twenty-eighth day of 
Adar, in the eighth year of Cyrus, King of Babylon, king 



SOME OTHER PHASES OF COURT PROCEDURE 279 

of countries, deposed to Bel-uballit, the notary * of Sip- 
par, saying: " I took Nana-iddin, son of Bau-ulid, into my 
house, saying: ' Am I the brother of thy father and the 
inspector of the city? Why hast thou raised thy hand 
against me? ' Ramman-sharra-uqur, son of Nabu-ushezib; 
Lulgiya and Irba, his brothers; Kutka-ili, son of Bau-ulid; 
Bel-ubalHt, son of Bariki-ili; Bel-akhi-uqur, son of Ram- 
man-ushallim; and Iqisha-apla, son of Shamash-sharra-u^ur, 
have broken open my door like demons; and from my 
house, when they had forced an entrance, they took one 
mana of my money." 

[This document bears the names of four witnesses and 
a scribe; it is dated Adar twenty-eighth, eighth year of 
Cyrus. This was not the end of the matter, as the next 
tablet will show.] 

2. Tablet of the eighth year of Cyrus, 529 B. c. 

* * * They came and they saw the fracture (?) of the 
door and the rending of the threshold. Shamash-iddin, 
son of Ziriya, assembled the elders of the city, and then 
he placed Nana-iddin under bonds to Nabu-(akhi-bullit), 
together with Nabu(?)-iddin, son of Pir'a, Nabu-etir-nap- 
shati, son of Rimut, son of * * *, Iqibu, son of Pir'a, 
son of the priest of Gula, Shamash-lama', son of Submadu, 
Bel-ushallim, son of Bel-akhi-iddin, son of Shigua, Nabu- 
ushezib, son of Nabu-ukin-akhi, Ramman(?)-sharra-u^ur, 
son of Abu-nu-epish, * * *, son of * * *. (Their 
hands) against him they raised, (the door of his house) 
(they broke), into his house (they entered). (Under 
the l(aw concerning the house) they are gui(lty). Sha- 
mash-iddin, son of Ziriya, when he was rigorously exam- 
ining them concerning the house, declared, saying — also 
Ramman-sharra-ugur, son of Nabu-ushezib, Nabu-uballit, 
son of Bariki-ili, Irba, son of Bau-ulid, Lulgia, son of 
Nabu-ushezib, Bel-akhi-uqur, son of Ramman-ushallim, 
declared, saying — ^also Kutka-ili, son of Bau-ulid, Bel- 
uballit, son of Bariki-ili, declared, saying: " I was there 
' Literally " priest," but often this word stands for scribe. 



280 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

when we drew near the door." Ramman-(sharra-U9ur, son 
of Nabu-ushezib, also declared, saying:) I *•* *^ Adar 
thirtieth, eighth year of (Cyrus, King of Babylon). 

[The two preceding tablets have preserved the record 
of a crimnal case in Sippar, in the reign next after that of 
Nabonidus, the work of whose judges we saw in XII. 
Here the elders of the city, as in the Old Testament, try 
the case, but apparently with thoroughness and justice, 
though what sentence they imposed does not appear. A 
similar case appears in Hilprecht and Clay's Texts, ix 
No. 69, in which the owner agrees to abandon legal pro- 
ceedings if the stolen property is restored.] 

3. Contract of the twelfth year of Nabonidus, 543 B. c. 

Three manas fifty shekels of money, which the judges 
wrote on the tablet and gave to Bel-rimanni, son of La- 
bashi-Marduk, son of Ina-Ramman-takallal, and concern- 
ing the tablet of Arad-gula and Damqana, his wife, and 
concerning the slaves and house which he pledged, Bel- 
rimanni (ask)ed. Nergal-uballit the full claim against 
Arad-Gula allowed, saying: " I grant the full claim, all of it, 
which Arad-Gula has not met, to Bel-rimanni, upon the 
slaves and house, which were pledged. Bel-rimanni has 
brought before the judges of the king Ana-Tashmit-atkal, 
Amtiya, Nana-ana-biti-shu, and Zamama-iddin, the people 
of the house of Arad-Gula, the house which was pledged, 
the slaves which they had mortgaged to Bel-rimanni, ac- 
cording to his tablet, instead of three manas fifty shekels of 
money, the full price, are given, received, taken; there is 
nothing further." And in order that there may be no 
renewal and an appeal be made concerning those slaves to 
the judges, they have written a tablet, sealed it with their 
seals, and have given it to Bel-rimanni. 

(The names of the judges follow, together with the 
date:) Babylon, Shebat twenty-sixth, twelfth year of Na- 
bonidus. [This document is a legal execution, and needs 
no comment.] 

■ Some lines are wanting. 



SOME OTHER PHASES OF COURT PROCEDURE 28 1 



4. Contract of the thirty-seventh year of Artaxerxes, 427 B. c. 

Bel-akhi-iddin, son of Bel-na'id, of his own free-will 
spoke to Bel-shum-iddin, son of Murashu, saying: "Deliver 
unto me Nidintum-Bel, son of Eshi-etir, my brother, who 
is held in prison. I will become his surety that he does not 
go from Nippur to another place." Whereupon Bel-shum- 
iddin, son of Murashu, hearkened to him, and delivered 
unto him Nidintum-Bel, son of Eshi-etir, his brother, who 
was held in prison. On the day when Nidintum-Bel, son 
of Eshi-etir, shall go without the judge's permit from Nip- 
pur to another place, Bel-akhi-iddin shall pay to Bel-shum- 
iddin ten manas of money. 

(The above is dated) at Nippur in the thirty-seventh 
year of Artaxerxes I. [It is clearly the record of a bond by 
means of which a man went bail for his nephew.] 



THE BABYLONIAN ACCOUNT 
OF THE CREATION 



10 NG since, when above the heaven had not been 
named, 
•^ when the earth beneath (still) bore no name, 

when the ocean (apsu), the primeval, the generator of them, 
and 

the originator (?) Tiamat, who brought forth them both * — 

their waters were mingled together; 

when fields were (still) unformed, reeds (still) nowhere to 
be seen. 

Long since, when no one of the gods had been called into 
being, 

when no name had been named, no fates [had been de- 
termined] ; 

then were created the gods, [all of them?]. 

Luchmu and Lachamu were called into being [as the 
first?] .2 

Ages multiplied [and days grew old?] ; 

An-shar (and) Ki-shar * were created. 

Long were the days * * * [before?] 

Anu, [Bel, and Ea were created, the great gods?] 

An-shar and Ki[-shar * * *] 

[What follows is broken off.] 

' That is, heaven and earth. How this was done, see p. 294, line 34, 
to p. 2g5, line 8. 

' This oldest pair of gods is mentioned also elsewhere. 
• The personifications of the upper and the lower world. 

282 



THE BABYLONIAN ACCOUNT OF THE CREATION 283 

Two new fragments discovered by Professor Carl Be- 
zold in the British Museum collection appear to belong 
to this first tablet. The former relates how Apsu and Tia- 
mat bewailed the creation of light and how their son Mum- 
mu (the Maviik of Damascius) reveals unto them a plan to 
change the light back again into utter darkness. 

Let the light be darkened, like night may [it be. 

Upon hearing this Apsu's face brightened up. 

They planned evil against the gods [, their first-born]. 

[After another break of some fifteen or twenty lines, 
there follows the account of the revolt of Tiamat against 
the upper gods, which is found four times in the same form 
in this account of the creation.] 

Tiamat, the mother of the gods, turned against them in 
hatred 

with all her force; she is bitterly enraged. 

To her turn the gods, without exception. 

[Even those, whom Luchmu and Lachamu created, go to 
her aid] 

They are banded together, and at the side of Tiamat they 
advance; 

cursing the day (light), they follow Tiamat. 

Angry, plotting, restless by day and by night, 

ready for the fray, fuming and raging, 

they banded themselves together and started the revolt. 

The mother of the deep,^ the creator of all, 

has made in addition invincible weapons, spawning mon- 
ster serpents, 

sharp of tooth, and unsparing of fang; 

with poison instead of blood she filled their bodies. 

Monster vipers, fierce ones, she clothed with terror, 

decked them with awful splendour, and made them high of 
stature (?), 

that their aspect might inject terror and arouse horror. 

Their bodies are inflated, irresistible is their attack. 

' Tiamat. 



284 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

The viper she created, the dragon, and the lachamu,* 

the storm-giant, the mad hound, and the scorpion-man, 

the raging storms, the fish-man, and the ram, 

provided with w^eapons, unmerciful, not dreading a fight; 

defiant of mind, invincible against all enemies. 

In addition to creating thus these eleven, 

she exalted among the gods, her sons, whom she had borne, 

Kingu, and made him greatest among them all (saying): 

" To march before the host, let that be thy mission; 

Command the weapons to strike, the attack to begin." 

To be foremost in war, supreme in victory, 

she intrusted to him; and placed him upon a throne (say- 
ing): 

" By my charm and incantation * I have raised thee to 
power among the gods. 

The dominion over all the gods I intrusted to thee. 

Lofty thou shalt be, thou my chosen spouse; 

Great be thy name in all the [world] ." 

She then gave him the Tablets of Destiny, and laid them 
upon his breast (saying): 

" Thy command be never annulled, firm stand the word 
of thy mouth." 

Thus exalted and having obtained divine power ' 

among the gods, her children, Kingu ruled. 

" Let the opening of your mouth quench the fire; 

he that excels in bravery, let him rise in power." 

The second tablet opens with a verbatim report of the 
situation described in the second half of the first tablet, to 
the god An-shar, who becomes gfreatly distressed and ex- 
cited, smites his sides in anger and wrath, bites his lips, 
and breaks out in cries of fury. One of the gods ventures 
to suggest that it would certainly be possible for An-shar, 
the great warrior, to slay Apsu, and fight successfully with 
Tiamat. Then follows a break, and after that, An-shar 

' Monster (?) ; a being different, of course, from the two gods mentioned 
in the beginning of this tablet, line lo. 

' Referring to the lines " To march, ttc. — begin.'' 

• Literally, the Anu-ship ; that is, the power of god Anu. 



BABYLONIAN ACCOUNT OF THE CREATION. 
Bilingual tablet from Abu-Habbah, the ancient Sippara. 



THE BABYLONIAN ACCOUNT OF THE CREATION 285 

turns to his son Anu, "the powerful, courageous hero, 
whose strength and power [are great] and whose onslaught 
is irresistible," and calls upon him to defeat Tiamat: 

" [Get thee] and before Tiamat stand thou up; 
Perchance her anger be quieted and her heart be softened. 
[But if she resists] and hearkens not to thy word, 
[speak * * * to her] , and then she may be quieted." 
And Anu listened to the word of An-shar, his father. 
Straightway he went to her; to her he marched. 
But as he [approached] and beheld the awful visage of 

Tiamat, 
Anu took fright and fled in haste. 

What he reported to An-shar is not preserved. From 
Tablet III, 54, it may be gathered that An-shar then turned 
to Nudimmud,^ but here he pleaded also in vain. There- 
upon Marduk, Ea's son, volunteers to fight Tiamat, but 
under conditions which he communicated forthwith to An- 
shar, his grandfather (whom, however, he addresses as 
" father," meaning, no doubt, " father of the gods "). An- 
shar accedes to his conditions, and promises him great re- 
ward and high honours. The closing lines of the second 
tablet are thus: 

Marduk heard the word of his father." 

His heart [rejoiced] and he spoke thus to his father: 

" O lord of the gods, fate-determiner of the great gods, 

when indeed I shall become your avenger, 

conquering Tiamat and thus saving your lives, 

assemble the gods and proclaim my control as supreme. 

In Ubshukenna * then enter ye all joyfully, 

and my authority instead of thine shall assume control.* 

' Or Nugimmud, a name for Ea, the father of Marduk (Merodach). 

' Meaning An-shar. 

» Name of the Chamber of Fates, the assembly room where the gods 
annually on New- Year's day gather to determine the lot to king and to 
the nation. 

* Also translated, "With my word, instead of thine, I will determine 

the lot." 



286 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

Let whatsoever I do remain unaltered; 
unchangeable and irrevocable be ever the command of my 
lips." 

An-shar opened his mouth, and 

to Gaga, his messenger, he said: 

" Go, Gaga, my messenger, thou who rejoicest my heart, 

to Luchmu and Lachamu I will send thee; 

willingly then hear the command of my heart. 

[* * *] thy [* * *] before thee 

[invite to the assembly] the gods, them all; 

[may they sit down at table], partake at the feast; 

[may eat bread] and mix the wine, 

[may mount] their [seats] and decree the fate.* 

Go, then. Gaga, stand before them,^ 

[the word that I now tell thee], repeat unto them (and 
say): 

An-shar, your son,^ has sent me (to you), 

the command of his heart he intrusted to me (saying) : 

Tiamat, our mother, turned against us in hatred 

with all her force; she is bitterly enraged. 

To her turn the gods, without exception. 

Even those, created by you, go to her aid. 

They are banded together, and at the side of Tiamat they 
advance; 

cursing the day (light), they follow Tiamat. 

Angry, plotting, restless by day and by night, 

ready for the fray, fuming and raging, 

they banded themselves together and started the revolt. 

The mother of the deep, the creator of all, 

has made in addition invincible weapons, spawning mon- 
ster-serpents, 

sharp of tooth, and unsparing of fang; 

with, poison instead of blood she filled their bodies; 

monster-vipers, fierce ones, she clothed with terror, 

' These four lines, no doubt, indicate what the gods are to do before 
Marduk goes forth to defeat Tiamat. 
• Meaning Luchmu and Lachamu. 
' See Tablet I, p. 282, lines 10 and 12. 



THE BABYLONIAN ACCOUNT OF THE CREATION 287 

decked them with awful splendour and made them high of 
stature (?), 

that their aspect might inject terror and arouse horror. 

Their bodies are inflated, irresistible is their attack. 

The viper she created, the dragon, and the lachamu, 

the storm-giant, the mad hound, and the scorpion-man, 

the raging storms, the fish-man, and the ram, 

provided with weapons, unmerciful, not dreading a fight; 

defiant of mind, invincible against all enemies. 

In addition to creating thus these eleven, 

she exalted among the gods, her sons, that she had borne, 

Kingu, and made him greatest among them all (saying): 

* To march before the host, kt that be thy mission; 

Command the weapons to strike, the attack to begin.' 

To be foremost in war, supreme in victory, 

she intrusted to him, and placed him upon a throne (say- 
ing): 

' By my charm and incantation I have raised thee to power 
among the gods. 

The dominion over all the gods I intrusted to thee. 

Lofty thou shaft be, thou my chosen spouse; 

Great be thy name in all the world.' 

She then gave him the Tablets of Destiny, and laid them 
upon his breast (saying): 

' Thy command be never annulled, firm stand the word of 
thy mouth.' 

Thus exalted and having obtained divine power, 

among the gods, her children, Kingu ruled. 

' Let the opening of your mouth quench the fire; 

he that excels in bravery, let him rise in power.' 

I sent Anu, but he dared not to face her. 

Nudimmud was afraid and turned to flight. 

Then I called upon Marduk, the counsellor of gods, your 
son; 

To go against Tiamat he has set his mind. 

He opened his mouth and thus spoke unto me: 

' When indeed I shall become your avenger, 

conquering Tiamat, and thus saving your lives. 



288 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

assemble all the gods and proclaim my control as supreme. 

In Ubshukenna then enter ye all joyfully, 

and my authority instead of thine shall assume control. 

Let whatsoever I do remain unaltered; 

unchangeable and irrevocable be ever the command of my 
lips.' ' 

Hasten, then, and quickly deliver your dominion to him, 

that he may go and meet your enemy, the mighty! " 

Gaga departed and wended his way 

until he came to Luchmu and Lachamu, the gods, his 
fathers. 

There he prostrated himself, kissing the ground at their 
feet. 

He bowed down, rose up again, and spoke thus unto them: 

" An-shar, your son, has sent me to you, 

the command of his heart he intrusted to me, (saying): 

' Tiamat, our mother, turned against us in hatred 

with all her force; she, is bitterly enraged. 

To her turn the gods, without exception. 

Even those, created by you, go to her aid. 

They are banded together, and at the side of Tiamat they 
advance; 

cursing the day (light), they follow Tiamat. 

Angry, plotting, restless by day and by night, 

ready for the fray, fuming and raging, 

they banded themselves together, and started the revolt. 

The mother of the deep, the creator of all, 

has made in addition invincible weapons, spawning mon- 
ster-serpents, 

sharp of tooth, and unsparing of fang; 

with poison instead of blood she filled their bodies; 

monster-vipers, fierce ones, she clothed with terror, 

decked them with awful splendour, and made them high of 
stature (?), 

that their aspect might inject terror and arouse horror. 

Their bodies are inflated, irresistible is their attack. 

The viper she created, the dragon, and the lachamu, 

the storm-giant, the mad hound, and the scorpion-man. 



THE BABYLONIAN ACCOUNT OF THE CREATION 289 

the raging storms, the fish-man, and the ram, 

provided with weapons, unmerciful, not dreading a fight, 

defiant of mind, invincible against all enemies. 

In addition to creating thus these eleven, 

she exalted among the gods, her sons, that she had borne, 

Kingu, and made him greatest among them all (saying): 

' To march before the host, let that be thy mission; 

Command the weapons to strike, the attack to begin.' 

To be foremost in war, supreme in victory, 

she intrusted to him, and placed him upon a throne (say- 
ing): 

* By my charm and incantation I have raised thee to power 
among the gods. 

The dominion over all the gods I intrusted to thee. 

Lofty thou shalt be, thou my chosen spouse; 

Great be thy name in all the [world] .' 

She then gave him the Tablets of Destiny, and laid them 
upon his breast (saying): 

' Thy command be never annulled, firm stand the word of 
thy mouth.' 

Thus exalted and having obtained divine power, 

among the gods, her children, Kingu ruled. 

' Let the opening of your mouth quench the fire; 

he that excels in bravery, let him rise in power.' 

I sent Anu, but he dared not to face her. 

Nudimmud was afraid and turned to flight. 

Then I called upon Marduk, the counsellor of gods, your 
son; 

To go against Tiamat he has set his mind. 

He opened his mouth and thus spoke unto me : 

' When indeed I shall become your avenger, 

conquering Tiamat, and thus saving your lives, 

assemble all the gods and proclaim my control as supreme. 

In Ubshukenna then enter ye all joyfully, 

and my authority instead of thine shall assume control. 

Let whatsoever I do remain unaltered; 

unchangeable and irrevocable be ever the command of my 
lips.' 
19 



290 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



Hasten, then, and quickly deliver your dominion to him, 
that he may go and meet your enemy, the mighty! ' " 
When Luchmu and Lachamu heard this, [their heart be- 
came frightened], 
and the host of heaven's gods were wailing bitterly, (say- 
ing): 
"What indeed has happened that they conceived hatred (?); 
we can not understand the [actions] of Tiamat." 
Then they gathered together, proceeded to [* * *] ; 
the great gods, all of them, who decree fate, 
entered in before An-shar, and filled [the chamber?]. 
They encouraged one another by gathering together, and 
sat down to the banquet, [and partook of] the meal; 
Ate bread and mixed [wine] . 
The sweet wine confused their senses, 
drinking they waxed drunk, their bodies were filled (with 

meat and drink); 
They became bewildered, their [spirits] rose, and 
to Marduk, their avenger, they intrusted the rule. 

Thereupon the gods placed Marduk on the royal throne, 

surpassing his fathers in power, he took his place as de- 
cider and ruler. 

[When Marduk had taken his seat, the gods addressed him 
in the following words:] 

" Yea, thou art the honoured among the great gods; 

thy destiny is unequalled, thy word is ' Anu ' ^ indeed. 

O Marduk, thou art the honoured among the great gods; 

thy destiny is unequalled, thy word is ' Anu ' indeed. 

Henceforth thy command shall be absolute; 

To exalt and to abase shall be within thy power. 

Verily, thy word shall be supreme, thy command irresistible. 

None among the gods shall trespass upon thy dominion. 

May abundance, the desire of the shrines of the gods, 

while they are in want, be showered upon thy sanctuary! 

Marduk, as thou indeed wilt become our avenger, 

we gladly give thee dominion over the whole world. 

• That is, thy power Is equal to that of god Anu. 



THE BABYLONIAN ACCOUNT OF THE CREATION 291 

In the council (of the gods) may thy word always prevail; 

thy weapon be always victorious, crushing the foe and the 
enemy ! 

O lord, spare thou the life of him that putteth his trust in 
thee; 

but as for the god who led the rebellion, pour out the blood 
of his life." 

Thereupon the gods spread out in their midst a garment; 

to Marduk, their first-born, they spoke: 

" Thy rule, O lord, shall surpass that of the gods, 

to vanish and to create — speak thou, and thus it shall be. 

Open thy mouth and command, and the garment shall dis- 
appear; 

Speak then again, and the garment shall reappear." 

As Marduk uttered the word, the garment disappeared; 

and again he spoke, and, behold, the garment was there. 

When the gods, his fathers, beheld such power of his 
word, 

they greeted him joyfully, saying, " Marduk is king." 

They invested him with sceptre, with throne, and with 

ring (?). 
and gave him a weapon, unequalled, to kill the enemy. 

" Go, now " (they said), " and cut asunder the life-thread of 

Tiamat, 
let the winds carry her blood to hidden regions." ^ 
Thus the gods, his fathers, fixed the destiny of Bel 

(-Merodach) 
and wished him safety and success in the work upon which 

he entered. 
He made ready a bow, he girded his weapon upon him; 
He prepared a lance, to be used in the fight before him. 
A club he took also; in his right hand he grasped it. 
The bow and the quiver he hung at his side. 
He made a flash of lightning to go before him, 
whose midst he filled with destructive fire. 
He made a net wherewith to inclose the life of Tiamat. 
The four winds he set, so that she might not escape. 

' That is, far away. 



292 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

The south wind and north wind, the east wind and west 

wind 
he brought near to the net, which his father Anu had 

given him. 
He created the evil wind, the storm, and the hurricane, 
The fourfold wind, the sevenfold wind, the whirlwind, the 

wind without equal; 
Then he let loose the winds which he had created, seven 

in all. 
To destroy the life of Tiamat, they swept along after him. 
Then Bel (the lord) grasped the " storm," his mighty 

weapon, 
He mounted his chariot, an object unequalled for terror, 
harnessed to it the four fiery steeds, 
horses, ferocious, courageous, and swift; 
their teeth full of slaver, their bodies flecked with foam, 
trained in galloping, and knowing how to trample under- 
foot. 
[And Marduk stood up in it], the battle-hero, 
[looking toward right and toward] left, making up his 

mind, 
[* * *] armed with furor; 
Majestic halo surrounded his head. 
He made straight for her and drew nigh unto her. 
Where Tiamat the furious stood, he set his face. 
Upon his lip [* * *] holding 
a magic herb he grasped with his finger. 
At that hour the gods beheld him with admiration. 
The gods, his fathers, beheld him with admiration, indeed. 
Nearer drew Bel (the lord) anxious to fight Tiamat, 
and seeking to capture Kingu, her spouse. 
When the latter saw him he became distraught, 
his mind deranged, his actions confused. 
And the gods, his helpers, who marched by his side. 
Beheld their leader's distress, and they looked terrified. 
Tiamat [alone] stood ground, turned not her neck, 
with her lip uttering taunts of defiance: 
" Against the, O Bel, the gods take up the fight. 



THE BABYLONIAN ACCOUNT OF THE CREATION 293 

Where they are gathered, there is now thy place." 

But Bel brandished the " storm," his great weapon, 

and reproached Tiamat for what she had done (saying): 

" Below thou art mighty, yea! lofty above. 

But thy heart drove thee to stir up destructive fight, 

un[til the gods? forsook] their fathers for thee. 

Around thee thou hast gathered] them, shown hatred 

[to us?]. 
Chosest Kingu to be thy husband and spouse, 
and bestowedst upon him divine power. 
* * *] thou hast planned strife. 
To the gods, my fathers, thou didst evil. 
Thus, then, may thy host be tied, thy weapons be bound. 
Stand! I and thou, come let us fight!" 
But Tiamat, when she heard these words, 
acted like one possessed, and she lost her senses. 
Tiamat shrieked out wild and loud. 

Trembling, her whole frame shook through and through. 
She uttered a spell, recited an incantation. 
And also the gods of battle charm their weapons. 
Then they approached one another, Tiamat and Marduk, 

the counsellor of gods. 
To the fight they rushed, advanced to the battle. 
Bel spread out his net and inclosed her. 
The evil wind, following him, he let loose against her; 
and when Tiamat opened her mouth to swallow (the evil 

wind), 
Marduk quickly drove in the evil wind, ere she could shut 

her lips. 
The terrible winds inflated her stomach; 
she lost her reason; gasping, still wider she opened her 

mouth. 
He seized his lance and plunged it down into her stomach. 
Her entrails he pierced, cut through her heart. 
He overpowered her and put an end to her life, 
threw down her carcass and stood upon it. 
Now that Tiamat, the leader, had been slain, 
her host was broken up, her throng was scattered. 



294 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

The gods, her helpers, who marched by her side, 
trembled and feared, turned backward to flight, 
and tried to escape, to save their lives. 
But they were surrounded, so that none could escape; 
Bel took them captive and broke their weapons. 
They were caught in the net, they sat in the snare, 
and filled with their wailing the whole wide world. 
Punishment they had to endure, and were held in prison. 
The eleven creatures, also, which she had created with 

terrors, 
a horde of demons, which had marched by her side, 
he placed into fetters, and [tied] their hands; 
and he trampled under his feet their resistance. 
Moreover, Kingu, who had been great above all of them, 
he bound and did unto him like unto the [other] gods (?), 
tore away from him the Tablets of Destiny, which hung on 

his breast; 
With his own seal he sealed them and laid them upon his 

own breast. 
Now, after Marduk had conquered and defeated his foes, 
had brought to naught the arrogant adversary, 
thus fully completing An-shar's victory over his enemy, 
and attaining the purpose of Nudimmud, the valiant Mar- 
duk 
strengthened his hold on the gods that were captive; 
and returned to Tiamat, whom he had defeated. 
Bel-Marduk trampled down the body of Tiamat; 
With his merciless weapon he smashed open her skull, 
cut through the veins of her blood, 
and let the north wind carry it far away.* 
His fathers beheld this, they rejoiced and were glad; 
presents and gifts they brought unto him. 
And Bel was appeased, as he gazed on her dead body.* 
Her corpse he divided, and wonderful feats he performed. 
He cut her into two halves, like a flat (?) fish. 
He took one half and made the heavenly dome, 
pushed bars before it, and stationed watchmen. 
' ^ee preceding note. • Of Tiamat. 



THE BABYLONIAN ACCOUNT OF THE CREATION 



29s 



He gave them command not to let out its waters;* 
then he passed through the heavens, inspected the regions 

(thereof), 
and in front of apsu he established the "home of Nudimmud. 
Bel measured out the structure of apsu; 
and corresponding to it he fashioned Esharra.* 
The great structure Esharra, which he had built as heaven, 
he made Anu, Bel, and Ea to inhabit as their own city. 

Here ends' the fourth tablet of the creation-account; 
immediately upon this follows, according to the custom of 
the Babylonian scribes, the first line of Tablet V: 

" He established the stations for the great gods! " 

Then follows a colophon, which states that there were 
one hundred and forty-six lines of the fourth tablet (of the 
series entitled): 

" Long since, when above (the heaven) had not been 
named," 

and, that the tablet was written by Na'id-Marduk, in hon- 
our of Nebo, his lord, for the preservation of his life; he 
wrote and placed it in E-zida, the Temple of Nebo in Bor- 
sippa. 

He ^ established the stations for the great gods. 

The stars, like unto them,* and the constellations he fixed; 

He ordained the year, and marked oflf its sections. 

Twelve months he divided by three stars. 

And when the days of the year he had fixed according to 

the stars, 
he established the station of Nibir ' to mark their bounds, 
that none (of the days) might deviate, nor be found lacking. 
The mansions of Bel and of Ea ® he established with him.'' 

• Too freely ? • The earth. 

' Marduk. * The stations of the great gods. 

' Jupiter, the planet of Marduk, close to the ecliptic. 

' That is, the north pole and the south pole. 

' The planet of Marduk. 



296 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

He opened great gates on both sides (of the firmament), 

made strong the bolts on the left and on the right. 

In the midst (of heaven) he placed the zenith. 

Nannar, the moon-god, he brought forth, and intrusted 
the night to him; 

placed him there, as the luminary of night, to mark off the 
days; 

month after month, he fashioned him as full moon (saying) : 

" At the beginning of the moon, when evening begins, 

let thy horns shine, to mark off the heavens; 

On the seventh day make half the disk, 

stand perpendicular * on the Sabbath, with thy first half; 

when at sunset thou risest on the horizon, 

stand opposite her [on the fourteenth] in brightest splen- 
dour. 

From the fifteenth] on, approach again the course of the 
sun. 

On the twenty-first] stand perpendicular again to the sun. 

From the twenty-second] on * * * to seek his course. 

On the twenty-eighth to the sun] approach and hold judg- 
ment * * *" 

[Only one half of a single line of Tablet VI is preserved.] 

Of Tablet VII these lines are preserved: 

God Zi * * * [they called him ^ in the second place] 

who fixed * * * 

their circuit * * * 

Not be forgotten among men [this deed * * *] 

God Zi-azag' they called him in the third place; he who 

causes purification. 
" God of favourable wind, lord of acceptance (of prayers) 

and mercy; 
who bringeth forth abundance and fulness, granteth rich 

blessings; 
who increaseth everything that is small; 

' As regards the earth or the sun — that is, the meridian — in which the 
moon stands at sunset when in her first or last quarter. 
' Marduk. • God of pure life. 



THE BABYLONIAN ACCOUNT OF THE CREATION 



297 



whose mild breath we feel amid storm and distress." 

Thus may they speak, glorify, and worship him! 

God Mir-azag* fourthly, let them thus praise him: 

" Lord of pure incantation, restorer of dead to life, 

showing mercy even unto the vanquished gods, removing 

the yoke from the gods, his adversaries ; 

who in their place (?) created mankind; 

the merciful who hath power to grant life. 

May this word concerning him remain and be never for- 
gotten 

among mankind, whom he hath created! " 

God Tu-azag,^ fifthly, thus be his enchanting word in their 
mouths; 

who destroys the wicked with his pure incantation. 

God Sha-zu,^ who knows the heart of the gods, who 
searches the innermost; 

who does not allow the wicked to make his escape from 
him; 

who summons the council of the gods and rejoices their 
heart; 

who subdues the rebels * * * 

and causes justice to prevail * * * 

who resistance [overthrows] * * * 

God Zi-si,* who sends forth the hurricane 

and lets loose the storm and the winds. 

God Shug-kur,^ sixthly, who destroys the [enemies] 

who brought to naught their compacts and agreements, 

and destroys all the wicked * * * 

[The rest of the obverse is broken off, as well as the 
beginning lines of the reverse, which commences with line 
four.] 

* * *] star, [who riseth on the firmament of heaven]. 

Because he split asunder Tiamat without resting, 

let his name be Nibiru, who defeated Kirbish-Tiamat. 

' God of the shining crown. ' God of pure incantation. 

» Knower of hearts. * Destroyer of aggressors. 

» Exterminator of all the wicked. 



298 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

May he direct the course of the stars of heaven, 

and pasture Hke sheep all the gods! 

Let him take hold of Tiamat; let him oppress and shorten 

her life. 
For future ages, forever and ever. 
Be this in force and do not cease, remain in force 

forever. 
Because he created heaven and fashioned the earth. 
Father Bel called his name " Lord of the Universe." 
The names of the Igigi,^ he received all of them. 
When Ea heard this, his heart rejoiced, 
that to his son such lofty names had been given. 
" Ea shall be his name, like mine. 
May he deliver all my binding commands, 
May he transmit all my commandments! " 
Fifty names they gave him, according to the 
great gods, fifty names, and enhanced his power. 

The leader (king) shall hearken to this and proclaim it 

again, 
the wise and the prudent likewise take it to heart. 
Let father relate it to son, and speak constantly thereof. 
May the shepherd and leader open his ears, 
that he may rejoice in the lord of gods, in Marduk! 
His land, -then, may prosper; he himself remain sound; 
his word be constant and firm, his order obeyed; 
his command none shall change, not even a god. 
But if he looks angry, not turning (in mercy) his neck, 
no god can rival his anger or wrath, 
the long-suffering * * * 
[who] sin and evil before him [* * *]. 

' The host of heaven's gods. 



SECOND BABYLONIAN ACCOUNT OF THE CREATION 299 

A SECOND BABYLONIAN ACCOUNT 
OF THE CREATION 

British Museum, No. 82-5-22, 1048 

Not yet had been built the sacred * house of the gods 

in a sacred ^ place; 
No reed was planted, no tree yet grown; 
No brick was laid, no brick building reared; 
No house had been built, no city yet founded ; 
No city had been built, no dwelling yet prepared. 
Nipur was not yet built, E-kur '^ not yet erected; 
Erech was not yet built, E-anna* not yet erected. 
The ocean was not yet formed, Eridu * not yet built. 
The frame of the sacred house of the gods had not yet been 

erected. 
The world was all one sea; 
At length there was a movement in the sea, 
Eridu was erected, E-sagila^ was built; 
E-sagila in the midst of the ocean, 
where the god Lugal-dul-azaga ® dwells. 
Babylon was built, E-sagila was completed. 
The gods, the Anunnaki,'^ he ® created at the same time, 
and made supreme the glorious city, the seat dear to their 

hearts. 
Marduk constructed an inclosure around the waters; 
he formed dust and heaped it up at the side of the inclosure, 
to make a dwelling for the gods, dear to their heart. 
He created mankind. 
The goddess Aruru,® together with him, created the seed 

of mankind. 

' Literally, pure. ' Temple of Bel at Nippur. 

' Temple of Ishtar at Erech. 

* A city sacred to Ea at the mouth of the Persian Gulf ; the text here 
refers to a sort of heavenly Eridu, corresponding to the earthly one. 

' As a rule the name for the great Marduk temple in Babylon, but here 
very likely meaning a temple in Eridu (cf. line 13). 

' = the god of the glorious abode = Ea. 

' Some subordinate divine beings. ' Marduk. 

' Literally, the potter ; also mentioned in Nimrod-epic, Tablet II, q. v. 



300 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

He created the beasts of the field and the living creatures of 

the dry land. 
Tigris and Euphrates he formed, and set them in their 

places, 
and gave them good names, 
soil and grass?], the marsh plant and the reed, and the forest 

he planted; 
the verdure of the field he produced; 
the lands, the marsh plant, the reed also; 
the wild cow and her young; the young wild ox; 
the ewe and her young, the lamb of the fold; 
meadows and forests also; 

the goat and mountain-goat he also brought forth. 
Then Marduk filled in a terrace by the shore of the sea, 
[* * *] as he had not done before. 
|-* * *-| j^g created. 

[The plant he caused to sprout] , and trees he raised. 
[Bricks] he fashioned in their place. 
[* * *] brick buildings he made; 
[houses he erected], cities he built. 
[Cities he erected], dwellings he reared. 
[Nippur he built], E-kur, the temple, he erected. 
[Erech he built], E-anna, the temple, he erected. 

[The reverse of this tablet does not refer to the creation 
of the world.] 



ANOTHER ACCOUNT OF THE FIGHT 
BETWEEN MARDUK AND TIAMAT 

Rm. 282. 

The text begins with a description of the terror that 
had befallen all mankind at the approach of Tiamat, who 
appears, however, as a male monster. 

The cities sighed, the people [lamented], 
Men uttered groans, [and wailed piteously]. 



FIGHT BETWEEN MARDUK AND TIAMAT 301 

But for their lament there was no [help], 

For their grief there was no [comfort]. 

Who was that [great] dragon? 

Tiamat was the [great] dragon! 

Bel in heaven had shaped [his form]. 

Fifty kasbu is his length, one kasbu [his breadth?] 

Half a rod (?) his mouth, one rod (?) [his * * *] 

Then follows a description of the dragon, who wal- 
lows in the water and lashes his tail. Even the gods in 
heaven are afraid. They bow down and cry out asking 
who would slay the monster, and deliver the broad earth, 
and make himself king. God Suh was appealed to in vain. 
We do not know who eventually consented to do battle 
with the dragon, but it is probable that in this account 
Marduk was again the hero. The end of the tablet has 
fortunately been preserved. Here we find the god setting 
out to do battle, while one of the other gods cries out to 
him in encouragement: 

" Stir up the cloud, the storm, [and the hurricane] . 

Set before thee the seal of thy life * * * 

and kill the dragon! " 

He stirred up the cloud, the storm, [and the hurricane], 

set before him the seal of his life, 

and he slew the dragon * * * 

For three years and three months, day and [night] 

The blood of the dragon flowed * * * 



The best, and, we may safely say, the only reliable trans- 
lations thus far published are those of Professors Peter 
Jensen (of Marburg), Heinrich Zimmern (of Breslau), 
Friedrich Delitzsch (of Berlin), and H. Winckler (of Ber- 
lin). To the English reader these four translations are not 
very accessible. Here are the titles: " Das babylonische 
Weltschopfungsepos," von Friedrich Delitzsch [des XVII. 
Bandes der Abhandlungen der philologisch-historischen 
Classe der Konigl. Sachsischen Gesellschaft der Wissen- 
schaften, No. II], Leipsic, 1896, 160 pp. — " Kosmologie 



302 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

der Babylonier," von Peter Jensen, Strassburg, 1890 (pp. 
261-364); and by the same author, "Assyrisch-babylonische 
Mythen und Epen," I. Halfte (="Keilinschriftliche BibU- 
othek," vi. Band, i, Teil), BerHn, 1900. — Heinrich Zim- 
mern's excellent translation is published as an appendix 
(pp. 401-420) of Hermann Gunkel's " Schopfung und 
Chaos in Urzeit und Endzeit," Gottingen, 1895. — " Keilin- 
schriftliches Textbuch zum Alten Testament," herausg. 
von H. Winckler, Leipsic, 1892, pp. 88-98. 

Of English translations we have that of A. H. Sayce in 
the " Records of the Past," new series, vol. i, 1888, pp. 
122-146. — L. W. King, " First Steps in Assyrian," Lon- 
don, 1898, pp. 122-160; and " Babylonian Religion and 
Mythology," London, 1899, pp. 53-120. — George A. Bar- 
ton " Tiamat," in the " Journal of the American Orien- 
tal Society," vol. xv, pp. 3-37. — C. J. Ball, " Light from 
the East, or the Witness of the Monuments," London, 
1899, pp. 1-2 1. — ^Theophilus G. Pinches published "A 
Babylonian Duplicate of Tablets I and II of the Creation 
Series " in the " Babylonian and Oriental Record," vol. 
iv, pp. 25-33 (January, 1890). — We also refer to Pro- 
fessor Morris Jastrow, Jr., " Religion of Babylonia and 
Assyria " (" Handbooks on the History of Religions "), 
Boston: Ginn & Co., 1898; Chapter XXI. "The Cos- 
mogony of the Babylonians," pp. 407-453, and 724-727; 
as well as to the articles of Dr. Alfred Jeremias on " Mar- 
duk " in Roscher's " Ausfiihrliches Lexikon der Griech. 
und Romischen Mythologie," vol. ii, cols. 2340-2372 
(1895); and of Heinrich Zimmern and T. K. Cheyne on 
" Creation " in Cheyne and Black's " Encyclopaedia Bib- 
lica," vol. i, cols. 938-954. 

On the second Babylonian Account of the Creation, see 
especially Theophilus G. Pinches in "The Independent," 
New York (1890), and the " Academy " (London), No- 
vember 29, 1890, pp. 508, 509; " Journal of the Royal Asi- 
atic Society," 1891, pp. 393-408; "Records of the Past," 
new series, vol. vi, pp. 107-1 14, and " Transactions of the 
Ninth International Congress of Orientalists," vol. ii, pp. 



FIGHT BETWEEN MARDUK AND TIAMAT 



303 



190-198. It is a mixture of Creation- and Culture-myth. 
The Creation story is only given in allusions. 

The so-called " Cuthean Account of the Creation," 
translated by Professor Sayce, in the " Records of the 
Past," new series, vol. i, pp. 147-153, is by no means a 
creation account, as has been shown by Professor Heinrich 
Zimmem in the " Zeitschrift fiir Assyriologie," vol. xii, pp. 
317-330. It relates to the mythological history of a king 
of early Babylonia, and is not a cosmogony. See also Jen- 
sen, " Assyrisch-babylonische Mythen und Epen," pp. 
290-299. 



SHORTER BABYLONIAN LEGENDS 



THE LEGEND OF ZU, THE STORM-BIRD 

I. THE THEFT OF THE TABLETS OF DESTINY 

A LSO the commands of all the gods he determined.* 
/\ he * * *, he touched, he sent Zu. 
■* *■ As he * * * had completed, he approached Belj 
and the brightness of the pure waters was before him. 
His eyes beheld the insignia (?) of Bel's supremacy, 
the crown (royal cap) of his sovereignty, and the robe of 

his godhead. 
Zu gazed also at the Tablets of Destiny, belonging to the 

god. 
And as he saw the father of the gods, the god of Duranki, 
eager desire for the supremacy took possession of his heart. 
As Zu saw the father of the gods, the god of Duranki, 
eager desire for the supremacy took possession of his heart. 
" I will take the tablet of destiny of the gods, even I ; 
and I will direct all the decrees (oracles) of the gods; 
I will [establish] a throne, and dispense commands, 
I will rule over all the spirits of Heaven! " 
And after his heart had planned the attack, 
he awaited the dawn of the morning at the entrance to the 

palace (of the gods) which he had seen. 
Now, when Bel had washed himself in the pure waters, 
had ascended his throne, and placed upon his head the 

crown, 
Zu seized with his hand the Tablets of Destiny; 

' Several lines at the beginning broken off. 
304 



THE LEGEND OF ZU, THE STORM-BIRD 



30s 



he took Bel's supremacy, the power of giving commands. 

Then Zu fled away and [turned?] mountainward. 

Grief was poured out, and cries resounded (in the palace 

of the gods). 
Their father and decider, their [leader?] Bel, 
poured out his rage through the palace; 
and the goddesses turned [to him?] at his command (?). 
Then Anu opened his mouth and said, 
spoke unto the gods, his children: 
" Who will vanquish Zu and thus 
make great his name among the nations of all the lands? " 

They called their leader, the son of Anu. 

And Anu spoke unto him, gave him the command. 

Adad, the leader, they called, the son of Anu; 

And Anu spoke unto him, gave him this command: 

" Thou mighty, terrible Adad; let not thy attack be re- 
pulsed! 

Kill Zu with thy weapon! 

Then thy name shall be great in the assembly of the great 
gods! 

Thou shalt not have a rival among the gods thy brothers! 

Shrines shall exist and be built [unto thee]; 

and in the four quarters [of the world] shall be established 
thy habitation! 

Yea, even in E-kur shall enter thy habitation! 

Thou shalt be brilliant above the gods, and mighty shall be 
thy name! " 

But Adad answered to this command, 

and spoke thus to his father Anu: 

" My father, who can go to the mountain, that is inacces- 
sible? 

Who among the gods, thy children, is like unto Zu? 

He has seized with his hand the Tablets of Destiny, 

has taken Bel's supremacy, the power of giving command. 

Zu has fled away and [has turned?] mountainward. 

The word of his mouth has [now the same power?] as 
[thus far] that of the gods of Duranki. 



3o6 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

He [that was mighty before?] is now considered as dirt. 
But [to] his [(Zu's) command bow even] the gods." 
Thereupon Anu told Adad not to go. 

And they called her, the daughter of Anu. 

And Anu spoke unto her, gave her the command. 

Ishtar they called the daughter of Anu, 

And Anu spoke unto her, gave her this command: 

" Thou mighty, terrible Ishtar; let not thy attack be re- 
pulsed! 

Kill Zu with thy weapon! 

Then thy name shall be g^eat in the assembly of the great 
gods! 

Thou shalt not have a rival among the gods thy brothers! 

Shrines shall exist and be built [unto thee] ; 

and in the four quarters [of the world] shall be established 
thy habitation! 

Yea, even in E-kur shall enter thy habitation! 

Thou shalt be brilliant above the gods and mighty shall be 
thy name! " 

But Ishtar answered to this command, 

and spoke thus to her father Anu: 

" My father, who can go to the mountain, that is inacces- 
sible? 

Who among the gods, thy children, is like unto Zu? 

He has seized with his hand the Tablets of Destiny, 

has taken Bel's supremacy, the power of giving command. 

Zu has fled away and [has turned?] mountainward. 

The word of his mouth has [now the same power?] as 
[thus far] that of the gods of Duranki. 

He [that was mighty before?] is now considered as dirt. 

But [to] his [(Zu's) command] bow even the gods." 

Thereupon Anu told Ishtar not to go. 

And they called Bara, the child of Ishtar. 
And Anu spoke unto him, gave him this command: 
"Thou mighty, terrible Bara; let not thy attack be re- 
pulsed! 



THE LEGEND OF ZU, THE STORM-BIRD 307 

Kill Zu with thy weapon! 

Then thy name shall be great in the assembly of the great 
gods! 

Thou shalt not have a rival among the gods, thy brothers! 

Shrines shall exist and be built [unto thee] ; 

and in the four quarters [of the world] shall be established 
thy habitation! 

Yea, even in E-kur shall enter thy habitation ! 

Thou shalt be brilliant above the gods and mighty shall be 
thy name! " 

But Bara answered to this command, 

and spoke thus to his father Anu: 

" My father, who can go to the mountain, that is inacces- 
sible? 

Who among the gods, thy children, is like unto Zu? 

He has seized with his hand the Tablets of Destiny, 

has taken Bel's supremacy, the power of giving commands. 

Zu has fled away and [has turned?] mountainward. 

The word of his mouth has [now the same power?] as [thus 
far] that of the gods of Duranki. 

He [that was mighty before?] is now considered as dirt. 

But [to] his [(Zu's) command] bow even the gods." 

Thereupon Anu told Bara not to go. 

2. THE CAPTURE OF ZU (?) 

Lugal-banda [went away * * *] to a mountain, a distant 

mountain. 
To the mountain of Sabu [* * *] 

Mother does not live with him and [* * *] does not [* * *] 
Father does not live with him and [* * *] does not [* * *] 

with him. 
A nobleman, his acquaintance, [does not live with him]. 
His trusty friend [does not say] a word [to him]. 
In his own heart he [considered?] these words: 
" That bird [I will treat] as he deserves! 
Zu [I will treat as] he deserves! 
His wife [I will treat as she deserves?]. 
The wife of Zu, the son of Zu 



3o8 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

I will permit to sit down at meal." 

En(n)a [and] Ninguen(n)a 

he (then) brought back from the mountain. 

The wise woman, the mother, who had done what was 

necessary; 
Siris, the wise woman, the mother, who had done what 

was necessary. 
Her mixing-vessel is of shining lapislazuli. 
Her washtub is of pure silver and gold. 
In mead stands jubilation. 
In mead sits rejoicing. 

Upon his head he placed the [* * *] of wood, 
he put upon his head the [* * *] and the [* * *] 
and rose up from the nest of Zu. 



THE LEGEND OF DIBBARA, 
THE PLAGUE GOD 

To the fifth he said, " Like a wind sweep [***]! " 
The sixth he sent out, " Look above and below and spare 

none! " 
The seventh a water * * * he laid upon him * * *. 
After Anu had thus decreed the fate of all these seven. 
He gave them to Dibbara, the mighty among the gods 

[saying] : " They shall go at thy side! 
When the * * * of the people living in their places strikes 

thv * * * 
and thy heart longs to make slaughter of them, 
to kill the black-haired race and fell the beasts of the field, 
these shall be thy ferocious weapons and they shall go at 

thy side! 
When they are ferocious, their weapons (shall) speak, 
and say unto Dibbara: ' Rise up and stand! 
Shall [we become?] as a feeble old man, shut up in the 

city; shall we become like 
a small child, a small babe, shut up in the house? 



THE LEGEND OF DIBBARA, THE PLAGUE GOD 309 

Shall we be like one who goes not to the field? 

Shall we be held back like an asinnu-priest (?) 

just as if we had never known a battle, had ever feared 

beheading? 
Shall he that goes upon the field of manly (fight?) become 

like an asinnu-priest ? ' " 
[Some twenty-five lines are broken off.] 

Thou seizest * * * 

The * * * of Bel * * * thou didst lay, and 

" * * * my heart," he says. 

* * * for the lurker (at) his gate (full of) the blood of 

man and girl, 
thou didst establish his habitation. 
Those children of Babylon were as birds and thou wert 

their trapper. 
Thou didst catch them in the net, thou didst seize them, 

and destroy them, 
Thou didst leave the city and didst go into the country. 
Thou becamest a lion in appearance and enteredst into the 

palace. 
And when the army saw thee, their weapons were made 

ready. 
The heart of the governor, the avenger of Babylon, grew 

full of wrath, 
and he sent out his warriors as if one sends out to gather 

spoil from the enemy. 
Let evil overtake the leader of the army. 
" In that city into which I will send thee, O man, 
thou shalt fear no warrior, nor be afraid of any man; 
but thou shalt kill at the same time the small and the great. 
Let not even the suckling babe, the little one, escape. 
Make spoil of the collected wealth of Babylon," 
The army of the king assembled and entered the city. 
The bow was drawn, the dagger unsheathed. 
" Thou didst unsheath the weapons even 
of the temple servants (?), the caretakers(?) of Anu and 

of Dagan. 



3IO ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

But their blood thou didst make to flow over the square of 
the city like the waters of a torrent. 

Thou didst cut open their entrails and didst make the river 
carry (them) away." 

Marduk, the great lord, saw (this) and cried out, " Woe! " 

His heart was seized [with fear?] 

A curse, from which there is no escape, was put into his 
mouth: 

" The * * * of the river shall not drink its water." 

" Thou didst desire * * * 

* * * the city of time of yore, of the lord of the countries 

[which?] 

the storm-flood has not [destroyed?]. 

Against the will of Shamash (the Sun-god) thou didst de- 
stroy its walls, nor pull down * * * 

Bedouins and their wives have thrown firebrands (?) 

into Erech, the seat of Anu and Ishtar, 

the city of hussies, hierodules, and prostitutes, 

to whom Ishtar paid for the man and gave him as their 
own. 

There gather in E-anna eunuchs and isinnu-priests (cina- 
edi?), 

whom Ishtar, in order to frighten the people, has turned 
into hermaphrodites (?); 

the carriers of dagger and knife, of steel and of flint; 

who, to rejoice the heart of Ishtar, eat * * * 

Thou didst appoint over them a governor, austere and un- 
friendly of appearance, 

who oppressed them greatly and changed their laws. 

Ishtar grew angry and became enraged against Erech; 

she sent (against it) the enemy and he swept it away as 
water does grain. 

* * * on account of E-ut-gal, which had been destroyed, 
unceasing is the lam [ent * * * 

The enemy whom she did send is not willing to re- 
turn." 
The great god answered (and said): 



THE LEGEND OF DIBBARA, THE PLAGUE GOD 311 

" Durilu has [been turned?] to ruins. 

The people who lived therein thou didst break like reeds. 

******* 

Also me didst thou not leave (alone?). 
To the Bedouin [and his wife didst thou deliver Erech??]. 
And I, even I, should not deliver a judgment of righteous- 
ness for 
my city Durilu, nor decide a decision of righteousness (?). 
Should I not issue command (and order) and * * * (?) " 
[Eighteen lines are broken off.] 

" * * * I Yvill make great and * * * 

the son] I will kill and [his] father [I will slay?] 

After that I will kill the father and [* * *] 

who built the house and placed [into it] the (wedding) 

couch. 

This I will do, and then I shall be satisfied * * * 

The day when my fate takes me away (and) I lie down on 
r* * *"| 

I will kill him myself and ruin the house * * * 

Then it shall remain a ruin and I shall [give it] to another." 

" Powerful Dibbara, thou didst [kill] the just one; 

and the wicked thou didst [kill] . 

Him, who committed sin against thee, thou [didst kill] ; 

and him, who did not commit sin against thee, thou [didst 
kill]. 

Him, who did roast the meal-offering of the god, thou 
[didst kill] ; 

the wicked and him who (unlawfully) keeps the slave be- 
longing to the king, thou [didst kill]." 

" The splendour of Shul-pa-e I will throw down, 

and I will [cut] the tree at its root, so that 

its fruit may not grow luxuriously. 

I will destroy the foundations of the wall, so that its tipper 

part will tumble down. 
I will go to the dwelling of the king of the gods and 

[bind?] him." 



312 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

And when the powerful Dibbara heard him say so, 

the words, which he had spoken to Ishum, were, like fine 
oil, agreeable unto him; 

and the powerful Dibbara spoke thus: 

" Not shall the sea-country have mercy with the sea-coun- 
try; nor Mesopotamia with Mesopotamia; 

The Assyrian shall not spare the Assyrian, nor the Elamite 
the Elamite; 

nor the Cossaean the Cossaean; 

nor the Bedouin the Bedouin; 

nor the dweller in the north him who dwelleth in the north; 

nor the LuUubaean the Lullubaean; 

nor one country the (other) country, nor one house the 
(other) house, nor one man his fellow-man; 

nor brother his brother; but all shall slay one another. 

And then shall rise up the Accadian and 

shall throw down [them all] and strike dead their totality." 

And the powerful Dibbara says unto Ishum, who walks be- 
fore him, these words: 

" Go, Ishum, and do exactly as thou didst say, according to 
the desire of thy heart." 

Ishum turned his face toward the mountain Sharshar; ■ 

and the seven, the powerful, who have no rival, 

swept on behind him. 

And when the powerful arrived at the mountain Sharshar, 

he lifted up his hand, seized the mountain, 

made Mount Sharshar like the surrounding lowland, 

and broke down the vines (that were growing) in the Ha- 
shurru-forest. 

After Dibbara had become pacified * * * 

All the gods bowed down to him and were af [raid of him?] 

All the Igigi and Anunnaki^ went [before him?]. 

Dibbara opened his mouth and said to [them?] : 

" Take heed, ye all, of my words and hearken unto me! 

I had devised evil on account of former sins. 

My heart was angered, and I destroyed mankind, 

' The spirits of heaven and of the deep. 



THE LEGEND OF DIBBARA, THE PLAGUE GOD 313 

like a hired shepherd who fetched the leader from out of 
the stable; 

like one who, though he has not planted the orchard, per- 
sists in cutting it down; 

like one who spares (??) neither the just nor the unjust, 
but kills [both]. 

From the mouth of the roaring lion they do not snatch 
the prey. 

[Sixteen mutilated lines follow here.] 

Also to the magnates of the land of Accad, thou shalt 
[show?] his power. 

[His] one (or) seven offsprings thou shalt [* * *] like 
r* * *"| 

Thou shalt turn his cities into deserts and his mountain 

[into arable land]. 
Thou shalt bring his rich booty as spoil to Shu-an-na. 
Thou shalt pacify the gods of the country, who had become 

angry. 
Then the field shall prosper and the corn shall grow again. 
Then the mountains [shall yield again] their riches, the sea 

its [abundance]. 
The field, that had been devastated [shall be green again?]. 
The road [* * *]. 
The house [* * *]." 

Years without number the terrible splendour of [Dibbara], 
the great lord, [had endured]. 

For Dibbara was angry, and to overwhelm the lands, all of 
them, 

he had set his mind. 

But Ishum, his counsellor, pacified him and he abandoned 
[his wrath]. • 

The word of Ishum, who walks before Dibbara, was pleas- 
ing to him, 

but all the gods were afraid of him. 

And thus spoke Dibbara, the powerful: 

" Whosoever shall praise that song, may abundance be 
bestowed upon his shrine! 



314 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



But whosoever throws it into oblivion, shall not smell the 
(sweet odour of) incense! 

Whosoever shall magnify my name, shall rule the four quar- 
ters of the world! 

Whosoever shall proclaim the terror of my valour, 

shall never find a (worthy) opponent! 

The singer who chants it (aloud) shall not die in the pesti- 
lence, 

and unto the king and the noble his speech shall be well- 
pleasing! 

The scribe, who learns it (by heart), shall escape from his 
enemy, and shall be honoured in [* * *] ! 

In the temple of the people, where continually my name 
is proclaimed, 

I will open his ears (i. e., I will give him wisdom)! 

Shall I, Dibbara, be angry with the house where this tablet 
is set, 

and shall all the seven cause destruction? [No!]. 

The dagger of pestilence shall not approach it; immunity 
shall rest upon it! 

May (the tablet containing this) song be always set up; 
may it endure forever! 

May all the lands give ear and fear my valour! 

May the people of all dwellings behold and magnify my 
name! " 



ADAPA AND THE SOUTH-WIND 

Wisdom, a prudent and [intelligent mind was given to 

Adapa?]. 
His command like the command of Anu stands forever. 
Ea granted him also a wide ear (i. e., understanding), so 

that he could perceive the formations of the land. 
He granted him wisdom, but he did not give him eternal 

life. 
At that time and in those years the all-wise son of Eridu, 



ADAPA AND THE SOUTH-WIND 



315 



Ea, created him among mankind as (his) son; 
the all-wise, whose command none dares to withstand; 
the prudent, the very intelligent among the Anunnaki; 
the bright, the pure of hands, the anointed, who takes 

heed of commands, — 
With the bakers he does the work of the baker; 
with the bakers of Eridu he does the work of the baker. 
He prepares the bread and water for Eridu. 
With his pure hands he prepares (?) the table, 
and without him no table is cleared. 
He steers the boat, and has charge of Eridu's fishing and 

hunting. 
The [offspring?] of Ea watches day after day the bolt (of 

the gate) 
of Eridu from the chamber, into which he enters. 
At the fine quay, the new-moon-quay, he once entered his 

sailing boat, 
and the wind blew and drove on his boat. 
He steered his boat with the rudder 
into the wide ocean. 

The south-wind blew and ducked him under. 

To the dwelling of the fishes * * * she made him sink. 

" O south-wind, thou hast [made] me [swallow of?] thy 

foam, as much as thou [darest?] ; 
But I will break thy wing." And as he had said it, 
the wing of the south-wind was broken. For seven days 
the south-wind did not blow over the land; and Anu 
said to Ilabrat, his messenger: 
" Why has the south-wind for seven days not blown over 

the land? " 
His messenger Ilabrat answered him: " My lord, 
Adapa, the son of Ea, has broken the wing of 
the south-wind." When Anu heard this he cried out: 
"Help!" stood up from his throne (and said): "Let the 

south-wind be brought here! " 
[But?] Ea, who [had insulted] the heaven [through 

Adapa?], 



3i6 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

made him (Adapa) * * * to wear, clothed him with a 

mourner's garment, and said to him [as follows?] : 

" Adapa, thou shalt go and stand before Anu, the king. 

* * * when thou arrivest at 

heaven, and approach the gate of Anu, 

there (you will find) as guards of the gate of Anu, Tamuz 

(and) Gishzida; they will see thee and ask: ' Man! 

why dost thou look thus, Adapa? for whose sake 

dost thou wear a mourner's garment? ' ' Because two 

gods have 
disappeared from our country.' ' And, pray, who are the 

two gods who have disappeared 
from the country? ' ' Tamuz and Gishzida.' They will 

look at each other 
and will be surprised. They will say good words 
to Anu (and) a ' friendly face of Anu they will 
show unto thee.' When thou enterest the presence of 

Anu, 
they will offer thee ' Meat (Bread) of Death.' 
Eat not of it! They will offer thee ' Water of Death.' 
Drink not of it! They will bring thee a garment. 
Put it on! They will offer thee oil. Anoint thyself 

with it ! 
The command which I have thus given thee, neglect not! 

the words, 
which I have spoken to thee, forget not! " The messenger 
of Anu arrived (who had said): " Adapa has broken 
the wing of the south-wind" (to whom Anu had said): 

" Let him be brought before me! " 

He made him take the road to heaven, and Adapa went up 

to heaven. 
And as he arrived at heaven and approached the gate of 

Anu, 
there stood Tamuz and Gishzida at the gate. 
As soon as they saw him they cried out: " Help! 
Man! Why dost thou look thus, Adapa? 
For whose sake dost thou wear a mourner's garment? " 



ADAPA AND THE SOUTH-WIND 



317 



" I wear a mourner's garment because two gods have dis- 
appeared from the country." 
" And, pray, who are the two gods who have disappeared 

from the country? " 
" Tamuz and Gishzida." They looked at each other and 

were surprised. And 
when Adapa entered the presence of Anu 
the king, Anu said, as he beheld him: 
" Come, Adapa! Why hast thou broken the wing of 
the south-wind? " Adapa answered thus unto Anu: " My 

lord, 
I was catching fish for the house of my lord in the midst 
of the sea, when the south-wind blew, ducked me under, and 
made me sink to the dwelling of the fishes." " In the 

wrath of my heart," 
answered [Anu?], "I will have no mercy [upon thee?]." 

But Tamuz 
and Gishzida spoke kind words to Anu, 
whereupon his heart became pacified and was won over; 

(but he said): 
" Why has Ea revealed to a sinful man 
the mystery of heaven and earth? 
Why has he made him great and has made a name (?) for 

him? 
And now, what shall we do for him? Bring ' Meat of Life,' 
that he may eat of it! " And when they offered him 
" Meat of Life," he would not eat of it. And when they 

oflfered him 
" Water of Life," he would not drink of it. But when they 

brought to him 
a garment, he put it on; and when they oflfered him 
oil, he anointed himself with it. 
And Anu saw what he was doing, and he was astonished at 

him, (and said): 
" Come, Adapa! Why didst thou not eat, why didst thou 

not drink, so that 
therefore you will not live (forever) * * *?" " Ea, my 

lord, commanded 



3i8 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

me thus (saying), ' Eat not and drink not! ' " 

" Take him then, and lead him back to his land! " 

* * * saw him, 

He said to him, but he answered (?): 

" Remain seated," he said unto him; but he rose up and 
r* * *] 

Anu was greatly astonished at the doings of Ea and 

said: 
" Ye, gods of heaven and earth, as many as there are, who 

thus * * * 
and who will increase his command so that it is like the 

command of Anu." 
Adapa looked up from the horizon to the zenith, 
and beheld Anu's terrible appearance. 

[The rest of this column is badly mutilated and can not 
well be rendered.] 



THE STORY OF ETANA 

From the young of the eagle [the eagle went forth?]. 

His heart prompted the eagle [and * * *] 

He considered and his heart prompted "him 

to eat the young of his companion [the serpent?]. 

The eagle opened his mouth, and spoke to his young: 

" I will eat the young of the serpent, the serpent, whose 

heart is [without cares?]. 
I will ascend and spy from the height of the heaven, 
I will swoop down upon the top of the tree and I will eat 

(the serpent's?) brood." 
One of the young birds, endowed with much wisdom, said 

to his father, the eagle: 
" Do not eat, O my father! Shall the net of Shamash (the 

Sun-god) catch thee? 
Shall the snare and the ban of Shamash fall upon thee and 

catch thee? 



THE STORY OF ETANA 



319 



Whoso transgresses the law of Shamash, from him Shamash 
[will exact revenge!]." 

But he did not hearken to them, and gave no heed to the 
word of his young one. 

He swooped down and ate the young of the serpent. 

This [was done?] in the middle of the day, but the ser- 
pent [was away?]. 

* * * carrying his burden [he came to his nest in the 
evening] . 

[But found] its nest [empty and its young destroyed?]. 

When the serpent had come, he said unto Shamash: 

" I will tell thee [what has happened to me?] 

To the eagle * * * 

Then he spied * * * my nest, 

my nest he spied, that was in the tree. 

Now my young are killed, for I was not there, 

when he swooped down and ate them up. 

Let [him now pay for?] the evil which he has done, 

O Shamash! 
For, Shamash, thy net is the broad earth 
and thy snare the distant heaven. 
Who has ever escaped from thy net? 
Even Zu, the worker of evil, who carries high his evil head, 

[did not escape] ! " 
When he had thus listened to the prayer of the serpent, 
Shamash opened his mouth, and said to the serpent: 
" Go now, and take the road to the mountain, 
I will get (?) for thee a [dead] wild ox. 
Open its bowels, and crawl into its belly, 
and take up thy dwelling in its belly. 
All kinds of birds of heaven shall swoop down 
and [will eat of the flesh?] ; 
and the eagle shall come with them; 
and not knowing [thy intention and plot], 
he will seek to get a piece of the flesh, moving swiftly to 

and fro, 
and will make for the hidden parts. 



320 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



And when he has penetrated into the inner parts, seize him 

by his wing, 
tear off his wing, his feather, his pinion; 
tear him to pieces and cast him into a pit, 
that he may die a death from hunger and thirst." 
At the word of Shamash, the hero, the serpent departed and 

went into the mountain. 
And the serpent found the [dead] wild ox, 
opened its bowels and penetrated into its belly, 
and took up his dwelling in its belly. 
All kinds of birds of heaven swooped down and ate of the 

flesh. 
" But is the eagle to suspect the evil intent and 
will he not eat of the meat with the young birds? " 
The eagle opened his mouth and said to his young: 
" Come, let us swoop down and eat of the flesh of this 

wild ox! " 
And one of the young birds, endowed with much wisdom, 

said to his father, the eagle: 
" Do not swoop down, my father! Suppose there lurks 

the serpent in [the flesh of] this wild ox! " 
But the eagle [opened his mouth] and said these words: 

«:(£ 4: 4: :): ;|c Up :): :): 4: :(c» 

He did not hearken to them, and gave no heed to the word 

of his young one. 
He swooped down and stood upon the wild ox. 
The eagle examined the carcass, looking carefully before 

and behind him. 
He again examined the carcass, looking carefully before 

and behind him. 
Then, moving swiftly, he made for what was hidden in its 

interior. 
And when he had penetrated into its interior, the serpent 

seized him by his wing. 
******* 

The eagle opened his mouth, and spoke to the serpent: 
" Haye mercy upon me and I will present thee with a gift, 
such as a bridegroom gives." 



THE STORY OF ETANA 



321 



The serpent opened his mouth, and spoke to the eagle: 
" If I release thee, Shamash will be against us both, as [for- 
merly against thee?]. 
His wrath against thee will then be turned upon me, 
which now, as a punishment, I execute on thee." 
So he tore off his wing, his feather, his pinion; 
he tore him to pieces and cast him into a pit, 
that he should die a death from hunger and thirst. 

[But the eagle did not die; for Etana, whose wife could 
not give birth to a son, said thus] : 

" The seer-priests have completed my ofiferings, 

They have finished my sacrifices, the joy of the heart of 

the gods. 
My lord, let now proceed from thy mouth the revelation, 
and give [me?] the 'Plant of Birth '1 
Shew me the ' Plant of Birth '! 
Tear out my offspring [from his mother's womb?] and 

grant me a son." 
And Shamash opened his mouth and said to Etana: 
" Go, and take the road across the mountain." 

[Here he was to find the eagle, who would give him the 
desired Plant of Birth.] 

And the eagle opened his mouth and spoke to Shamash, 

his lord: 

'«* * * * * * ** * * 

The young of a bird [he shall bring unto me?] 

Whatsoever he will say unto me, I will hear; 
and whatsoever I shall say unto him, may he do! " 
And Etana did as he was told by Shamash, the hero. 
He took the young of a bird and went to the eagle. 
The eagle opened his mouth and spoke to Etana: 
" What is the desire that has brought thee hither? " 
And Etana opened his mouth (and) said to the eagle: 
" My friend, give me the ' Plant of Birth '; 
shew me the ' Plant of Birth '! 
21 



322 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



Tear out my offspring [from his mother's womb?] and 

grant me a son. 
And in order to get the ' Plant of Birth,' 
so that he, who is now [inclosed in the womb?] may come 

forth, 
Shamash, my lord, said unto me: 
' Go, and take the road across the mountain, 
[there thou shalt get?] the " Plant of Birth.' 



tt 7 If 



On one occasion the eagle carried Etana up to heaven. 
The hero clung to the eagle's wings and they rose together 
until they could see the gates of heaven. There: 

" At the entrance to the gate of Anu, Bel, and Ea we fell 

down worshipping. 
At the entrance to the gate of Sin, Shamash, Adad, and 

[Ishtar?] we fell down worshipping. 
[Four lines wanting.] 
A throne was there erected and [* * *] 
Beneath the throne lions were lying down. 
I drew nigh, and the lions jumped up. 
I became frightened and trembled * * * " 
But the eagle said to Etana: 
" My friend, let thy countenance brighten up. 
Come, let me carry thee up to the heaven of Anu. 
Against my breast lay [thy back?], 

upon the wing-feathers (?) of my pinions lay [thy hands], 
upon my side lay [thy side?] ! " 
Against his breast he laid [his back?]. 
Upon the wing-feathers (?) of his pinions he laid his hands. 
Upon his side he laid his side. 
He made (fast) his hold and great was the weight. After 

the eagle had carried 
Etana for two hours, he said to him: 
" Behold, my friend, the land, how it is ! 
Look at the sea at the sides of E-kur! 
The land looks [as if it were] only a mountain; the sea has 

become 
like a [small pool of] water." 



THE STORY OF ETANA 



323 



After the eagle had carried Etana for four hours, 

he said to him: 

" Behold, my friend, the land, how it is! the land * * * " 

After the eagle had carried Etana for six hours, he said to 

him: 
" Behold, my friend, the land, how it is! 
The sea has become like the [water-ditch] of a gardener." 
After going thus up to the heaven of Anu, 
the eagle and Etana came through the gate of 
Anu, Bel, and Ea, and there fell down worshipping 
* * * the eagle and Etana * * * 

[Another quite mutilated column contains a repetition 
of the flight of Etana and the eagle to the heaven of Anu.] 

After they had travelled for six hours, Etana said to the 
eagle: 

" My friend, I will not rise up to heaven; hold on, that I 
[may return to earth?]." 

Etana " falls down one double hour," and the eagle 
flies down with him; a second and a third double hour they 
go downward together; both fall down together upon the 
ground. 

The eagle bursts asunder; of Etana [nothing is left?]. 



THE GILGAMESH NARRATIVE 

USUALLY CALLED 

THE BABYLONIAN NIMROD EPIC 



INTRODUCTORY.— The chief fragments of the Nitn- 
rod epic were discovered in 1854 by Hormuzd Rassatn 
in the ruins of Nineveh. The tablets, twelve in number, 
belonged originally to the famous library of King Ashur- 
banipal (668-626 b. c), as the colophons to the several 
tablets clearly state. The text has not yet been completely 
restored. The contents of these tablets were first brought 
to light and translated by the late George Smith (f 1876), 
of the British Museum, in his " Chaldean Account of Gene- 
sis " (1872).^ The standard edition of the text, as far as 
it is accessible at present, is that of Professor Paul Haupt, 
" Das Babylonische Nimrodepos." * Additions to Part I 
were published by the same author in an article on " Ergeb- 
nisse einer erneuten Collation der Izdubar -Legenden." * 
The only good recent translations of the whole epic are 
by Dr. Alfred Jeremias, " Izdubar-Nimrod, Eine alt- 
babylonische Heldensage. Nach den Keilschriftfrag^en- 
ten dargestellt," * and by Professor Jensen, pp. 1 16-273 o^ 
his " Assyrisch-babylonische Mythen und Epen." 

' Second edition, in 1880, by A. H. Sayce ; translated into German by 
Friedrich Delitzsch (1876). 

' Heft i, 1884 ; Heft ii, 1890 ; vol. iii of tlie Assyriological Library, 
edited by Friedrich Delitzsch and Paul Haupt. 

•Published in vol. i of the "Contributions to Assyriology," pp. 

94-152. 

* Teubner, Leipsic, 1891, pp. viii-73, and four autograph plates of text. 

324 



THE GILGAMESH NARRATIVE 



325 



For text editions and translations of the famous ac- 
count of the deluge, being the eleventh tablet of the epic, 
see the note prefixed to the translation of this tablet, below. 

The true reading: Gilgamesh, the Gilgamos of .(Elian, in 
place of the conventional Iz-du-bar, was found by The- 
ophilus G. Pinches in 1894. On the Nimrod epic see also 
Morris Jastrow, " Religion of Babylonia and Assyria," pp. 
467-517, 727-730; C. J. Ball, "Light from the East, 
or the Witness of the Monuments," pp. 44 foil. ; and L. W. 
King, " Babylonian Religion and Mythology " (London, 
1899), chap. V, pp. 146-177. 

TABLET I 

Of this tablet only a few fragments are preserved. The 
correct beginning of the first tablet has been determined 
by Professor Haupt.* It reads thus: 

He who has seen the history of Gilgamesh, 
[He who] knows all [that has happened to him] 

* * * together * * * 

[He who] has seen all kinds of wisdom, 
[and] knows the mysteries and has seen what is hidden, 
he bringeth news dating farther back [than the deluge?] ; 
He has travelled far-distant roads, and become weary * * * 
[and now he has written] on a memorial tablet all the other 
things 

* * * the wall of Uruk-supuru ^ 

[Lines ten and eleven are wanting.] 

He spoke a charm which does not leave [him] 

* * * the god who from distant days * * * 

So far page i of Haupt's text; to the same tablet, as 
Haupt and Jeremias have pointed out, belongs page 51,^ 
narrating a siege of the city of Erech. 

* * * his cattle forsook him. 

* * * he went down to the river, 

' See "Contributions to Assyriology," i, p. 102. 

' Erech, the strong-walled. 

' Page references in this translation refer to Professor Haupt's edition. 



326 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

pushed into the river his boat and covered (it). 

* * * full of sorrows he wept bitterly. 

He returned (?) to the city of Gan-gan-na, which the enemy 

had destroyed completely. 
The she-asses have trampled down their foals; 
The cows in madness turn upon their calves. 
And as the cattle were frightened, so were the people. 
Like the doves, the maidens sigh and mourn. 
The gods of Erech, the strong-walled. 
Assume the shape of flies and buzz about the streets. 
The protecting deities of Erech, the strong-walled, 
take on the shape of mice and hurry into their holes. 
Three years the enemy besieged the city of Erech; 
the city's gates were barred, the bolts were shot. 
And even Ishtar, the goddess, could not make head against 

the enemy. 
But Bel opened his mouth, said 
to Ishtar, the queen, and spoke to her thus: 

[The rest of the text is broken off; traces still allow to 
read (21) " Babylon the city of joy" (?). The death of 
the king must have created consternation in the city, de- 
scribed above, so graphically. Then Gilgamesh comes to 
the city as her saviour, and later on appears as her king.] 

TABLET II 

With the exception of Column I the text of this tablet 
is preserved almost completely. Gilgamesh is introduced 
as the ruler of Erech, but his rule soon became unpopular, 
since he compelled all the young men of the city to enter 
his service, and carried off the maidens to his court. The 
parents complained, saying: 

Not does Gilgamesh leave the son to his father, 

nor the maiden to the warrior, nor the wife to her husband. 

Their wailing and lament [is heard everywhere?]. 

" Ye gods of heaven, and thou Bel of Erech, 

who didst bring my son into existence, [save us!?], 

He (Gilgamesh) has not a rival [in all the land?] 



THE GILGAMESH NARRATIVE 327 

Thy people now come [to thee for help?]. 

Gilgamesh leaves not to the father his child." Day and 
night [they poured out their plaint] : 

" He the ruler of Erech the strong-walled. 

He their ruler and 

the strong, the lofty, the cunning [* * *] 

Gilgamesh does not leave a daughter to [her mother?] 

nor the maiden to the warrior, nor the wife to her hus- 
band." 

[The gods of heaven] heard their cry. 

They also cried aloud to Aruru,* the goddess, saying: 
"Aruru, who hast created him, 

Create now a rival (?) to him, for the time when his heart 
shall be [* * *], 

Let them fight together and Erech [shall be the spec- 
tator?] ! " 

Upon hearing this Aruru created in her heart a man after 
the likeness of Anu.^ 

Aruru washed her hands, took a bit of clay, and cast it on 
the ground. 

Thus she created Eabani, the hero, a lofty oflfspring, the 
possession (?) of Ninib. 

His whole body was covered with hair; he had long hair 
on his head like a woman; 

His flowing hair was luxuriant like that of the corn-god. 

Contrary to?] the custom of the people and of the land, he 
was clothed with garments, as god Ner; ^ 

He ate herbs with the gazelles. 

He quenched his thirst with the beasts. 

He sported about with the creatures of the water.* 

Sa-a-a-du," the hunter of men. 

Lay in wait for him at the entrance to the well. 

' See for this goddess the second Babylonian creation account, p. 299, 
line 21. In company with Marduk she created mankind. 

' A divine man, a demigod. 

' Called the son of the sun god, the shepherd of the universe. 

* " This Babylonian ' wild man of the woods' is evidently a picture of 
man living in a savage state " (Jastrow). 

' The word itself means " hunter " ; he is sent by Gilgamesh into the 
mountains in order to capture Eabani. 



328 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

The first, the second, and the third day he lay in wait for 

him at the entrance to the well. 
But when he saw him the hunter's face looked troubled, 
[beholding Eabani and?] his cattle, and he returned to his 

home. 
* * * he was sad, and moaned, and wailed; 
his heart grew heavy], his face became clouded, 
and sadness [entered] into his mind. 
His face became like unto [the distant * * * (?)] 

The hunter, obeying the command of Gilgamesh, in- 
tended to advance against Eabani; but at the sight of him 
he drew back in fear, and was unable to catch him. 

The hunter opened his mouth and said unto [Ea, or Sha- 

mash, his father?] : 
" My father, one hero, going there [is not strong 

enough?]. 
In heaven is * * * 

Like that of a Kisir Anu * is his strength; 
he roams over [all] the mountains; 
with the beasts of the field he regularly [feeds]. 
His feet are regularly set toward the entrance of the well. 
I am afraid of him, I do not dare to go near him. 
He has filled up the pit that I digged,^ 
and has destroyed the hunter's nets which I [had spread 

over it?]. 
From my hands he has made to escape the cattle and the 

beasts of the field, 
and does not allow me to hunt them." 
His father opened his mouth and] spoke thus to the hunter: 
[" Go and wend thy way] to Erech, the city of Gilgamesh. 

The fragments of lines following show that the hunter 
was to find there a tempter called Uchat.^ in order to entice, 

' Perhaps a host or a man of Anu. 
' In order to catch him, like a wild animal. 

» Usually translated, wailing woman ; by others, the "ensnaring " the 
siren. Buret, in his famous book, "Syphilis in Ancient Prehistoric 



THE GILGAMESH NARRATIVE 



329 



with her assistance, the sensuous Eabani, and bring him to 
Erech. Obeying the advice of his father, the hunter goes 
to Erech [the city of Gilgamesh]. 

Into the presence] of Gilgamesh [stepped the hunter, and 
said:] 

And now follows a repetition of the same report of the 
hunter concerning his failure to capture Eabani, the ad- 
dress " my father," of course, being omitted. Thereupon: 

Gilgamesh spoke to the hunter and said: 

" Go, hunter mine, and take the ensnarer Uchat with thee. 

And when the beasts come down to the well, 

then let her tear off her dress and disclose her nakedness. 

Eabani will see her, and he shall approach unto her, 

and the cattle, which gather around him on the field, shall 
forsake him." 

The hunter departed, and took with him the woman Uchat. 

Together they proceeded straightway, and 

On the third day they reached the appointed field. 

There the hunter and the ensnarer rested at their seat. 

One day, two days, they lurked at the entrance to the well, 

where the cattle were accustomed to slake their thirst, 

where the creatures of the waters were sporting. 

Then [came] Eabani, whose home was the mountains, 

v/ho with gazelles ate herbs, 

and with the cattle slaked his thirst, 

and with the creatures of the waters rejoiced his heart. 

And Uchat, the enticer of men, beheld him * * * 

" Behold, there he is " * (the hunter exclaimed); " now dis- 
close thy womb, 

uncover thy nakedness, and let him enjoy thy favours. 

Be not ashamed, but yield to his sensuous lust. 

Times," i, p. 82, says : " The name of the hierodule uchat points very 
plainly to the uchet disease, the syphilis of the ancient Egyptians." The 
Uchat was one of the sacred women who were in the service of Ishtar 
and were attached to the ancient temple of that goddess in the city of 
Erech. ' Eabani. 



330 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



He shall see thee and shall approach unto thee; 
Remove thy garment, and he shall lie in thine arms; 
satisfy his desire after the manner of women; 
then his cattle, raised with him on the field, shall forsake 

him 
while he firmly presses his breast upon thine." 
And Uchat disclosed her womb, uncovered her nakedness, 

and let him enjoy her favours. 
She was not ashamed, but yielded to his sensuous lust. 
She removed her garment, he lay in her arms, 
and she satisfied his desire after the manner of women. 
He pressed his breast firmly upon hers. 
For six days and seven nights Eabani enjoyed the love of 

Uchat. 
And when he had sated himself with her charms, 
he turned his countenance toward his cattle. 
The gazelles, resting, beheld Eabani; they and 
the cattle of the field turned away from him. 
This startled Eabani and his body grew faint; 
his knees became stiff, as his cattle departed, 
and he became less agile than ever before. 
And as he hearkened, he made a resolve. 
He turned again, in love enthralled, to the feet of the harlot, 
and gazed up into the face of the ensnarer. 
And while the ensnarer spoke, his ears listened attentively; 
and the siren spoke to Eabani and said: 
" Lofty thou art, Eabani, thou shaft be like a god; ^ 
Why, then, doest thou lie down with the beasts of the field? 
Come, I will take thee to strong-walled Erech; 
to the glorious house, the dwelling of Anu and Ishtar, 
the palace of Gilgamesh, (the hero) who is perfect in 

strength, 
surpassing, like a mountain bull, men in power." 
While she spoke thus to him, he hearkened unto her 
wise speech, and his heart yearned for a friend. 

• Professor Jastrow calls attention to the striking parallel to the bibli- 
cal words, "ye will be like Elohim " (Gen. iii, 5), addressed by the ser- 
pent to Adam and Eve. 



THE GILGAMESH NARRATIVE 



331 



And Eabani spoke unto her, the ensnarer: 

" Come then, Uchat, take me, and lead me 

to the glorious dwelling, the sacred seat of Anu and Ishtar, 

to the palace * of Gilgamesh, (the hero) who is perfect in 

strength, 
surpassing, like as a mountain bull, men in power." 

Here the text becomes very broken, only the latter half 
of a number of lines being preserved. As to the contents, 
this much may be said: Eabani intends to test the strength 
of the famous hero (Gilgamesh) — ^whose friendship he de- 
sires — by means of a " lion, born in the desert and powerful 
in strength." New fragments found and skilfully placed 
together by Professor Haupt, have enabled Dr. Jeremias 
to partially restore the following narrative: 

The Uchat leads Eabani to Erech. As they arrived, 
the inhabitants of Erech, clothed " in festive garments," 
were celebrating a festival — perhaps the Tammuz festival. 
The end of Col. V seems to be a warning to Eabani, re- 
ceived in a dream : 

" Gilgamesh will behold [thee] . 

I behold [* * *] his face, 

it glows with heroic courage. 

Strength he possesses, [magnificent?] is his whole body. 

His power is stronger than thine. 

He rests not [nor tires?], neither by day nor by night. 

O Eabani, change thy [intention?]. 

Shamash loves Gilgamesh; 

Anu, Bel, and Ea are whispering (wisdom) into his ear. 

Ere thou earnest down from the mountain 

Gilgamesh beheld thee in a dream in Erech." 

Here the address seems to end, and the narrative re- 
turns to its hero, Gilgamesh, who also had a dream, and 
was troubled because he could not interpret it. 

Gilgamesh came, to understand the dream, and 
said to his mother: 

" That is, Erech. 



332 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

" My mother, I dreamed a dream in my nightly vision-. 
The stars of heaven, like Anu's host, fell upon me * * * " 

The fragments of Col. VI contain another dream, the 
subject of which is likewise Eabani and his adventures 
with the ensnarer Uchat. The fragments indicate that the 
mother advised her son to make friendship with Eabani, 
the giant. 

TABLET III 

A great and important factor in the subsequent ad- 
ventures of Gilgamesh is the fact that Eabani becomes the 
friend and companion of the hero. Two fragments, pub- 
lished on pages 14 and 15 of Professor Haupt's edition, are 
supposed by Dr. Jeremias to have belonged to Cols. Ill 
and IV of this tablet. The former seems to be an address 
to a woman (the Uchat?): 

* * * the gods let thee enter 

* * * forsaken was 

* * * the consort * * * 

* * * and he saw it alone, 

and he relieved his heart and spoke to his friend. 

* * * a dream I dreamed in my night's sleep, 
[The stars?] of heaven fell upon the earth. 
[Frightiened?] I stood there. 

* * * his face became disturbed 

* * * like lion's claws were his nails 

*' * * the dream?] strengthened me * * * 

The second fragment was a dialogue between Sha- 
mash, the sun god, and Eabani, in consequence of which 
Eabani's " angry heart became quieted." It seems that 
Shamash induced Eabani, who is anxious to return to his 
mountain home, to remain. The Uchat again plays a 
prominent role, and we hear of the promise to Eabani of 
royal honours, the friendship and brotherly love of Gil- 
gamesh. Says Shamash: 



THE GILGAMESH NARRATIVE 333 

" Come, and on a fine, grand couch, 

on a fine couch he • will let thee recline. 

He will place thee upon a couch, a seat to the left.'' 

The kings of the earth shall kiss thy feet. 

The people of Erech shall whine before thee * * * 

and the nations shall work for thee. 

* * * after thee shall be carried, whatever there be 

* * * in the midst thereof he shall encamp." 

Eabani listened to the word of Shamash, the warrior hero, 

* * * his angry heart became quieted. 

A continuation of this tablet Dr. Jeremais believes to 
have found on page 87 of Haupt's edition. Here Gil- 
gamesh promises to Eabani precisely the same that Sha- 
mash promises on page 15 (see above). The gods have a 
purpose in view in bringing about friendship between Ea- 
bani and Gilgamesh. The fragments of Tablets IV and V 
give us the key to it. They relate the battle of the city 
of Erech against the Elamitic despot Humbaba, ending in 
the death of the latter and the enthronement of Gilgamesh 
as King of Erech. The gods, being deeply interested in 
the destruction of Humbaba and the end of the rule of the 
hostile god Humba,^ take part in the fight. It is evident 
that this poetic narrative is simply the mythical representa- 
tion of a great national upheaval, by means of which an 
Elamitic dynasty was overthrown and a Babylonian rule 
established. 

TABLET IV 

is represented by only a few small fragments, which, how- 
ever, enable us to see that the tablet describes the prepara- 
tion for the capture of the fortress of the Elamitic king, 
Humbaba. These two tablets (IV and V) then contain 
the historic kernel of the narrative of the epic. According 
to Dr. Jeremias, Tablet IV contained something like this: 
Col. I. Eabani stands before the king of the gods (Mar- 
duk?), speaking probably of Humbaba, whom he and Gil- 

• Gilgamesh. ' No doubt a seat of honour. ' An Elamite god. 



334 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



gamesh intended to kill, and whose corpse vultures (?) may 
devour; they asked the god to be favourable to their fight. 

We did look after thee, O king [of the gods?]. 
Now look thou also after us. 

Gilgamesh then advises Eabani to go 

To the lofty palace of the great queen, who knoweth all. 

Thereupon both go to the great prophetess, who is de- 
scribed in Col. II, her breast ornaments and her crown 
being especially mentioned. After this the narrative con- 
tinues as follows: 

[Before] Shamash he sacrificed a smoke-offering, 

poured out a drink-offering; 

lifted up before Shamash his hand,* (praying): 

" Why hast thou disquieted the heart of Gilgamesh? 

Now thou hast taught him, and 

a far road he travels unto Humbaba. 

An unknown fight he is about to enter. 

To an unknown war he is about to set forth. 

From the day that he goeth, until he returneth again, 

until he comes to the (splendid) cedar wood, 

until he shall have killed Humbaba the despot, 

all the many evils which shall befall him, shall ruin him. 

On the day when thou * * * 

The end of Col. II narrates the preparation for the great 
fight. 

The forces of the country assembled together; 
the army completed its preparations; 
and the heroes put on their armour. 

Then the two friends set out together. Col. V opens 
with these words: 

In order that the cedar wood remain intact, Bel ^ has 
made it a terror for the people. 

' That is, in prayer, said of Eabani. 

' Tliere is meant here either the Elamitic god Humba or the old Baby- 
lonian god Bel, who, as we see in Tablet XI, delighted in terrorizing people. 



THE GILGAMESH NARRATIVE 335 

The roaring of Humbaba was like that of a storm cyclone; 
his mouth was (full of) blasphemy, his breath (killing?) 

like hot wind; 
* * * hears a roaring in the forest; 
whosoever descends into his park. 
In order that the cedar forest remain intact, Bel has 
made it a terror for the people. 

Whosoever enters it, pestilence (?) will overtake him. 
And Gilgamesh spoke unto Eabani, and said: 

Plates 57 and 58 Dr. Jeremias assigns to the last column 
of Tablet IV. Gilgamesh recounts to Eabani 

a favourable dream, 
a splendid dream, 

in which he saw the corpse of Humbaba. Then they 
set out on their way in the morning; 

every twenty double leagues they took a meal ; 

every thirty double leagues they took a rest. 

Before Shamash they dug a hole. 

Then Gilgamesh went up to * * * 

and poured his sacrificial meal into the hole (saying) : 

" Mountain, bring a dream unto Eabani! 

Let him see dream-visions, O Shamash." 

Then they go to sleep. About midnight Gilgamesh 
awakes, arises, and speaks to his friend Eabani: 

" My friend, hast thou called me? " 

Then he tells him of a 

third dream that he had seen. 

The dream that I dreamed was very terrible (?); 

heaven thundered, earth quaked; 

day grew dark, darkness came up; 

lightning set in, fire flared up 

sated [with destruction] and filled with death. 

Then suddenly the light darkened, the fire was quenched 



336 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

* * * fell down, turned into smoke * * * " 
Eabani heard this dream and said to him: 

[The rest of this tablet is broken away.] 



TABLET V 

Col. I. The heroes are in the sacred forest, surrounding 
the stronghold of Humbaba. They had apparently forced 
open its gate: 

There they stood, lofty arose the forest, and 

(astonished) they gazed at the height of the cedars 

and at the entrance of the cedar wood, 

where Humbaba was wont to walk with lofty steps. 

Ways were laid out and paths well kept. 

They saw the cedar hill, the dwelling of gods, the sanctuary 

of Ernini. 
In front of the hill (mountain) a cedar stood of great 

splendour, 
fine and good was its shade, filling with gladness (the 

heart?). 

The remainder of the column is broken off, but it prob- 
ably gave a further description of the palace and its sur- 
roundings. 

Page 27 contains fragments of an address by Gilgamesh 
to Eabani in which again is mentioned 

The corpse to be devoured by the vultures. 

In Cols. II and III (pp. 25 and 28, and perhaps also 
pp. 74 and 86) the heroes recount their former glorious 
deeds, a favourable indication for the success of their im- 
minent battle with Humbaba. Of the other columns only 
a fragment of the closing lines of Col. V is preserved (p. 
26), where, in the last line, the " head of Humbaba " is 
mentioned, a fact which proves that the preceding lines 
contained an account of the fight and slaying of Hum- 
baba. Immediately upon this line follow, according to the 
custom of Babylonian scribes, two lines, one giving the first 



THE GILGAMESH NARRATIVE 337 

line of the next (VI) tablet, and the other stating that it 
was the V tablet of the whole series, the words of the first 
line of Tablet I being used as " catchword " for the whole 
epic. Both served as a guide for the reader of the whole 
series. 

TABLET VI 

narrates the celebration of the victory of Gilgamesh, and 
his repulse of Ishtar's love advances (Haupt, pp. 42-50). 

He cleansed his weapons, he polished his arms. 

He took off the armour that was upon him. He put away 

his soiled garments and put on clean raiment; 

clothed himself with his ornaments, put on his diadem (?). 

Gilgamesh placed upon his head the crown and put on his 

diadem (?). 
To win the favour and love of Gilgamesh, Ishtar, the lofty 

goddess desired * (and said unto him) : 
" Come, Gilgamesh, be thou my spouse. 
Give, O give unto me thy manly strength. 
Be thou my husband, let me be thy wife, 
and I will set thee in a chariot (embossed) with precious 

stones and gold, 
with wheels made of gold, and shafts of sapphires (?). 
Large kudanu-lions thou shalt harness to it. 
Under sweet-smelling cedars thou shalt enter into our 

house. 
And] when thou enterest into our house 
Thou shalt sit upon?] a lofty throne, and people shall kiss 

thy feet; 
kings and lords and rulers shall bow down before thee. 
Whatever mountain and country produces, they shall bring 

to thee as tribute. 

* * *] thy sheep shall bear twin-ewes. 

* * *] mules they shall bring as tribute. 

Thy [majesty?] shall sit upon a chariot that is splendid, 
drawn?] by a span that has no equal." 

' Literally, she lifted up her eyes. J 



338 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

But Gilgamesh opened his mouth and spoke unto her; 
said unto the lofty goddess Ishtar: 

The beginning lines of his speech are almost lost, only 
a few fragments being preserved. Gilgamesh refused the 
proffered love of Ishtar, reminding her that all her former 
lovers have, come to grief through her, and said that he 
was not willing to share their fate. 

" Where is thy husband Tammuz, who was to be forever? 
What, indeed, has become of the allallu-bird * * *? 
Well, I will tell thee plainly the dire result of thy co- 
quetries. 
To Tammuz, the husband of thy youth, 
thou didst cause weeping and didst bring grid upon him 

every year. 
The allallu-bird, so bright of colours, thou didst love; 
But its wing thou didst break and crush, 
so that now it sits in the woods crying: ' O my wing! ' 
Thou didst also love a lion, powerful in his strength, 
seven and seven times didst thou dig a snaring pit for him. 
Thou didst also love a horse, pre-eminent in battle, 
but with bridle (?), spur, and whip thou didst force it on, 
didst force it to run seven double-leagues at a stretch. 
And when it was tired and wanted to drink, thou still didst 

force it on, 
thereby causing weeping and grief to its mother Si-li-li. 
Thou didst also love a shepherd of the flock * * * 
who continually poured out incense before thee, 
and, for thy pleasure, slaughtered lambs day by day. 
Thou didst smite him, and turn him into a tiger, 
so that his own sheep-boys drove him away, 
and his own dogs tore him to pieces. 
Thou didst also love a farmer, a gardener of thy father, 
who continually brought unto thee dainties, 
and daily adorned thy table for thee. 
Thine eye thou didst cast on him and turn his mind, 

saying: 
' Oh, my farmer boy, let us enjoy thy manly strength. 



THE GILGAMESH NARRATIVE 



339 



Let thy hand * come forth and take away my virginity ' (?). 

But the farmer spoke unto thee and said: 

* Me! — ^what is this that thou askest of me? 

Mother, thou hast not baked, and I will not eat; 

The food that I shall eat is bad and bitter, 

and it is covered with cold and numbness.' ^ 

And when thou didst hear such words, 

thou didst smite him and change him into a cripple(?) ^ 

And didst thus compel him to lie on a couch, 

so that he could no more rise up from his bed. 

And now thou wouldst also love me; but like unto them I 

would fare." 
When Ishtar heard such words 
she became enraged, and went up into heaven, 
and came unto Anu [her father], and 
To Antum (her mother) she went, and thus spoke (unto 

them) : 
" My father, Gilgamesh has insulted me; 
Gilgamesh has upbraided me with my evil deeds, 
my deeds of evil and of violence." 
And Anu opened his mouth and spoke — 
said unto her, the mighty goddess Ishtar: 
" Thou shalt not remain so disconsolate, 
even though Gilgamesh has upbraided thee with thy evil 

deeds, 
thy deeds of evil and of violence." 
And Ishtar opened her mouth and said, 
she spoke unto Anu, her father: 
" My father, create [for me] a heaven-bull." 

The following seventy lines have come down in a very 
mutilated condition; and the meaning can only be sur- 
mised. As Dr. Jeremias has ingeniously pointed out, the 

■ Probably a euphemism for phallus. 

' These three lines must have an ithyphallic meaning, rejecting 
Ishtar's advances to him, as line 69 implies. The word "mother" used 
by the farmer (?) in addressing the goddess has well been compared to the 
use of the same word in Russia. 

• Others, a servant or a dwarf. 



340 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

lines remind us of the threat of Gilg^mesh, spoken before 
the ocean palace (Tablet X, Col. I), and especially of the 
analogous conditions found in the account of the " Descent 
of Ishtar into the Netherworld," where the courageous 
goddess in her wrath forces entrance to the Netherworld. 
As she threatened there, so now here, in heaven, she would 
smash everything, if her will and wish is not granted. 
Anu, her father, though hesitating, is forced to accede and 
creates the heaven-bull. And now Ishtar breaks out in 
these words: " I will have revenge." The account of the 
fight of the two heroes, Gilgamesh and Eabani, against the 
heaven-bull is almost completely lost. Lines 122 and 123 
appear to say: 

They?] hunted him and Eabani [attacked?] the heaven- 
bull, 
* * * and grasped him by his heavy tail. 

On an old Babylonian cylinder representing the fight 
we see the bull standing on its hind feet, Eabani holding 
the monster by its head and tail, while Gilgamesh plunges 
the dagger into its heart. We can also gather from the 
remains of the lines that three hundred heroes took part 
in the fight. After the heroes had killed the bull and had 
thus satisfied their hearts, they brought unto Shamash, the 
sun god, a thank offering. The narrative then continues: 

Then Ishtar went up to the wall of Erech, the strong- 
walled; 

she uttered a piercing cry and broke out into a curse, (say- 
ing): 

" Woe to Gilgamesh, who thus has grieved me, 

and has killed the heaven-bull." 

But Eabani, hearing these words of Ishtar, 

tore out the right side of the heaven-bull,^ 

and threw it into her face, (saying) : 

" And thus I will, indeed, defeat thee; 

' Parts of the right side of the animal were usually reserved for sacri- 
ficial purposes. Eabani here adds insult to injury. 



THE GILGAMESH NARRATIVE 



341 



and I will do unto thee even as I have done to him; ^ 

I will hang its heart(?) upon thy side, forsooth." 

Then Ishtar gathered her followers, that ruin men, 

the hierodules and the sacred prostitutes. 

Over the right side of the heaven-bull she wept and la- 
mented. 

But Gilgamesh assembled the people, and all his work- 
men.^ 

The workmen admired the size of its horns. 

Thirty minas of precious stones was their value; 

half of an inch (?) in size was their thickness (?). 

Six measures of oil they both could hold. 

For the anointing of his god Lugal-tur-da ' he dedi- 
cated it. 

He brought the horns and hung them up in the shrine of 
his lordship. 

Then they washed their hands in the river Euphrates, 

took the road, and set out (for the city), 

and rode through the streets of the city of Erech. 

The people of Erech assembled and looked with astonish- 
ment [at the heroes?]. 

Gilgamesh then spoke to the servants (?) of [his palace?] 

and cried out unto them, (saying): 

" Who is glorious among the heroes? 

Who shines among the men? " 

" Gilgamesh?] is glorious among the heroes, 

Gilgamesh?] shines among the men! " 

[Lines 204 to 206 are lost.] 

and Gilgamesh held a joyful feast in his palace. 
Then the heroes slept, stretched out upon their couches. 
And Eabani slept, and saw a vision in his sleep. 
He arose (in the morning) and " solved " the dream, 
and spoke unto Gilgamesh thus: 

" My friend, wherefor have the great gods thus taken 
counsel? " 

' That is, as I did unto the heaven-bull. 

' Or his faithful followers (?), as in Tablet XI. ' Shamash. 



342 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

The last line of the sixth tablet represents, no doubt, the 
beginning of the next (the seventh) tablet. This line is 
followed as usual by the colophon, thus: 

The sixth tablet of: " He who has seen the history of Gil- 
gamesh." 

TABLETS VII and VIII 

Only a few fragments have been preserved, and very 
scanty information can be gathered from them. Tablet VII 
must have begun with E^bani's account of his dream on the 
morning after the victory-jubilee in Erech, and closed with 
the death of that hero, brought about by the goddess Ish- 
tar. Pages 53 and 54 (cf. 55) of Professor Haupt's edi- 
tion are said, by Dr. Jeremias, to belong to Tablet VIII, be- 
cause the preceding column (a Column VI), being the ob- 
verse of the same tablet, speaks of the sickness and death 
of Eabani (see Tablet IX). In Col. I, Eabani calls on his 
friend to perform some heroic deed, worthy of his renown. 
They are halting in front of a forest gate, which Eabani 
thus addresses: 

There is none other tree like unto thee; 

Six gar ^ is thy height and two gar thy thickness. 

Eabani also says of it, " I know thee." And in Col. VI 
he moans: 

" In good health I went forth, my friend. * * * 

But the dream which I dreamed has been fulfilled." 

And there lay Eabani for twelve days [on the first and the 

second day?] 
on which Eabani on his couch [lay sick?] ; 
On the third and the fourth * * *; 
On the fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, etc., day 
on which Eabani [lay sick on his couch?] 
The eleventh, the twelfth day * * * 
On which Eabani lay on his couch * * * 
Then he called to Gilgamesh. 

• A gar seems to have been twelve or fourteen cubits long. 



THE GILGAMESH NARRATIVE 



343 



The few traces of the following lines still show that the 
hero received his wound in a fight which in fearful pre- 
monition " he had feared." The lament for the dead in 
Tablet XII shows that it must have been a very severe and 
unusual fight. Of his end, narrated, no doubt, on Tablet 
IX, it is said repeatedly in Tablet XII: "Earth has snatched 
him away." 

TABLET IX 

begins with the lament of Gilgamesh for the death of his 
friend, and with his resolve to go to his ancestor Per- 
napishtim,^ that he may learn the mystery of the latter's 
apotheosis, and, at the same time, secure recovery from a 
loathsome disease,^ with which Ishtar has smitten him. 

Gilgamesh wept bitterly over the loss of his friend 

Eabani, and he lay stretched out upon the ground, (say- 
ing): 

" I will not die like Eabani, 

But weeping has entered into my heart; 

Fear of death has befallen me, and 

I lie here stretched out upon the ground. 

To (test) the strength of Per-napishtim,^ the son of Kidin- 
Marduk, 

I will set out, and I will go at once." * 

" At the mountain ravine I arrived by night-time, 

* * * Lions I saw, and I was afraid; 

* * * but I lifted my head to god Sin and I prayed. 

' So read by Professor Haupt ; or Par-napishtim, Jastrow, Zimmern, 
and others = sprout or offspring of life ; Jensen (i8go) and Jeremias read 
get-napishtim = the saved one ; Jensen (1900), Ux-napishtim ; Ball, Hom- 
mel, etc., Nuch-napishtim — rest of the soul, whence Hebrew Noah ; for- 
merly also read Shatnash-napishtim = sun of life, and Um-napishtim = 
day of life. 

' According to Professor Christopher Johnston, "apparently the lues 
venerea," see " American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures," 
xvi, p. 30. 

» Which, of course, means : to P. N., the hero ; similar expressions are 
found in Homer's " Iliad" and "Odyssey." 

* Gilgamesh starts out at once, and then, continuing the monologue 
narrates as follows. 



344 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



To the [great?] majesty of the god came my cry, 
[and he hearkened] and saved me, even me." 
And in the night he saw?] a vision and a dream. 
Lions * * *] were enjoying themselves." 
And he Hfted the axe in his hand, 
and drew out the sword from his belt. 
Like a javelin he threw himself between them; 
he wounded, killed, and scattered [them?] 

[The rest of the column is lost.] 

Col. II narrates the meeting of Gilgamesh with the scor- 
pion-men, at the foot 

of a mountain whose name is Mashu. 

As he came to the mountain of Mashu, 

whose entrance is guarded daily by monsters, 

whose back extends to the dam of heaven, 

and whose breast reaches down to Aralu,* 

Scorpion-men guard its gate; 

Dreadful terror they spread, and it is death to behold them. 

Their splendour is fearful, overthrowing the mountains; 

From sunrise to sunset they guard the sun. 

Gilgamesh beheld them, and with fear 

and terror his face grew dark. 

His mind became confused at the wildness of their aspect. 

But one scorpion-man said to his wife: 

" He that there cometh to us, flesh of the gods is his 

body." 
And the wife answered the scorpion-man: 
" Two (thirds) he resembles a god, and one third only a 

man." 
And the scorpion-man replied and said unto her: 
[" One] of the gods has given the order; 
[and] he has travelled over far-distant roads, 
until he should come unto me. 
The mountains] which he has crossed are steep," 

[The remainder is broken away.] 

• Hades. 



THE GILGAMESH NARRATIVE 



345 



Col. Ill, as far as the fragments permit us to see, nar- 
rates that Gilgamesh, seeing that the monster regarded 
him with friendly eyes, recovered from his fright and told 
the scorpion-man of his intention to go " to Per-napishtim, 
his ancestor, who had been removed into the assembly of 
the gods and [had thus power over] life and death." The 
scorpion-man replied by describing to Gilgamesh the dif- 
ficulties and dangers connected with such a march through 
the mountain of Mashu. Nobody has yet been able to 
do so, twelve miles of heavy darkness in all directions hav- 
ing to be penetrated. But the hero was not discouraged, 
and the scorpion-man acceded to his urgent request and 
opened to him the gate of the mountain; and now begins 
the wearisome march: 

One mile he marches, thick is the darkness, not does it 

grow light. 
Two miles he marches, thick is the darkness, not does it 

grow light. 

Col. V (p. 65) continues the description of the twelve- 
mile walk in the same diffuse epic style; then the hero 
leaves the mouiitain and — on the shore of the sea — ^beholds 
a beautiful and wonderful tree: 

And as he saw it, he ran toward it. 

Diamonds (?) it bore as fruit, 

Branches were hanging (down?), beautiful to behold. 

Crystal (antimony?) the branches bore; 

with fruit it was laden, dazzling the eye (of the hero). 

Other precious trees are also there. In Col. VI Gil- 
gamesh must have reached the seacoast, for 

TABLET X 

commences, as shown in the colophon to Tablet IX: 

The (divine) girl Sabitu, sitting upon the throne of the sea, 

probably a poetic expression for the ocean-palace, in which 
she resides, as we are told later. In Col. II, Gilgamesh 



346 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

finds another obstacle in his way, as he arrived " clothed 
with a skin." Again, he began to lament and was ange'red 
at the " distant roads " that he had yet to travel. 

Sabitu sees him from afar off, 
and she speaks to herself 
and [takes counsel] with herself: 
" Because this * * * 

How shall he succeed (?) in [his endeavour?] 
And as Sabitu sees him approach she closes [her ocean- 
palace?] 
Its gate she closes and closes * * * 
But Gilgamesh listens to * * * 
Lifts up his finger (?) and * * * 
Then Gilgamesh spoke unto Sabitu and said: 
"Sabitu, what doest thou gaze [at me?]. 
Why doest thou bolt the gate against me?] ; 
For I will break [thy gate " 

The lower part of the plate is destroyed, and we can 
only conjecture that Sabitu described to the hero the im- 
possibility of continuing his journey, which would lead 
him across an impassable sea. In Col. II the hero again 
tells the reason for his journey, and laments the loss of his 
beloved friend, Eabani, who has now returned to dust, 
and to share whose lot seems unbearable to him. 

And Gilgamesh said unto her, the Sabitu: 

Tell me, O Sabitu, which is the way to Per-napishtim? 

What is its direction, O Sabitu, tell me its direction. 

If it be possible, I will cross the sea; 

But if it is impossible, I will run there across the field." 

And Sabitu answered unto Gilgamesh, and said : 

" Gilgamesh, there has never been a crossing (here), 

and no one since eternal days has ever crossed the sea. 

Shamash, the hero, crosses it; but besides Shamash who 

can cross it? 
Difficult is the crossing, and extremely dangerous 

the way. 



THE GILGAMESH NARRATIVE 347 

and closed are the Waters of Death* which bolt its 

entrance. 
How, then, Gilgamesh, wilt thou cross the sea? 
And if thou should'st reach the Waters of Death, what 

wouldst thou do? 
But Gilgamesh, there is Arad-Ea, the sailor of Per-napish- 

tim 
at the side of ' those with stones ' ; in the forest he fells a 

cedar. 
Him may thy countenance behold. 
If possible, cross over with him; but if impossible, go 

back." 
When Gilgamesh heard this, 
he lifted up the axe at his arm, 
drew the sword from his belt, slipped in and descended 

to [***]; 
and fell like a javelin between them. 

The hero stands at the entrance to the Waters of Death, 
which are supposed to surround the ocean. The " Isle of 
the Blessed " is thought to be beyond these Waters of 
Death, just as in the case of the Netherworld. In Col. Ill 
Gilgamesh tells Arad-Ea of his grief, using undoubtedly 
the same words as before, and closes with the request to 
ferry him over. 

Arad-Ea said unto Gilgamesh: 

" Thy hand, O Gilgamesh, has prevented [the crossing]. 

Thou hast smashed ' those with stones ' * * * 

' Those with stones ' are now smashed and the * * * is no 

more. 
Take, Gilgamesh, the axe at thy side, 
go into the wood and make one hundred and twenty oars ^ 

five gar long." 

He is also to make other preparations for his journey. 

' According to Professor Jensen, ocean. Could it perhaps be (the 
breakers) which practically closed the entrance to the ocean ? 

' Or rather, a pole, such as is used in Oriental countries even up to 
this date. 



348 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

And Gilgamesh on hearing this (i. e., Arad-Ea's instruc- 
tions), 

took the axe at his side, and [drew the sword from his belt]. 

He went into the woods and felled trees for one hundred 
and twenty oars five gar in length, 

smeared them over with pitch and brought them [to 
Arad-Ea]. 

Then Gilgamesh and Arad-Ea embarked; 

the ship tossed to and fro while they were on their way. 

A journey of forty and five days they accomplished within 
three days, 

and thus Arad-Ea arrived at the Waters of Death. 

And now they begin to face the most serious dangers. 
Col. IV relates that the ferryman advises the hero not to 
give in, as long as the journey upon the Waters of Death 
lasts. Many a day they spent on their journey, and day 
after day Gilgamesh stuck to the oar; 

and then Gilgamesh loosened his belt (i. e., rested from his 

exertions), 
for he was weary. 

And Per-napishtim looking at him from the distance 
Began thinking within himself, and 
With himself he thus meditated: 

" Why are [' those with stones '] of the ship smashed? 
And one, who has not my * * * rides in [the ship]. 
He that comes there [is he?] not a man, and has he not 

the ' right side ' of a man? 
I look: (Is that) * * * not [a human being?] 
I look: (Is that) * * * not [a man?] 
I look: (Is that) * * * [not a god?] 
He resembles me in every respect." 

At the beginning of Col. V, Gilgamesh drew nigh unto 
the shore safely and, while still sitting in the ship, he poured 
out his tale of woe before his ancestor; he told him of 
the adventures which he and his friend had encountered, 
among which was one with a " panther of the field "; then 



THE GILGAMESH NARRATIVE 349 

follows an account of the killing of the heaven-bull; the 
slaying of Humbaba, the despot, who had lived in a cedar 
forest; other adventures with tigers; his friend's sickness 
and sad death; and "now I weep because of him"; then 
he tells how he had wandered across all the countries, passed 
over steep mountains, and crossed dreadful seas, but all 
in vain: 

" The friend whom I loved has been turned to clay; Eabani, 

my friend. 
And I will not, like unto him, lie down; not will I sink 

to where my friend is now." 
And Gilgamesh said unto Per-napishtim: 
" Here I have come, and Per-napishtim, whom people call 

the ' distant,' I will see. 
To him I will turn (for help?); I have travelled through all 

the lands, 
I have crossed over the steep mountains, 
and I have traversed all the seas," etc. 

Col. VI must have contained a lengthy reply of Per- 
napishtim, telling him that he could do nothing to help 
him to escape from death. He told him that death comes 
to all, that none could escape from it. 

As long as houses are built, as long as tablets are sealed, 

as long as brothers are at enmity, 

as long as there exist strife and hatred in the land, 

as long as the river carries the waters (to the sea?), etc., 

so long is there no likeness of death drawn (i. e., no man 

can tell when his own time might come). 
When the alu-demon and the eziz-demon greet ^ a man, 
then the Anunnaki, the great gods [assemble] 
and the goddess of fate, she who with them determines fate, 

will do so. 
For they determine death and life. 
But the days of death are unknown to mankind. 

• Used ironically (?) ; alu and eziz are two evil demons. 



3 so ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

Then follows the colophon stating that this was the 
tenth tablet of the great epic. 



TABLET XI 

contains the famous account of the deluge. The text of 
this tablet is published by Friedrich Delitzsch in his " As- 
syrische Lesestiicke," third edition, pp. 101-109; and, more 
recently, by Professor Haupt in the second part of his 
" Das Babylonische Nimrodepos," pp. 133-150, this latter 
being a complete, critical text, giving all the variant read- 
ings and additional remarks beneath the text.* The original 
publication on plates 50 and 51 in the fourth volume oi 
the " Inscriptions of Western Asia " has been re-edited, 
with many improvements, in the second edition of this 
volume, by Theophilus G. Pinches, in 1891 (plates 43 and 
44). — Translations of the deluge story (lines 1-104 of 
Haupt's edition), or of parts thereof, have been made, since 
the days of George Smith, by many Assyriolog^sts — e. g.. 
Fox Talbot, Jules Oppert, F. Lenormant. Special atten- 
tion is called here to the following translations: i. Peter 
Jensen, in his " Cosmology of the Babylonians " (pp. 365- 
446), and in "Assyrisch-babylonische Mythen und Epen," 
pp. 228-257; 2. Alfred Jeremias, in his " Izdabar-Nimrod " 
(pp. 32-40, translating the whole eleventh tablet); 3. H. 
Winckler, " Keilinschriftliches Textbuch zum Alten Testa- 
ment " (pp. 70-87) ; 4. Heinrich Zimmem in Gunkel's book 
on " Creation and Chaos " (pp. 423-428); 5. L. W. King, 
"First Steps in Assyrian" (London, 1898, pp. 161-181, 
text, transliteration, and translation), and the same author's 
" Babylonian Religion and Mythology " (London, 1899, 
chap, iv, pp. 121-146); 6. C. J. Ball, "Light from the 
East, or the Witness of the Monuments " (London, 1899, 
pp. 34 foil.); 7. According to Professor Jastrow's state- 
ment on p. 730 of his " Religion of Babylonia and As- 

' The texts belonging to Tablet XI occupy pages 95-150 of the second 
part— viz., pp. 95-105 contain the fragments of copy A of this tablet ; pp. 
106-113 the fragments of copy B ; pp. 114-119 those of copy C ; and pp. 
120-132 a number of additional fragments. 



THE GILGAMESH NARRATIVE 



351 



Syria," the transliteration and translation of the deluge 
text, together with critical notes and commentary, by Pro- 
fessor Haupt in the forthcoming third edition of Schrader's 
" Die Keilinschriften und das Alte Testament," is to be by 
far the best ever published. — In general, see also the article 
" Deluge," by H. Zimmern and T. K. Cheyne in Cheyne 
and Black's " Encyclopaedia Biblica," London, 1899, vol. i, 
cols. 1 05 5- 1 066. 

Tablet XI continues the dialogue between Per-napish- 
tim and Gilgamesh, begun in Cols. V and VI of the pre- 
ceding tablet. 

Gilgamesh said to him, to Per-napishtim, the distant:* 
" I gaze upon thee (in amazement), O Per-napishtim! 
Thy appearance has not changed, like unto me thou art 

also. 
And thy nature itself has not changed, like unto me thou 

art also, 
though thou hast departed this life. But my heart has still 

to struggle 
against all that no longer (?) lies upon thee. 
Tell me, How didst thou come to dwell (here?) and obtain 

eternal life among the gods? " 

[From the shore Per-napishtim, the favourite of the 
gods, now relates the story of the deluge to the hero, who, 
sitting in his ship, is listening to him.] 

Per-napishtim then said unto Gilgamesh: 

" I will reveal unto thee, O Gilgamesh, the mysterious 

story, 
and the mystery ^ of the gods I will tell thee. 
The city of Shurippak,* a city which, as thou knowest, 
is situated on the bank of the river Euphrates. 
That city was corrupt, so that the gods within it 
decided to bring about a deluge, even the great gods, 
as many as?] there were: their father, Anu; 

' Others, far removed ; the remote, perhaps with reference to line 204 
(see below, p. 358, lines 17-20). 
' Or, decision (?, Haupt). 
' According to Jensen and others, the city of Larancha. 



352 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



their counsellor, the warrior Bel; 

their leader, Ninib; 

their champion, the god En-nu-gi. 

But Ea, the lord of unfathomable wisdom, argued with 

them. 
Their plan he told to a reed-hut, (saying): 
' Reed-hut, reed-hut, clay-structure, day-structure! 
Reed-hut, hear; clay-structure, pay attention!^ 
Thou man of Shurippak, son of Ubara-Tutu,* 
Build a house, construct a ship; 
Forsake thy possessions, take heed for thy life! 
Abandon thy goods, save (thy) life, 
and bring living seed of every kind into the ship. 
As for the ship, which thou shalt build, 
let its proportions be well measured: 
Its breadth and its length shall bear proportion each to each, 
and into the sea then launch it.' 
I took heed, and said to Ea, my lord: 
' I will do, my lord, as thou hast commanded; 
I will observe and will fulfil the command. 
But what shall I answer to (the inquiries of) the city, the 
people, and the elders? ' 
Ea opened his mouth and spoke, 
and he said unto me, his servant: 
' Man, as an answer say thus unto them: 
" I know that Bel hates me. 
No longer can I live in your city; 
Nor on Bel's territory can I live securely any longer; ^ 
I will go down to the ' deep,' I will live with Ea, my lord. 
Upon you he * will (for a time?) pour down rich blessing. 
He will grant you] fowl [in plenty] and fish in abundance, 
Herds of cattle and an abundant] harvest. 
Shamash has appointed a time when the rulers of darkness ' 
at eventide will pour down upon you] a destructive rain." ' 

> See note 2 on page 358. » Kidin-Marduk. 

• Literally, lay down my head ; Bel's territory was the land, as the 
ocean was that of Ea. « Bel. 

• So Zimmern, Jensen (1900) ; others, when he who sends heavy rains 
(Jeremias). 



THE GILGAMESH NARRATIVE 353 

The lower part of Col. I is unfortunately much muti- 
lated. Line 48 seems to read: 

As soon as early dawn appeared. 

Then continues line 55: 

The brightness [of day?] I feared; 

All that was necessary I collected together. 

On the fifth day I drew its design; ^ 

In its middle part its sides were ten gar * high; 

Ten gar also was the extent of its deck; 

I added a front-roof to it and closed it in. 

I built it in six stories, 

thus making seven floors in all; 

The interior of each I divided again into nine partitions.* 

Beaks for water within I cut out. 

I selected a pole and added all that was necessary. 

Three (variant, five) shar of pitch I smeared on its outside; 

three shar of asphalt I used for the inside (so as to make 

it water-tight). 
Three shar of oil the men carried, carrying it in vessels. 
One shar of oil I kept out and used it for sacrifices, 
while the other two shar the boatman stowed away. 
For the temple of the gods (?) I slaughtered oxen; 
I killed lambs (?) day by day. 
Jugs of cider (?), of oil, and of sweet wine. 
Large bowls (filled therewith?), like river water (i. e., freely) 

I poured out as libations. 
I made a feast (to the gods) like that of the New- Year's 

Day.* 
To god Shamash my hands brought oil."* 
[* * *] ® the ship was completed. 

' Or, I constructed its hull. 

' = one hundred and twenty cubits. 

' Thus making in all sixty-three partitions. 

* This festival, celebrated on New- Year's day, was held later in com- 
memoration of the deluge. New- Year's day being originally celebrated 
in memory of the creation. 

' That is, I sacrificed to him. 

' Zimmern, on the seventh day (but??). 
23 



354 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

[* * *] heavy was the work, and 

I added tackling above and below, [and after all was fin- 
ished] , 

The ship sank into water] two thirds of its height. 

With all that I possessed I filled it; 

with all the silver I had I filled it; 

with all the gold I had I filled it; 

with living creatures of every kind I filled it. 

Then I embarked also all my family and my relatives, 

cattle of the field, beasts of the field, and the uprighteous 
people — all them I embarked. 

A time had Shamash appointed, (namely): 

' When the rulers of darkness send at eventide a destruc- 
tive rain, 

then enter into the ship and shut its door.' ^ 

This very sign came to pass, and 

The rulers of darkness sent a destructive rain at eventide. 

I saw the approach of the storm, 

and I was afraid to witness the storm; 

I entered the ship and shut the door. 

I intrusted the guidance of the ship to Purur-bel, the boat- 
man,^ 

the great house, and the contents thereof. 

As soon as early dawn appeared, 

there rose up from the horizon a black cloud, 

within which the weatl;ier god (Adad) thundered, 

and Nabu and the king of the gods (Marduk) went before. 

The destroyers passed across mountain and dale (literally, 
country). 

Dibbara, the great,^ tore loose the anchor-cable (?). 

There went Ninib and he caused the banks to overflow; 

the Anunnaki lifted on high (their) torches, 

and with the brightness thereof they illuminated the uni- 
verse. 

The storm brought on by Adad swept even up to the 
heavens, 

' Variant reading says, thy ship. • Or Uragal (?). 

' Of course, not the same as Arad-Ea, mentioned before. 



THE GILGAMESH NARRATIVE 



355 



and all light was turned into darkness. 

[ ] overflooded the land like * * * 

It blew with violence and in one day (?) it rose above the 
mountains (??). 

Like an onslaught in battle it rushed in on the people. 

Not could brother look after brother. 

Not were recognised the people from heaven. 

The gods even were afraid of the storm; 

they retreated and took refuge in the heaven of Anu.* 

There the gods crouched down like dogs, on the inclosure 
of heaven "^ they sat cowering. 

Then Ishtar cried out like a woman in travail,* 

and the lady of the gods lamented with a loud voice,* (say- 
ing): 

' The world of old has been turned back into clay, 

because I assented to this evil in the assembly of the gods. 

Alas! that when I assented to this evil in the council of the 
gods, 

I was for the destruction of my own people. 

What I have created, where is it? 

Like the spawn of fish it fills the sea.' ^ 

The gods wailed with her over the Anunnaki. 

The gods were bowed down, and sat there weeping. 

Their lips were pressed together (in fear and in terror). 

Six days and nights 

The wind blew, and storm and tempest, overwhelmed the 
country. 

When the seventh day drew nigh the tempest, the storm, 
the battle 

which they had waged like a great host began to moderate. 

The sea quieted down; hurricane and storm ceased. 

I looked out upon the sea and raised loud my voice, 

But all mankind had turned back into clay. 

' Jensen, the sky ; others, the highest part of heaven. 

' The firmament ? ' Variant reading has, full of wrath. 

' Jeremias, who always speaks kindly. 

'• Zimmern translates lines 123 and 124, shall I ever again bring human 
beings into this world, when now, like the spawn of fish, they fill the 
sea? 



356 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

Like the surrounding field had become the bed of the 

rivers.* 
I opened the air-hole and light fell upon my cheek. 
Dumfounded I sank backward, and sat weeping, 
while over my cheek flowed the tears. 
I looked in every direction, and behold, all was sea. 
Now, after twelve (days?) there rose (out of the water) a 

strip of land.* 
To Mount Nisir the ship drifted. 
On Mount Nisir the boat stuck fast and it did not slip 

away. 
The first day, the second day. Mount Nisir held the ship 

fast, and did not let it slip away. 
The third day, the fourth day, Mount Nisir held the ship 

fast, and did not let it slip away. 
The fifth day, the sixth day. Mount Nisir held the ship 

fast, and did not let it slip away. 
When the seventh day drew nigh 
I sent out a dove, and let her go. 
The dove flew hither and thither, 

but as there was no resting-place for her, she returned. 
Then I sent out a swallow, and let her go. 
The swallow flew hither and thither, 

but as there was no resting-place for her she also returned. 
Then I sent out a raven, and let her go. 
The raven flew away and saw the abatement of the waters. 
She settled down to feed,* went away, and returned no 

more. 
Then I let everything go out unto the four winds, and I 

offered a sacrifice. 
I poured out a libation upon the peak of the mountain. 
I placed the censers seven and seven, 

' That is, there was everything covered with water ; Jastrow, in place 
of dams, everything had become a marsh ; King, in place of fields, there lay 
before me a swamp ; Jensen (tgoo), as soon as daylight appeared, I prayed. 

' Others, after twelve double hours ; Jeremias, twelve cubits high land 
arose ; Zimraern, toward the twelfth (cardinal point) land arose. 

"Either on floating carcasses or on the slimy mud; King, and she 
came near, wading and croaking, but did not return. 



THE GILGAMESH NARRATIVE 



357 



and poured into them calamus, cedar-wood, and sweet- 
incense. 

The gods smelt the savour; 

yea, the gods smelt the sweet savour; 

the gods gathered like flies around the sacrificer. 

But when now the lady of the gods (Ishtar) drew nigh, 

she lifted up the precious ornaments (?) * which Anu had 
made according to her wish (and said): 

' Ye gods here! by my necklace, not will I forget. 

These days will I remember, never will I forget (them). 

Let the gods come to the offering; 

But Bel shall not come to the offering. 

Since rashly he caused the flood-storm, 

and handed over my people unto destruction.' 

Now, when Bel drew nigh, 

and saw the ship, the god was wroth, 

and anger against the gods, the Igigi, filled his heart, (and 
he said): 

'Who then has escaped here (with his life)? 

No man was to survive the universal destruction.' 

Then Ninib opened his mouth and spoke, 

saying unto Bel, the warrior: 

' Who but Ea could have planned this! 

For does not Ea know all arts? ' 

Then Ea opened his mouth and spoke, 

saying unto Bel, the warrior: 

' Ay, thou wise one among the gods, thou warrior, 

how rash of thee to bring about a flood-storm! 

On the sinner visit his sin, 

and on the wicked his wickedness; 

but be merciful, forbear, let not all be destroyed! Be con- 
siderate, let not everything be [confounded] ! 

Instead of sending a flood-storm, 

let lions ^ come and diminish mankind; 

Instead of sending a flood-storm, 

let tigers come and diminish mankind; 

' Literally, the great lightnings. 

• Compare 2 Kings, xvii, 25 ; Ezek., xiv, 15. 



358 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

Instead of sending a flood-storm, 

let famine come and smite the land; 

Instead of sending a flood-storm, 

let pestilence come and kill off the people.^ 

I did not reveal the mystery of the great gods. 

(Some one?) caused Atrachasis to see (it) in a dream, and so 

he (Per-napishtim) heard the mystery of the gods." * 
Thereupon Bel arrived at a decision. 
Bel went up into the ship, 
took me by the hand and led me out. 
He led out also my' wife and made her kneel beside me; 
He turned us face to face, and standing between us, blessed 

us, (saying): 
' Ere this Per-napishtim was only human; 
But now Per-napishtim and his wife shall be lofty like unto 

the gods; 
Let Per-napishtim live far away (from men) at the mouth of 

the (two?) rivers.' 
Then they took me and let us dwell far away at the mouth 

of the rivers." ' 

After Per-napishtim had finished this account, he turned 
to Gilgamesh and said: 

" Now as for thee, which one of the gods shall give thee 

strength, 
that the life thou desirest thou shalt obtain? 

■ See Ezek., xiv, 21 ; Jer., xv, 3. 

' According to Dr. Jeremias, Atrachasis was not another name for 
Per-napishtim, but the name of a messenger of the gods ; his name = the 
very wise ; Haupt, the most holy, religious. Through Atrachasis, Per- 
napishtim heard of the impending disaster. Professor Jastrow, in the 
New York " Independent," February 10 and 17, 1898, maintained that (i) 
Per-napishtim was the hero of a local tradition of a rainstorm, submerg- 
ing a single city ; while (2) Atrachasis = Chasis-adra (cf. Gen. vi, 9), the 
prototype of SlffovOpos, was the hero of the larger Nature myth, based upon 
the annual phenomenon of the overflow of the Euphrates. See also Jas- 
trow, in " Zeitschrift f<Jr Assyriologie," vol. xii, pp. 288-301. According 
to most scholars, Ea addresses the hut in which Per-napishtim (= Atracha- 
sis) was sleeping, thus revealing to him in sleep the mystery of the gods. 

' For other accounts of the story of the deluge, see below, at the end 
of the twelfth tablet of the Nimrod epic. 



THE GILGAMESH NARRATIVE 



359 



Now sleep! " And for six days and seven nights 

Gilgamesh resembled one lying lame. 

Sleep came over him like a storm wind. 

Then Per-napishtim said to his wife: 

" Behold, here is the hero whose desire is life (= recov- 
ery)! 

Sleep came upon him like a storm wind." 

And the wife replied to Per-napishtim, the distant: 

" Transform him; let the man eat of the charm-root. 

Let him, restored in health, return on the road on which 
he came. 

Let him pass out through the great door unto his own 
country." 

And Per-napishtim said to his wife: 

" The suffering (and torture) of the man pain thee. 

Well, then, cook now for him the food and place it at his 
head." 

And while Gilgamesh slept on board of his ship, 

she cooked the food to place it at his head. 

And while he slept on board of his ship, 

firstly, his food was prepared (?); 

secondly, it was peeled; thirdly, it was moistened; 

fourthly, his food (?) was cleaned; 

fifthly, shiba (i. e., old age) ^ was added; 

sixthly, it was cooked; 

seventhly, of a sudden the man was transformed, having 
eaten of the magic food. 

Then spoke Gilgamesh, and said unto Per-napishtim, the 
distant: 

" I had sunk down, and sleep had befallen me. 

Of a sudden thou didst charm me, and thus help, me " (?). 

And Per-napishtim said unto Gilgamesh: 

" * * * Gilgamesh partake of (?) thy food. 

* * * shall be told unto thee: 

firstly, thy food was prepared (?); 

secondly, it was peeled; thirdly, it was moistened; 

fourthly, thy food (?) was cleaned; 

• Name given to some plant of magic power (?), 



360 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

fifthly, shipa was added; 

sixthly, it was cooked; 

seventhly, I transformed thee suddenly, 

and thou didst eat of the magic food." 

And Gilgamesh said unto Per-napishtim, the distant: 

" What?] shall I do, Per-napishtim? whither shall I go? 

The demon (of the dead?) has seized my [friend?]. 

Upon my couch death now sits. 

And where my * * * there is death." 

And Per-napishtim said to Arad-Ea, the ferryman: 

" Arad-Ea, thou * * * at thy side (?), let the boat carry 
thee; 

whosoever attempts to board [the ship?] exclude him 
from it. 

The man, before whom thou goest, 

has his body covered with sores, 

and the eruption of his skin has altered the beauty of his 
body. 

Take him, Arad-Ea, and bring him to the place of puri- 
fication, 

where he can wash his sores in water that they may be- 
come white as snow; 

Let him cast off his (sore?) skin and the sea will carry it 
away; 

His body shall then appear well (and healthy) ; 

Let the turban also be replaced on his head, 

and the garment that covers his nakedness. 

Until he returns to his city, 

until he arrives at his road. 

The garment shall not shed [hair?], it shall remain entirely 
new." 

And Arad-Ea took him and brought him to the place of 
purification, 

where he washed his sores in water so that they became 
white as snow; 

he cast off his (sore?) skin and the sea carried it away; 

his body appeared well (and healthy) again; 

He replaced also the turban on his head; 



THE GILGAMESH NARRATIVE 361 

and the garment that covered his nakedness; 

until he should return to his city; 

until he should arrive at his road; 

[the garment did not shed hair] , it remained entirely new. 

Then Gilgamesh and Arad-Ea embarked again, 

and during their journey the ship tossed to and fro. 

[After Gilgamesh and Arad-Ea had returned from the 
place of purification:] 

The wife of Per-napishtim spoke unto her husband, the 

distant, (saying): 
" Gilgamesh did go away, laboured, and has pulled (the 

oar?). 
What now wilt thou do (or give), that he may return to 

his country? " 
And Gilgamesh lifted up the pole, 
and drew the boat nearer to the shore. 
Then Per-napishtim spoke unto Gilgamesh (and said): 
" Gilgamesh, thou didst go away, didst labour and pull 

(the oar?). 
What now shall I give thee, that thou mayest return to 

thy country? 
I will reveal unto thee, Gilgamesh, a mystery, 
and [the decision of the gods] I will announce unto thee. 
There is a plant resembling buckthorn, 
its thorn (?) stings like that of a bramble. 
When thy hands can reach that plant * * * " ^ 
When Gilgamesh had heard this 
he opened the * * * 
bound heavy stones [to his feet], 
which dragged him down to the sea [and thus he found the 

plant] . 
Then he grasped the (magic) plant. 
He removed [from his feet] the heavy stones [and one 

fell down?], 
and a second he threw down to the [first?]. 
And Gilgamesh said unto Arad-Ea, the ferryman: 

' The following lines 286-293 are greatly mutilated 



362 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

" Arad-Ea, this plant is a plant of great renown (or trans- 
formation?); 

and what man desires in his heart, he obtains. 

I will take it to Erech the strong-walled, I will nurse 
(plant?) it there and then cut it off. 

Its name is (?): ' Even an old man will be rejuvenated! * 

I will eat of this and return (again) to the vigour of my 
youth." 

[And now they start out to return home to Erech the 
strong-walled.] 

Every twenty double-leagues they then took a meal: 

and every thirty double-leagues they took a rest. 

And Gilgamesh saw a well wherein was cool (and refresh- 
ing) water; 

He stepped into it and poured out some water. 

A^(demon in the shape of a) serpent darted out; the plant 
slipped {away from his hands] ; 

he came [out of the well?], and took the plant away, 

and as he turned back, he uttered a curse (?). 

And after this Gilgamesh sat down and wept. ■ 

Tears flowed down his cheeks, 

and he said unto Arad-Ea, the ferryman: 

" Why, Arad-Ea, did my hands tremble? 

Why did the blood of my heart stand still? ^ 

Not on myself did I bestow any benefit. 

On the ground-lion (?) this benefit has been bestowed. 

After a journey of only twenty double-leagues the plant 
has been snatched away. 

As I opened the well, and lowered the vessel (?). 

I see the sign, that has become an omen to me. I am to 
return, 

leaving the ship on the shore." 

Then they continued to take a meal every twenty double- 
leagues, 

and every thirty double-leagfues they took a rest, 

until they arrived at Erech the strong-walled. 

' That is, why was I thus frightened ? 



THE GILGAMESH NARRATIVE 363 

Gilgamesh then spoke to Arad-Ea, the ferryman, (and 

said) : 
" Arad-Ea, ascend and walk about on the wall of Erech, 
Inspect the corner-stone, and examine its brick-work, 

whether its wall is not made of burned brick, 
and its foundation (overlaid with?) pitch. ' Sevenfold is 

thy name ' (?).* 

[The closing lines can not be correctly translated.] 

Then follows the first line of Tablet XII; and the usual 
colophon indicating that the tablet is the eleventh of the 
Gilgamesh epic, copied faithfully from the original, and 
the property of Ashurbanipal. 

TABLET XII 

Only the second half of Col. I is preserved, and relates 
how Gilgamesh, after his return from this long journey, 
continued to lament over the loss of his friend Eabani. 
Addressing him, though absent, he said: 

" To a temple [thou goest no more?] 

white garments [thou puttest on no more]. 

Like an ordinary mortal (?) thou art fallen. 

With sweet-smelling bull's fat dost thou no more anoint 

thyself, 
and people no more gather around thee on account of 

this sweet odour. 
The bow no longer dost thou stretch upon the ground; 
and those that were slain with the bow now are round 

about thee. 
The staff no longer dost thou carry in thy hand; 
The spirits of death have taken thee captive. 
Sandals no longer dost thou tie to thy feet; 
A (war) cry no longer dost thou shout here on earth; 
Thy wife whom thou lovedst, no longer dost thou kiss; 
Thy wife whom thou hatedst, no longer dost thou smite. 

' Addressed to Erech (?). 



364 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

Thy son whom thou lovedst, no longer dost thou kiss; 
Thy son whom thou hatedst, no longer dost thou smite. 
The woes of the netherworld have overtaken thee; as 

well as 
she that is dark, she that is dark, mother Nin-azu, who is 

dark,* 
whose white, shining body is not clothed with a garment, 
whose breast like the bowl (lid?) of a case [is not * * *]." 

In Cols. II and III Gilgamesh goes alone into the tem- 
ple of the god Ningul, and laments over the loss of his 
friend in similar words: 

" His wife whom he loved, no longer does he kiss; 

His wife whom he hated, no longer does he smite; 

His son whom he loved, no longer does he kiss; 

His son whom he hated, no longer does he smite. 

The woes of earth have snatched him away, and 

she that is dark, she that is dark, mother Nin-azu, who is 
dark, 

whose white, shining body is not clothed with a gar- 
ment, 

whose breast like the bowl (lid?) of a box [is not * * *]. 

Eabani has [gone down?] from earth into [darkness?] ; 

pestilence has not snatched him away, consumption has 
not snatched him away; 

earth has snatched him away. 

The lurking demon of Nergal, the merciless, has not 
snatched him away, 

earth has snatched him away. 

The battlefield has not slain him; earth has snatched him 
away." 

[While Gilgamesh spoke thus?] Ningul wept for his serv- 
ant Eabani.* 

Then Gilgamesh went alone to E-kur the Temple of Bel 
(Marduk?) (and prayed): 

' Consort of Nergal the goddess of medicine and healing, and also the 
goddess of the netherworld. 

' But apparently would not do anything to bring back Eabani. 



THE GILGAMESH NARRATIVE 365 

" Father Bel, the sting of a fly has cast me down upon the 

ground; 
Insects have brought me low to the ground. 
Eabani [has sunk down] to the shades; 
Pestilence has not snatched him away, etc. * * * 
The lurking demon of Nergal, the merciless [has not 

snatched him away]. 
The battlefield has not slain him." 
But father Bel could not help him.* 

[In his sorrow, Gilgamesh addresses himself then to 
the Moon-god, saying:] 

" Father Sin, the sting of a fly has cast me down upon the 

ground; 
Insects have brought me low to the ground. 
Eabani [has sunk down] to the shades; 
Pestilence has not snatched him away, etc. 
The lurking demon of Nergal, the merciless [has not 

snatched him away]." 

[But Sin also could not do anything for Gilgamesh, 
nor could Ea, to whom he appealed with the same lament. 
But Ea besought Nergal, the god of the dead, the " hero 
and lord " (saying) :] 

" Break open the chamber of the grave [and open the 

ground], 
that the spirit of Eabani, like a wind, 
may rise out of the ground." 

When Nergal, the hero and lord, heard this prayer. 
He broke open the chamber of the grave and opened the 

ground; 
and caused the spirit of Eabani to rise out of the ground, 

like a wind. 

Col. IV begins with a dialogue between Gilgamesh and 
Eabani; the former asking his friend to describe unto him 
the netherworld: 

' Literally, said not a word. 



366 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

" Tell me, my friend, O tell me, my friend; 
the appearance (?, looks) of the land,* which thou hast 
seen, O tell me! " 

But Eabani replied: 

" I can not tell thee, my friend, I can not tell thee. 

If I would describe to thee the appearance of the land that 
I have seen, 

[surely, Gilgamesh, thou wouldst?] sit down and weep." 

[And Gilgamesh said unto him?] : " Then let me sit down 
and weep! 

[Bitter and sad?] is all that formerly gladdened thy heart. 

[All is there — i. e., in the netherworld?] Hke an old gar- 
ment that the worm does eat. 

What thou hast done [while in this life?], what formerly 
gladdened thy heart. 

[All is gone?] is cloaked in dust.' 

The rest of Col. IV and the whole of Col. V are lost. 
Col. VI closes the whole epic, with Eabani's description of 
the joys awaiting the hero slain in battle and having re- 
ceived due burial; and bewailing the unhappy, miserable 
lot of the man to whom are denied the last burial rites; 
the important lesson for all readers of the poem being, 
" Take good care of your dead." He is properly cared 
for who — 

rests on a soft couch, and drinks pure water; 
the hero slain in battle — 

Thou and I have often seen such an one — 
His father and mother support his head, 
and his wife [kneels] at his side. 
Yea! the spirit of such a man is at rest. 
But the man whose corpse remains [unburied] upon the 
field— 

Thou and I have often seen such an one — 
His spirit does not find rest in the earth (i. e., Hades). 

' Here = the netherworld, Hades. 



THE GILGAMESH NARRATIVE 367 

The man whose spirit has no one who cares for it — 

Thou and I have often seen such an one — 
consumes the dregs of the bowl, the broken remnants of 

food, 
that are cast into the street. 

Then follows the colophon of Tablet XII, and of the 
whole poem, which thus has come to an end. 

According to Professor Haupt (" Contributions to As- 
syriology," vol. i, pp. 318, 319), plates 16-19 o^ his edition 
of the Nimrod-epic belong to Tablet XII; Dr. Jeremias, 
on the other hand, is inclined to believe that these frag- 
ments formed part of another recension of the same poem. 
The fact that there were several recensions of the account 
of the deluge goes far to strengthen the contention of Dr. 
Jeremias. The fragments, printed on plates 16-19, are por- 
tions pf Cols. Ill and IV of (?) tablet. The mention 
of the hunter (see above, p. 327); of the Uchat; the address, 
" my friend," show that Eabani is the speaker. In Col. Ill 
he curses the Uchat, who with the assistance of the crafty 
hunter had " brought a curse upon him." He hopes that 
" she will be imprisoned in the great prison," curses " her 
charms," " her sisters," and " her maidens." Col. IV (pp. 
17 and 19 of Haupt's edition) states the reason why Eabani 
curses the Uchat (or perhaps Ishtar directly). Eabani has 
gone down into the netherworld, and he tells his friend, 
who with the help of witchcraft has succeeded in bringing 
him up again, what he has seen there: 

" * * * has brought me back 

* * * like as the bird of darkness. 

I have descended?] to the house of darkness, the dwelling 

of the goddess Irkalla; ^ 
to the house, whence he that enters goes out no more; 
to the road, whose way turns not back; 
to the house, whose inhabitants are deprived of light; 
to the place where dust is their sustenance, their food clay. 

' Goddess AUatu. 



368 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

They are clothed, like a bird, with feathered raiment (?). 

Light they see not, they sit in darkness. 

In] the house, my friend, which I have entered, 

in that house] crowns are cast down on the ground, 

and there live those who had worn crowns, who in days 
of old had ruled countries; 

to whom Anu and Belit had given roasted meat to eat. 

Now, cold meals are prepared, and water from leather bot- 
tles is poured out for them. 

In the house, my friend, which I have entered, 

there dwell also priests and ministers; 

There dwell soothsayers and enchanters; 

there dwell the temple-anointers of the great gods. 

There dwells Etana, and there dwells Ner; 

There dwells also the queen of the earth (i. e., of Hades), the 
goddess Ereshkigal (i. e., Allatu). 

[There dwells?] the scribe of the earth, bowed down be- 
fore her. 

* * * and reads before her, 

and Ereshkigal lifted up] her head and saw me." 



SOME OTHER ACCOUNTS OF AND 
REFERENCES TO THE DELUGE 



A TEXT of King Ashurbanipal, published by C. F. 
Lehmann in his book " Shamashshumukin," vol. ii, 
'^ pp. 66 and 67, states that Ashurbanipal read many 
tablets, and continues: " I was glad to read also the tablet 
from the time before the deluge." 

2. A text published in the fourth volume of the " In- 
scriptions of Western Asia," plate 19, No. i, contains prob- 
ably an account of the deluge. 

3. In the " Zeitschrift fiir Assyriologie," vol. iv, pp. 
369 fol.. Dr. Peiser published a mythological text, with a 
map giving a primitive picture of Babylon at the time of 
the deluge; here Per-napishtim is especially mentioned as 
one of the kings who ruled before the flood. The text is 
quite fragmentary. The Persian Gulf was conceived of as 
encompassing Babylon, and round about this ocean lay 
seven islands. The mountain of the deluge was due north 
of Babylon, but still within the space inclosed by the ocean. 
The time of the deluge was apparently designated as " the 
year of the great serpent." 

4. A most important new fragment of a Babylonian ac- 
count of the deluge was found by Father Scheil, of Paris. 
It is dated: Month of Shebat, day twenty-eighth, the year 
in which Ammizaduga built the fortress at the mouth of 
the river Euphrates — i. e., not much later than 2140 b. c. 
The subscription, fortunately preserved, informs us that 

24 3^ 



370 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

the document was the tenth chapter of a story whose title 
was, " While the Man rested," and is thus part of a story 
quite distinct from the account contained in Tablet XI 
of the Nimrod-epic. The total number of lines on this 
tablet was originally four hundred and thirty-nine, but 
there are only preserved a part of the first, second, sev- 
enth, and eighth columns. The first column is in very 
bad condition and can not be translated. The rem- 
nants of Col. II read: 

that 

that he has 

that he should kill, that he should destroy. 
In the morning that he should rain down the extermina- 
tion, 
that during the night he should prolong * * * 
that he should rain down the inundation * * * 
The rain of the plain he will make great; the city * * * 
That which Adad shall have accomplished in the city; 
He says that he will overturn (?) the land * * * 
He raises a cry * * * 
(The gods) will not fear * * * 

Col. VII: 

Ea spoke the word 

and said unto me: 

" Why wilt thou make men to die * * * 

I will reach out my hand to men * * * 

The deluge of which thou speakest * * * 

Whatever it may be, I * * * 

I, shall I have produced (in vain?) * * * 

He shall be informed of it * * * 

To the end that he build * * * 

and he shall beget * * * 

That they may enter (into the ship * * * 

That Per-napishtim (take) the oar * * * 

That he may come * * * 

That he may take * * * " 



SOME OTHER ACCOUNTS OF THE DELUGE 



371 



Col. VIII alludes to a god, a benefactor of the human 
race, and closes with the formula: 

Adram-chasis utters his word 
and speaks to his lord. 

This is followed by the lines which classify and date the 
document. 

See Scheil, in " The Independent," New York, January 
20, 1898, pp. 7 and 8; and Morris Jastrow, ibid., February 
10 and 17, 1898. 



THE MAGICAL TEXTS 



THE MAQLU SERIES 

FIRST TABLET 

INCANTATION. I call unto you, gods of the night, 
Together with you I call unto the night, unto the 
veiled mistress; , 

I call at evening, at midnight, and at dawn. 
Because the sorceress has enchanted me (and) 
The charmer has banned me, 
My god and my goddess cry aloud over me. 
I am in sore distress because of my deafness, 
I stand upright, I do not lay me down night or day. 
They have filled my mouth with cords. 
They have stopped up my mouth with upuntu-weed, 
They have denied me water to drink; 
My mirth has become misery, my joy sadness. 
Arise, great gods, hearken unto my complaint. 
Plead my cause and look into my behaviour! 
I have made an image of my sorcerer and my sorceress. 
Of my enchanter and my enchantress. 
I cast myself at your feet and make my complaint: 
Because they have done evil things, and have sought out 

that which is impure. 
May every one of them die, but may I live! 
May their sorcery, their witchcraft, their bewitchment be 

loosed! 
May the binu-tree, whose bark (?) is torn off (?), purify me! 
May * * * loose me, may obstinacy of the mouth be cast 

to the winds! 

372 



THE MAQLU SERIES 373 

May the mashtakal herb, of which the earth is full, make 

me clean! 
May * * * of which the grain is full, loose me! 
In your presence will I shine like the * * * herb, 
I shall be pure and clean like the lardu herb. 
The incantation of the sorceress is evil: 
Her words shall return to her mouth, her tongue shall be 

cut out; 
Because of her sorcery may the gods of the night smite her! 
May the three night-watches loose her evil witchcraft! 
May her mouth be wax, her tongue honey! 
May the word harmful to me which she has spoken melt 

away like wax! 
May the sorcery which she has used be dissolved like 

honey! 
Her knots are cut in two, her work is destroyed. 
The field is full of her words, 
According to the command which the gods of the night 

have given. Pronounce the incantation. 

Incantation. O earth, earth, earth, 
Gilgamesh is the lord of your ban. 
Whatever ye do, I know; 
What I do, ye do not know. 

Whatever evil my sorceresses have done is broken, loosed, 
and is not. Pronounce the incantation. 



Incantation. My city is ^appan, my city is Qappan. 

Two are the doors of my city ^appan. 

The first toward the rising of the sun, the second toward 

the setting of the sun. 
The first toward the rising of the sun, the second toward 

the setting of the sun. 
I carry a box, a jar, and mashtakal herb, 
I bring water to the gods of the heavens. 
As I perform cleansing for you. 
Do ye cleanse me! Pronounce the incantation. 



374 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

Incantation. I have cut off the ford, I have blocked up 

the wall, 
I have prevented the enchantment of the whole world. 
The god and the goddess have commissioned me: 
" Whom shall I send to Belit of the field? " 
In the mouth of my sorcerer and my sorceress thrust a 

gag, 
Thrust the incantation of the leader of the gods, Marduk! 
Though they call to thee, do not answer them. 
Though they speak with thee, do not hearken unto them! 
I will call to thee; answer me! 
I will speak with thee; hearken unto me! 
According to the command which the god, the goddess, 

and Belit of the field have given. Pronounce the 

incantation. 

Incantation. These images of my enchanter. 

These images of my witch. 

Of my sorcerer (and) my sorceress, 

Of my enchanter (and) my enchantress. 

Of my male deceiver (and) my female deceiver. 

Of the master of my destruction and the mistress of my 

destruction, 
Of the master of my oppression and the mistress of my 

oppression. 
Of the master of my adversity and the mistress of my 

adversity. 
Of the master of my persecution and the mistress of my 

persecution. 
Of the master of my judgment and the mistress of my 

judgment. 
Of the master of my speech and the mistress of my speech. 
Of the master of my planning and the mistress of my 

planning, 
Of the master of my thinking and the mistress of my 

thinking, 
Of the master of my hurt and the mistress of my hurt. 
As" many as there are of them, I know them not. 



THE MAQLU SERIES 375 

Sorcery, witchcraft, bewitchment, wily tricks (?), 
Enchantment, rebellion, harmful words, love, hate, 
Deceit, rapine, * * * 

* * *, madness, 

* * * * * * 

* * * these, their images 

* * * they stand, their images I raise. 

Fire-god, judge, conqueror of the wicked and the enemy, 
conquer them and I shall not be destroyed! 

They have made images of me, similar to my images, imi- 
tating my likeness. 

They have seized me * * *, they have shaken my neck. 

They have gone forth against my * * *, they have bent 
my spine, 

They have weakened my * * *, they have taken away the 
courage from my heart. 

They have roused up the gods against me, they have made 
my strength weakness, 

* * *, they have bound my knees. 

They have filled me with * * * and uncleanness. 

They have made me to eat * * * 

They have made me to drink * * * 

They have poured over me unclean (water). 

They have anointed me with an ointment of noisome herbs. 

They have taken me for a corpse. 

The water of my life they have cast into the grave. 

They have enraged gods, kings, lords, and princes against 
me. 

Thou, O Fire-god, who burns the sorcerer and the sor- 
ceress, 

Who extirpates the bad, the seed of sorcerer and sorceress. 

Thou art the destroyer of the wicked. 

To thee I call as to Shamash the judge: 

Pronounce my judgment, determine my fate, 

Bum the sorcerer and the sorceress, 

Devour my enemies, destroy my foes. 

May the fearful day overtake them! 

Like water in a skin may they perish by being poured out. 



376 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

Like the cutting of stones, may their fingers be cut off! 
According to thy exalted command which changes not, 
And thy sure mercy which swerves not. Pronounce the in- 
cantation. 

Incantation. Nusku, great god, offspring of Anu, 

Likeness of his father, first-bom of Bel, 

Product of the deep, creation of Ea, 

I raise the torch to give thee light, even thee. 

The sorcerer has charmed me. With the witchcraft with 

which he has charmed me do thou charm him. 
The sorceress has charmed me. With the witchcraft with 

which she has charmed me do thou charm her. 
The enchanter has bewitched me. With the witchery 

with which he has bewitched me do thou bewitch 

him. 
The witch has bewitched me. With the witchery with 

which she has bewitched me do thou bewitch her. 
The enchantress has bewitched me. With the witchery 

with which she has bewitched me do thou bewitch 

her. 
As for those who have made images of me, similar to my 

images, imitating my likeness. 
Who have taken away my breath, who have torn out my 

hair, 
Who have rent my garments, who in anger have hindered 

my feet from walking in the dust. 
May the warlike Fire-god remove their incantation! Pro- 
nounce the incantation. 

Incantation. I raise the torch, I bum their images, 

The images of the demon, the evil spirit, the spook, the 

spectre. 
The female oppressor, the ghost, the vampire. 
The male demon of the night, the female demon of the 

night, the maid demon of the night. 
And any evil which seizes a man. 
Totter, melt, and vanish! 



THE MAQLU SERIES 377 

May your smoke ascend to heaven, 
May Shamash destroy the members of your body, 
May the child of Ea, the conjurer, cut off your Hfe (?)! 
Pronounce the incantation. 



SECOND TABLET 

Incantation. Nusku, great god, counsellor of the great 

gods, 
Guardian of the free-will offerings of all the Igigi, 
Founder of cities, renewer of shrines. 
Brilliant day, whose command is supreme. 
Messenger of Anu, who gives ear to the decrees of Bel, 
Who is obedient to Bel the counsellor, mountain of the 

Powerful in battle, whose onset is fierce, 

Nusku, fiery, who strikes with lightning the foes; 

Without thee no table is prepared in the temple. 

Without thee the great gods do not smell the savour. 

Without thee the judge does not pronounce judgment. 
********** 

I, thy servant So-and-so, the son of So-and-so, whose god 

is So-and-so, and whose goddess is So-and-so, 
I turn to thee, I seek thee, lifting up my hands to thee, and 

bowing at thy feet. 
Burn the sorcerer and the sorceress. 
As for my sorcerer and my sorceress (?), may their life be 

destroyed! 
As for me, grant me life that I may make thy heart glad, 

and that I may humbly serve thee! 

Pronounce the incantation in a whisper in the presence of 
an image of wax. 

Incantation. O Fire-god, fiery, first-born of Anu, 
Thou art he who pronounces my judgment and proclaims 

my fate. 
Thou makest light the darkness, 
Thou bringest order into confusion and disorder. 



378 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

To the great gods thou givest power to determine fate. 
No god has the power to determine fate like thee, 
Thou art he who gives commands and behests. 

[Several Hnes missing.] 
Now in the presence of thy great divinity. 
With my hand have I made of bronze the images of the 

sorcerer and the sorceress, 
Before thee have I placed them and given them into thy 

charge. 
Let them die, but let me live. 
Let them be under a ban, but let me prosper, 
Let them perish, but let me increase. 
Let them become weak, but let me wax strong. 
O Fire-god, mighty, lofty among the gods. 
Conqueror of the wicked and the enemy, conquer them 

and I shall not be destroyed. 
May I, thy servant, live, may I remain secure, may I stand 

in thy presence! 
Thou art my god, thou art my lord, 
Thou art my judge, thou art my helper, 
Thou art my avenger. Pronounce the incantation. 
Pronounce the incantation in a whisper in the presence of 

an image of bronze. 

Incantation. O Fire-god, fiery, mighty son of Anu, 
Strongest among thy brethren art thou. 
Who givest judgment like Sin and Shamash. 
Pronounce my judgment, determine my fate. 
Burn the sorcerer and the sorceress. 
O Fire-god, burn the sorcerer and the sorceress! 
O Fire-god, roast the sorcerer and the sorceress! 
O Fire-god, burn them! 
O Fire-god, roast them! 
O Fire-god, overpower them! 
O Fire-god, destroy them! 
O Fire-god, carry them away! 

As for those who practise evil sorcery and noxious 
witchcraft, 



THE MAQLU SERIES 379 

Who have devised evil against me. 

Cause a strong one to take away their possessions, 

Deprive them of their property, and 

Cause the spoiler to lie down in their encampments. 

O Fire-god, strong, perfect, mighty. 

In the temple, the place of thy retreat (?) how long? 

At the sacrifice of Ea, thy begetter, * * * the brilliant god. 

Who * * * . Pronounce the incantation. 

Pronounce the incantation in a whisper in the presence of 
an image of honey. 

Incantation. O Fire-god, strong, threatening day. 

Thou directest gods and kings. 

Thou pronouncest judgment upon the bad man and the 
bad woman; 

Stand for my cause like Shamash, the warrior. 

Pronounce my judgment, determine my fate, 

Bum the sorcerer and the sorceress, 

Devour my enemies, destroy my foes, 

May thy fearful day overtake them! Pronounce the in- 
cantation. 

Pronounce the incantation in a whisper in the presence of 
an image of clay. 

Incantation. O Fire-god, powerful, first-bom of Anu, 

Bright, lofty offspring of Shalash, 

Powerful, brilliant, eternal name among the gods. 

Giver of free-will offerings to the gods, the Igigi, 

Creator of light for the Anunnaki, the great gods. 

O mighty Fire-god, who devastates * * * , 

O Fire-god, full of strength, who destroys the cunning and 
the godless. 

Who burns the wicked, the seed of sorcerer and sorceress, 

Who extirpates the bad, the seed of sorcerer and sorceress, 

On this day stand for my cause, and 

Overpower the wicked who bring about rebellion and sedi- 
tion. 



38o ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

As these images totter, melt away, and disappear. 
So may the sorcerer and the sorceress totter, melt away, 
and disappear! 

Pronounce the incantation in a whisper in the presence of 
an image of bitumen. 

Incantation. They have used all kinds of charms. 
To entwine me as with a rope. 
To overpower me as with a net. 
To bind me as with a cord. 
To catch me as with a trap. 
To lasso me as with a noose. 
To tear me down as a building, 
To fill me as with dirty water from walls. 
To treat me as the razing of a wall. 

^ut I, at the command of Marduk, the lord of the festival, 
And Marduk, the lord of the incantation. 
The enchanter and the witch 
As with a rope will I entwine them. 
As with a net will I overpower them, 
As with a cord will I bind them. 
As with a trap will I catch them. 
As with a noose will I lasso them. 
As a building will I tear them down, 
As with dirty water from walls will I fill them. 
As the razing of a wall will I treat them, 
* * * thy * * * the image of the sorcerer and the sor- 
ceress. 

Pronounce the incantation in a whisper in the presence of 
an image of bitumen over which gypsum is poured. 

COLOPHON 

The second tablet of the " Maqlu Series," 

Written according to the original, new and revised (edi- 
tion). 

Palace of Ashurbanipal, king of the world, King of Assyria, 
who puts his trust in Ashur and Belit, 



THE MAQLU SERIES 381 

To whom Nabu and Tashmetu have given a liberal un- 
derstanding (literally, broad ears), 

Who possesses a clear eye, (and) the noble art of tablet- 
writing, 

Such as no one of the kings my predecessors had acquired. 

The wisdom of Nabu * * * as much as there was 

On tablets I have inscribed, edited, revised, and 

For my inspection and reading 

Placed in my palace. 

Even I, the lord, who knows the light of the king of the 
gods, Ashur. 

Whoever carries it away, or with my name inscribes his 
own name, 

May Ashur and Belit in anger and wrath overthrow 
him, and 

Destroy his name and seed out of the land! 

THIRD TABLET 

Incantation. Who art thou, sorceress, in whose heart 

Dwells the word unfriendly to me. 

By whose tongue my enchantment is produced, 

By whose lips my bewitchment is produced. 

In whose footsteps death follows? 

Sorceress, I put thy mouth under a ban, I put thy tongue 

under a ban, 
I put thy wandering eyes under a ban, 
I put thy ever-moving feet under a ban, 
I put thy restless knees under a ban, 
I put thy outstretched hands under a ban, 
I bind thy hands behind thee. 
May Sin destroy the front part (?) of thy body! 
May he cast thee into an abyss of water and fire! 
Sorceress, like the circle of this seal. 
May thy face grow pale and wan! 



382 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

THE SHURPU SERIES 

SECOND TABLET 

Has he set a son at variance with a father, 

A father with a son, 

A daughter with a mother, 

A mother with a daughter, 

A daughter-in-law with a mother-in-law, 

A mother-in-law with a daughter-in-law, 

A brother with a brother, 

A friend with a friend, 

A companion with a companion? 

Has he failed to loose the prisoner or to free the 

captive? 
Has he failed to permit him who is in prison to see the 

light? 
Has he said to the prisoner, " Seize him," or to him who is 

in bonds, "Bind him"? 
Is it perhaps a sin against a god, or a transgression against 

a goddess? 
Has he vexed a god, or despised a goddess? 
Is his offence against his god, or his crime against his 

goddess? 
Is it violence against ancestors, or hate against elder 

brothers? 
Has he despised father or mother, or insulted an elder 

sister? 
Has he given in little things, and refused in great things? 
For No said Yes, 
For Yes said No? 

Has he spoken the unfit or the rebellious word? 
Has he spoken the coarse word? 
Has he used false weights? 
Has he taken money gained unjustly, or refused to take 

money justly gained? 
Has he disinherited a legitimate son, or recognised an ille- 
gitimate son? 



THE SHURPU SERIES 



383 



Has he set up the wrong landmark, or failed to set up the 
right landmark? 

Has he removed a dividing-line, a boundary, or a land- 
mark? 

Has he entered his neighbour's house? 

Has he approached his neighbour's wife? 

Has he shed his neighbour's blood? 

Has he taken away his neighbour's garment? 

Has he failed to release a man through anger? 

Has he driven an honest man away from his home? 

Has he broken up a united family? 

Has he taken stand against a superior? 

Is his mouth straightforward, but his heart false? 

Does his mouth consent, but his heart deny? 

Is it because of the many unjust things which he plans. 

That he dogs (?) justice and casts it off (?), 

And destroys it, and drives it out, and brings it to naught. 

And * * * 

And does violence, and robs, and lets be robbed. 

And puts his hand to evil? 

Is his mouth loose or filthy? 

Are his lips deceitful (?) or rebellious? 

Has he taught that which is unfit,' or instructed in that 
which is unseemly? 

Has he followed after evil? 

Has he overstepped the bounds of right? 

Has he done that which is not clean? 

Has he put his hand to sorcery or witchcraft? 

Is it because of the grave misdeed which he has done? 

Or because of the many sins which he has committed? 

Or because of the unions which he has broken up? 

Or because of the well-drilled army which he has disor- 
ganized? 

Or because of anything wherein he has despised his god or 
his goddess? 

Has he promised with his heart and mouth, but not ful- 
filled? 

Has he despised the name of his god by his gift? 



384 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

Has he consecrated or dedicated (?) anything, but kept it 

back? 
Has he given something * * *, but eaten it? 
Has he * * * 
Has he cut off the accustomed food-offering (literally, 

dish)? 
Has he incurred the wrath of his god or goddess? 
Has he stood up in an assembly and spoken words which 

were not meet? 
May he be loosed from whatever bans him! 
Whether banned by that which he has taken. 
Or banned by fright. 
Or banned by a gift which he has made, 
Or banned by any living being. 
Or whether he pointed with his finger to a form, 
Or banned by the form of father or mother, 
Or banned by the form of elder brother or elder sister, 
Or banned by the form of friend or companion. 
Or banned by the form of god or king. 
Or banned by the form of lord or lady. 
Whether he has brought about destruction. 
Or has gone about bent on destruction, 
Or has committed a rnisdeed against his city, 
Or has given out reports against his city. 
Or has disgraced the reputation of his city. 
Or has touched a banned one. 
Or a banned one has touched him. 
Or has slept in the bed of a banned one. 
Or has set upon the seat of a banned one. 
Or has eaten at the table of a banned one. 
Or has drunk from the cup of a banned one: 
He searches, he searches. 
In the bed he searches. 
On the seat he searches. 
On the table he searches. 
In the passing (?) of the cup he searches. 
In the glowing fire-pan he searches. 
In the torch he searches, 



THE SHURPU SERIES 385 

In the bellows he searches, 

On the tablet and the stylus he searches, 

In the iq.BAR and the iq.KA he searches. 

In the stalls he searches, 

Among the animals he searches. 

Among the water-buckets he searches, 

In the wells he searches, 

In the streams he searches. 

In the ships * * * he searches. 

In the rising and the setting of the sun he searches, 

In the gods of the heavens, and the shrines of earth he 

searches. 
In the shrine of lord and lady he searches. 
In going out of the city and entering the city he searches. 
In going out of the city-gate and entering the city-gate he 

searches, 
In going out of the house and entering the house he 

searches. 
In the street he searches. 
In the god's house he searches, 
In the road he searches. 
O Shamash, judge, may he be loosed. 
Loose, Shamash, lord above and lord below. 
Who leads aright the gods, the king of countries art thou. 
May the right be established by thy word. 
May he set up his * * * in thy presence. 
Loose, conjurer among the gods, merciful lord, Marduk. 
Loose, god of the householder. Loose, god of the sinner. 
Loose, god of the transgressor. 
Loose, Nergal, lord of deliverance. 
Loose ye, Shuqamuna and Shimaliya, 
Loose ye, great gods, as many as there are of you, 
Loose, fire-pan, child of Ea, 
May lord and lady loose. 
May Anu and Anatu loose. 
May Bel loose, the king, the creator of all that is, 
May Belit loose, the Queen of Ekiur, 
May Ekiur loose, the temple of the spouse, 
25 



386 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

May Enki loose, may Ninki loose. 

May Enshar loose, may Ninshar loose, 

May Ea loose, the king of the deep. 

May the deep loose, the house of wisdom. 

May Eridu loose, may the house of the deep loose. 

May Marduk loose, the king of the Igigi, 

May ^arpanit loose, the Queen of Esagila, 

May Esagila and Babylon loose, 

The dwelling-place of the great gods. 

May Nabu and Nana in Ezida loose, 

May Tashmetu loose, the great bride, 

May Dayyanu loose, the chief (?) of Esagila, 

May Iqbi-dunqi loose, the bestower of favours. 

May Durilu and Edimgalkalama loose. 

May Rabu and Diritu loose. 

May Enshushinak and Lahuramit loose in Susa, 

May Yabru and Humban, the king, loose. 

The mighty gods. 

The stars of the south, the north, the east, and the west. 

May the four winds blow, may they loose his ban. 

May Ishtar loose in strong-walled Erech, 

May Nin-Eanna loose in Eanna, her sanctuary. 

May Anunitu loose in Agade, the city of delight. 

May Agade loose, may Eulbar loose. 

May Ishhara loose, the mistress of habitations. 

May Shiduri loose, the goddess of wisdom. 

The spirit who protects life. 

May Girra, the great Girra, the mighty Girra loose. 

May Laz, Hani, and GAL.HUSH.A loose. 

May Lugal-edina, Latarak, and 

Sharrahu loose. 

May DUN and Shamash loose by their name. 

May TI.BAL, Sakkut, Kewan, 

And Immeriya loose. 

May the bow-star, the spear-star, the lance-star, Mushta- 

barru-mutanu. 
And Narudu loose, 
May Pasagga, the star of Sibzianna, loose, 



THE SHURPU SERIES 387 

May god and goddess, as many as there are of them, 

On this day take their stand, and 

As for So-and-so, the son of So-and-so, * * * 

His sins, his transgressions. 

His * * * his bans, 

* * * * * 

May they blot out, and loose. 

May they drive away his ban! End of the incantation. 

COLOPHON 

Incantation. A ban of any sort which befalls any one who 
is a child of a god, 

Marduk, the conjurer among the gods, will loose. 

The second tablet of the " Shurpu Series." 

Palace of Ashurbanipal, king of the world, King of Assyria, 

Who puts his trust in Ashur and Belit, 

To whom Nabu and Tashmetu have given a liberal under- 
standing (literally, broad ears), 

Who possesses a clear eye, 

(And) the noble art of tablet-writing. 

An art of such a sort 

As no one of the kings my predecessors had acquired. 

The wisdom of Nabu * * * as much as there was 

On tablets I have inscribed * * * 

For my inspection and reading 

I have placed them in my palace. 

Even I, the lord, who knows the light of the king of the 
gods, Ashur. 

Whoever carries it away, or his own name 

Inscribes with my name. 

May Ashur and Belit in anger and wrath 

Overthrow him and destroy his name and seed out of the 
land! 

THIRD TABLET 

A ban of any sort which befalls any one who is a child of a 

god, 
Marduk, the conjurer among the gods, will loose. 



388 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

A ban from father or mother which befalls a 

man he will loose. 

A ban from grandfather or gfrandmother he will loose. 

A ban from brother or sister he will loose. 

A ban from seven descendants of the father's 

house which befalls a man he will loose. 

A ban from old or young he will loose. 

A ban from family or relatives he will loose. 

A ban from babes or sucklings he will loose. 

A ban from comrade or companion he will loose. 

A ban from friend or fellow he will loose. 

A ban from right or wrong he will loose. 

A ban from honour or shame he will loose. 

A ban from * * * and swearing by the god he will loose. 

A ban from bellows or fire-pan he will loose. 

A ban from pointing the hand toward the 

fire (?) he will loose. 

A ban from taking fire and swearing by the 

god he will loose. 

A ban from throwing fire at any one he will loose. 

A ban from cup or table he will loose. 

A ban from bed or couch he will loose. 

A ban from drinking water out of an un- 
clean cup he will loose. 

A ban from demanding rather than paying a 

debt he will loose. 

A ban from sitting in a seat before the sun he will loose. 

A ban from giving judgment for a bribe he will loose. 

A ban from pulling up plants in the field he will loose. 

A ban from cutting down reeds in the marsh he will loose. 

A ban from bow or chariot he will loose. 

A ban from bronze dagger or spear he will loose. 

A ban from lance or crossbow he will loose. 

A ban from slaying the young of wild ani- 
mals he will loose. 

A bah from destroying an offering (?) or 

casting an alms (?) into the water he will loose. 

A ban from setting a * * * before any one he will loose. 



THE SHURPU SERIES 



389 



A ban from food (?) or drink (?)*** he will loose. 

A ban from coming upon (?) a friend (?) 

and killing him he will loose. 

A ban from slaughtering a sheep or his 

* * * he will loose. 

A ban from * * * he will loose. 

A ban from * * * he will loose. 

A ban from refusing the request for one 

day's water supply he will loose. 

A ban from refusing the request for water 

privileges he will loose. 

A ban from tearing up plants in the field he will loose. 

A ban from taking a water-bucket and 

swearing by the god he will loose. 

A ban from making a demand upon any one 

in the stalls or among the animals he will loose. 

A ban from conjuring by the sun when it 

rises he will loose. 

A ban from swearing by the god with un- 
clean hands he will loose. 

A ban from protecting spirit or bull-colossus he will loose. 

A ban from tamarisk or date-palm he will loose. 

A ban from well or river he will loose. 

A ban from wall or ford he will loose. 

A ban from * * * or bridge he will loose. 

A ban from * * * which befalls a man he will loose. 

A ban from consenting and then refusing he will loose. 

A ban from entering the precincts of a god he will loose. 

A ban from damming up a neighbour's canal he will loose. 

A ban from eating the flesh of sacrifices he will loose. 

A ban from being hostile to an enemy rather 

than becoming friendly to him he will loose. 

A ban from fixing a dividing-line or bound- 
ary he will loose. 

A ban from destroying a chariot or its * * * he will loose. 

A ban from drinking water out of a bowl (?) he will loose. 

A ban from * * * in a river or spitting 

in a river he will loose. 



390 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



A ban from * * * and river * * * he will loose. 

A ban from mountain or ravine he will loose. 

A ban from hill or wady he will loose. 

A ban from pass or * * * he will loose. 

A ban from * * * he will loose. 

A ban from * * * a reed with a cord he will loose. 

A ban from * * * door and bolt he will loose. 

A ban from raising a weapon in a crowd he will loose. 

A ban from * * * Ninib * * * he will loose. 

A ban from shrine or sanctuary he will loose. 

[Many broken lines follow.] 

A ban from entering a magical circle be- 
fore the sun he will loose. 

A ban from a banned one's touching any one he will loose. 

A ban from a banned one's stretching his 

hand to god or goddess he will loose. 

A ban from speaking with a banned one he will loose. 

A ban from eating the food of a banned one he will loose. 

A ban from drinking the water of a banned 

one he will loose. 

A ban from drinking the lees of a banned 

one he will loose. 

A ban from speaking with a sinner he will loose. 

A ban from eating the food of a sinner he will loose. 

A ban from drinking the water of a sinner he will loose. 

A ban from drinking the lees of a sinner he will loose. 

A ban from making intercession for a sinner he will loose. 

A ban from exalting * * * 

A ban from humbling * * * 

A ban from transgression or demoniacal pos- 
session he will loose. 

A ban from committing an error he will loose. 

A ban from sin or misdeed he will loose. 

A ban from rebellion or sedition he will loose. 

A ban from fire or fire-pan he will loose. 

A ban from * * * or Euphrates he will loose. 

A ban from * * * or assembly he will loose. 



THE SHURPU SERIES 



391 



A ban from dead or living he will loose. 

A ban from male or female destroyer he will loose. 

A ban from known or unknown he will loose. 

A ban from Anu or Anatu he will loose. 

A ban from Bel or Belit he will loose. 

A ban from Ea or Damkina he will loose. 

A ban from Sin or Ningal he will loose. 

A ban from Shamash or A-a he will loose. 

A ban from Ramman or Shala he will loose. 

A ban from Marduk or Qarpanit he will loose. 

A ban from Nabu or Tashmetu he will loose. 

A ban from Ninib or Belit-Nippur he will loose. 

A ban from * * * or Gula he will loose. 

A ban from * * * or g^y j^g ^jjj loose. 

[The few remaining lines are mutilated.] 

FIFTH AND SIXTH TABLETS 

Incantation. An evil curse like a demon has fallen upon 

a man, 
A pain-giving voice has fallen upon him, 
A voice that bodes no good has fallen upon him. 
An evil curse, a ban, disease! 

An evil curse has slaughtered that man like a sheep, 
His god has departed from his body. 
His goddess, accustomed to care for him, has taken her 

place outside (his body), 
A pain-giving voice like a garment has covered him and 

overpowered him. 
Marduk looked with favour upon him, and 
Went into the house to his father Ea, and spoke: 
" My father, an evil curse like a demon has fallen upon 

a man." 
The second time he spoke: 
" I know not what that man has done, or how he can be 

cured." 
Ea answered his son Marduk: 
" My son, what more can I tell thee that thou dost not 

know? 



392 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



Marduk, what can I add that thou dost not know? 
What I know thou also knowest. 
Go, my son Marduk, 

Bring him to the house of pure libations. 
Release his ban, and loose his ban." 
As for the disturbing ailment of his body. 
Be it the curse of his father, 
Or the curse of his mother. 
Or the curse of his elder brother. 
Or the curse of an unknown murderess. 
May the ban by the incantation of Ea 
Be peeled off like an onion. 
May it be cut off like a date. 
May it be torn off like a husk, 

Ban! By heaven be thou invoked, by earth be thou in- 
voked! 

Incantation. As this onion is peeled off and thrown into 

the fire, 
And the burning Flame consumes it, 
And it is not planted in a garden, 
And it is not cultivated by ditches or canals. 
And it does not take root in the earth. 
And its stalk does not grow, and it does not see the sun. 
And it does not come upon the table of god or king. 
So, the oath, the ban, the pain, the misery. 
The disease, the sickness, the trespass, the misdeed, the 

crime, the sin, 
The disease which dwells in my body, my flesh, (and) my 

joints, 
May they be peeled off like this onion, and 
On this day may the devouring Flame consume them, 
May the ban depart and may I see the light! 

Incantation. As this date is cut off and thrown into the 

fire, 
And the burning Flame consumes it. 
And it does not return to the bare branch, 



THE SHURPU SERIES 393 

And it does not come upon the table of god or king, 

So, the oath, the ban, the pain, the misery, 

The disease, the sickness, the trespass, the misdeed, the 

crime, the sin. 
The disease which dwells in my body, my flesh, (and) my 

joints. 
May they be cut off like this date, and 
On this day may the devouring Flame consume them. 
May the ban depart and may I see the light! 

Incantation. As this husk is torn off and thrown into the 

fire, 
And the burning Flame consumes it, 
And its blossom (?) does not return to its palm-tree, 
And it is not used for colouring cloth. 
So, the oath, the ban, the pain, the misery, 
The disease, the sickness, the trespass, the misdeed, the 

crime, the sin. 
The disease which dwells in my body, my flesh, (and) my 

joints, 
May they be torn off like this husk, and 
On this day may the devouring Flame consume them. 
May the ban depart and may I see the light! 

Incantation. As this sheep-skin is pulled off and thrown 

into the fire. 
And the burning Flame consumes it. 
And it does not return to its sheep. 
And it is not used as a garment for god or king. 
So, the oath, the ban, the pain, the misery, 
The disease, the sickness, the trespass, the misdeed, the 

crime, the sin. 
The disease which dwells in my body, my flesh, (and) my 

joints, 
May they be pulled off like this sheep-skin, and 
On this day may the devouring Flame consume them. 
May the ban depart and may I see the light! 



394' ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

Incantation. As this goat-skin is pulled off and thrown 

into the fire, 
And the burning Flame consumes it, 
And it does not return to its goat, 
And it is no longer dyed, 
So, the oath, the ban, the pain, the misery. 
The disease, the sickness, the trespass, the misdeed, the 

crime, the sin. 
The disease which dwells in my body, my flesh, (and) my 

joints. 
May they be pulled off like this goat-skin, and 
On this day may the devouring Flame consume them. 
May the ban depart and may I see the light! 

Incantation. As this wool is pulled off and thrown into 

the fire, 
And the burning Flame consumes it. 
And the weaver does not weave it into a garment. 
And it is not used as raiment for god or king. 
So, the oath, the ban, the pain, the misery. 
The disease, the sickness, the trespass, the misdeed, the 

crime, the sin. 
The disease which dwells in my body, my flesh, (and) my 

joints. 
May they be pulled off like this wool, and 
On this day may the devouring Flame consume them, 
May the ban depart and may I see the light! 

Incantation. With upuntu seed my hands are filled, 

With heat, fever (and) chills my hands are filled. 

With oath and ban my hands are filled, 

With pain and misery my hands are filled. 

With disease, sickness, trespass, misdeed, crime, sin, my 

hands are filled. 
With ills of mind and ills of body my hands are filled. 
With enchantment, apparition, bewitchment, and evil 

witchcraft my hands are filled. 



THE SHURPU SERIES 



395 



As this upuntu seed is burned in the fire, 

And the farmer does not sow it in the field, 

And it is not cultivated by ditches or canals. 

And it does not take root in the earth, 

And its stalk does not grow, and it does not see the 

sun. 
So may its ban not grow up in my heart. 
May its root not take hold of my back, 
May its stalk not bear down upon my breast. 
So, the oath, the ban, the pain, the misery, 
The disease, the sickness, the trespass, the misdeed, the 

crime, the sin. 
The disease which dwells in my body, my flesh, (and) my 

joints, 
May they be burned like this upuntu seed, and 
On this day may the devouring Flame consume them. 
May the ban depart and may I see the light! 

Incantation. He turned his steps toward the temple- 
women. 

Ishtar directed her temple-women. 

She set a clever woman upon a couch. 

Of white wool (and) of black wool she spun on the wheel 
a double thread, 

A beautiful thread, a strong thread, a thread of many col- 
ours, a thread which breaks the ban in two, 

Against the men who conjure an evil ban. 

Against the curses of the gods, 

A thread which breaks the ban in two. 

The head of that man, his hands, his feet he bound, 

Marduk, the princely son of Eridu, cut it with his holy 
hands. 

Let him bring the thread of the ban into the field to the 
holy place. 

Let the evil ban stand aside, 

Let that man be pure and clean, 

Let him surrender himself into the gracious hands of his 
god. 



396 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 
Incantation for the loosing of bans. 

Incantation. I, the high priest, kindle the fire, 

I kindle the coals, I cast in the lot. 

The holy priest of Ea, the messenger of Marduk am I. 

The coals which I kindled I put out. 

The fire which I lighted I smother, 

The grain which I heaped up (i. e., on the coals) I 

stamp out. 
As I put out the coals which I kindled. 
And smother the fire which I lighted. 
And stamp out the grain which I heaped up. 
So may Siris, who frees both god and man. 
Loose the knot which he has tied! 
May the knot of the heart of his god and of his goddess be 

unloosed for him — namely. So-and-so, the son of 

So-and-so. 
On this day may his sin be forgiven, 
May it be destroyed from him, may it be loosed from him ! 

Incantation. Peace, O warlike Fire-god, 

May the mountains and the streams be at rest with thee, 

May the Tigris and the Euphrates be at rest with thee. 

May the broad sea of seas be at rest with thee, 

May the street, the daughter of the great gods, be at rest 

with thee, 
May the kikal plant, the product of the herb, be at rest 

with thee, 
May the heart of my angry god and of my angry goddess 

be at rest with thee. 
May the heart of the angry god of my city and of the angry 

goddess of my city be at rest with thee. 
On this day may the knot of the heart of my god and of 

my goddess be loosed. 
And may the ban go forth from my body! 
Because thou judgest by thy light. 
And avengest by thy sword. 
Pronounce my judgment, determine my career. 



THE SHURPU SERIES 



COLOPHON 



397 



Incantation. Dimetu has arisen from the depths of the sea.* 
The sixth tablet of the " Shurpu Series." 
Copied from the original, and * * * 
Palace of Ashurbanipal, king of the world, 
King of Assyria. 

SEVENTH TABLET « 

Incantation. Dimetu has arisen from the depths of the sea, 
The ban has come down out of the heavens, 
The evil spirits like grass have covered (?) the earth. 
To the four winds they spread brilliancy like fire, they send 

forth flames. 
The people living in dwellings they torment, their bodies 

they afflict, 
In city and country they bring moaning, small and great 

they make to lament, 
Man and woman they put in bonds, and fill with cries of 

woe. 
In heaven and on earth like a tempest they rain, they rush 

on in pursuit. 
Where the anger of the god is, thither they fiee, crying 

aloud. 
A man from whom his god has departed, they fall upon, 

and cover him like a garment, 
They break loose upon him, and fill him with poison, 
His hands they tie, his feet they bind. 
His sides they crush, they sprinkle him with gall. 
With oath and ban his body is afflicted. 
With want of breath (?) and coughing (?) his breast is 

weakened. 
With froth and foam his mouth Is filled, 
Upon that man a cry of pain has settled, he is completely 

undone. 
Night and day he runs about, he can not sleep for pain. 

■ This is the catch-line to the seventh tablet of the series. 



398 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

Marduk looked with favour upon him, and 

Entered into the house to his father Ea, and spoke: 

" My father, Dimetu has arisen from the depths of the sea." 

The second time he spoke: 

" I know not what that man has done or how he can be 

cured." 
Ea answered his son Marduk: 
" My son, what more can I tell thee that thou dost not 

know? 
Marduk, what call I add that thou dost not know? 
What I know thou also knowest. 
Go, my son, Marduk." 

[The next twenty lines are missing.] 
* * * mistress of the field and the high-place. 
May Nikilite (?), lord of all creatures, transfer his severe 

suffering to the swarming life of the earth. 
May Damu, the great conjurer, make him of good spirits. 
May Gula, the lady, who brings the dead to life. 
Heal him by the caress of her fair hand ! 
And do thou, Marduk, merciful lord, who lovest to bring 

the dead to life. 
Loose his ban by thy pure art of conjuring the living. 
May the man, the child of his god, be pure and bright and 

shining. 
May he be washed like a vessel * * * 
May he be cleansed like a vessel of curds! 
To Shamash, the chief of the gods, commend him. 
May Shamash, the chief of the gods, commend him safe 

and sound into the kindly hands of his god! 



A RITUAL TABLET 



[The first twenty-eight lines are too broken to translate.] 

ON a favourable day thou shalt consecrate thy- 
self * * * 
Thou shalt put on a clean garment. 
Before the setting of the sun there shall be * * * 
An offering for Gula, of pure water, pure * * * 
Unleavened bread made of wheat, twelve of each, and 

twelve times three, or thirty-six in all, thou shalt 

prepare. 
Thou shalt add * * * and salt, sprinkle a young ram. 
Strew the censer with cypress twigs and fine flour, and pour 

over it sesame wine. 
If the flesh of this young ram and the * * * is without 

blemish, 
* * * at thy right hand, 

Then shall the seer arisq and go before the * * * 
From the hide of the young ram (thou shalt make) a leather 

cup (?) for the cedar roots (?), a young ram thou 

shalt prepare. 
Before Gula the leather cup * * * wine thou shalt pre- 
sent. 
After the stars of the heaven have appeared (?), 
Thou shalt prepare three tables for Anu, Bel, and Ea, 
On each table, twenty-four loaves of unleavened bread 

made of wheat. 
Three times twenty-four loaves thou shalt prepare. 
As the unleavened bread for the three tables. 

399 



400 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

Ten measures of honey and curds mixed, oil, oil of balsam, 

dates * * * 
Wine, to the amount of thirteen qa, shalt thou add to the 

unleavened bread; 
A measure of * * * seed, 
* * * flesh * * * four in number, 
Four jugs of sesame wine to the amount of one qa thou 

shalt place thereon, 
A cask, containing a measure of sesame wine, thou shalt 

place thereon, ten pure young rams * * * 
The right thigh, the hinqa flesh, the shume flesh, and the 

silqu flesh shalt thou bring, 
Thou shalt strew the three censers with cypress and cedar 

roots and upuntu, and pour over them sesame wine. 
Thereupon thou shalt prostrate thyself, and then thou 

shalt clear away the offering. 
At the rising of * * *, thou shalt set up an offering (?), 

sprinkle pure water. 
Set up one censer toward the east before Marduk, 
One censer toward the east before the protecting god. 
One censer toward the east before the protecting goddess. 
Thou shalt set up a table behind the censer which stands 

before Marduk, 
Place thereon four jugs of sesame wine. 
Set thereon three times twelve loaves made of wheat, 
Add a mixture of honey and curds and sprinkle with salt. 
Thou shalt set up a table behind the censer which stands 

before the protecting god^ 
And do as before. 
Thou shalt set up a table behind the censer which stands 

before the protecting goddess, 
And do as before. 
The first censer which is before Marduk thou shalt strew 

(i. e., with cypress and cedar roots, etc.). 
Thou shalt take the hand of the sacrificer and speak 

thus; 
" May thy servant. So-and-so, offer a sacrifice in the 

morning. 



A RITUAL TABLET 4O1 

May he raise the staff of cedar, and stand in the presence of 

Shamash! 
May thy great divinity be well pleased with reference to 

this sheep, 
All of whose flesh is unblemished, whose appearances are 

auspicious." 
Thereupon thou shalt offer the sacrifice; 
He (i. e., the sacrificer) shall hold the sheep, and thou shalt 

perform the sprinklings. 
Making a step toward the slaughtered animal. 
The second censer, which stands before the protecting god, 

thou shalt strew, 
And do as before. 

The third censer, which stands before the protecting god- 
dess, thou shalt strew. 
And do as before. 
The right thigh, the hin9a flesh, and the shume flesh thou 

shalt wash in the bason, sprinkle salt thereon. 
Lay upon the table of Marduk, light the censer. 
And make a step toward the censer. 
The right thigh, the hinqa flesh, and the shume flesh thou 

shalt wash in the bason, sprinkle salt thereon. 
Lay upon the table of the protecting god, light the censer. 
And make a step toward the censer. 
The right thigh, the hinqa flesh, and the shume flesh thou 

shalt wash in the bason, sprinkle salt thereon. 
Lay upon the table of the protecting goddess, light the 

censer. 
And make a step toward the censer. 

The sacrificer shall raise his hand, pray, prostrate himself, 
Clear away the table which stands before the goddess. 
Pour out the sesame wine which stands upon the table, 
Take away the censer, and prostrate himself. 
The sacrificer shall raise his hand, pray, prostrate himself. 
Clear away the table which stands before the protecting god. 
And do as before. 

The sacrificer shall raise his hand, pray, prostrate himself. 
Clear away the table which stands before Marduk, 
26 



402 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



And do as before. 

Thou shalt perform sprinklings * * * set down the 

bason. 
Prostrate thyself (?), and kneel (?). 

As soon as the horizon of the heaven is overcast with dark- 
ness, thou shalt bring on three tables. 
Prepare them like those for Anu, Bel, and Ea, 
The middle table for Shamash and Ramman, the gods, the 

lords of the oracle. 
The left table for A-a, his (i. e., Shamash) beloved 

spouse. 
The right table for Bu-ne-ne, the messenger of Shamash 

and A-a; 
Four clean young rams, two for Shamash and Ramman, 
One for A-a, his beloved spouse. 

One for Bu-ne-ne, the messenger of Shamash and A-a. 
The right thigh, the hinqa flesh, the shume flesh, and the 

silqu flesh thou shalt bring. 
Thou shalt strew the three censers with cypress and cedar 

roots and upuntu, 
Pour out sesame wine, and prostrate thyself. 
A liver from the middle table, which belongs to Shamash 

and Ramman, shall be geomanced (?). 
If the flesh of this young ram and the * * * is without 

blemish, 
* * * at thy right hand. 
Thou shalt sacrifice a lamb to the protecting god, pour out 

a drink-offering, and 
Place it at the left of the offering, (crying), " Shamash and 

Ramman,; great gods! " 
The seer shall place the divining-cup in position. Without 

gift or present 
The seer shall not approach the place of judgment. 
Nor shall he raise the staff of cedar, (else) they (i. e., 

the gods) will not announce to him the secret 

verdict. 
The oil-diviner, the seer, shall cause him (i. e., the sacri- 

ficer) to raise the staff of cedar. 



A RITUAL TABLET 403 

And shake water upon the oil. If the first gab (i. e., proba- 
bly a certain part of the liver) is without blemish, 
the second gab without blemish, and the third gab 
without blemish, 

Then shall the seer set himself before Shamash and Ram- 
man upon the judgment seat. 

And give a true and righteous judgment. 

Then will Shamash and Ramman, the great gods, the lords 
of the oracle, 

The lords of the decision, stand up for him, 

Make a decision for him, and answer him with true 
grace. 

Before the rising of the sun thou shalt prepare one offering 

for Shamash; 
One censer thou shalt place before Shamash, 
One censer thou shalt place before Ramman, 
One censer thou shalt place before Marduk, 
One censer thou shalt place before A-a, 
One censer thou shalt place before Bu-ne-ne, 
One censer thou shalt place before Kettu, 
One censer thou shalt place before Mesharu, 
One censer thou shalt place before the protecting god. 
A table thou shalt place behind the censer which is before 

Shamash, 
Thou shalt place thereon four jugs of sesame wine, 
Thou shalt set thereon three times twelve loaves made 

of wheat. 
Thou shalt add a mixture of honey and curds, and sprinkle 

with salt. 
A table thou shalt place behind the censer which is before 

Ramman, 
A table thou shalt place behind the censer which is before 

Marduk, 
A table thou shalt place behind the censer which is before 

A-a, 
A table thou shalt place behind the censer which is before 

Bu-ne-ne, 



404 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

A table thou shalt place behind the censer which is before 

Kettu, 
A table thou shalt place behind the censer which is before 

Mesharu, 
A table thou shalt place behind the censer which is before 

the protecting god. 
The censer which is before Shamash thou shalt strew, 
Take the hand of the sacrificer, and speak thus: 
" May So-and-so, thy servant, offer a sacrifice at the rising 

of the sun. 
May he raise the stafif of cedar, and stand in the presence of 

thy great divinity; 
May thy great divinity be well-pleased 
With reference to this sheep. 
All of whose flesh is unblemished, whose appearances are 

auspicious." 
Thereupon thou shalt offer the sacrifice; 
He (i. e., the sacrificer) shall hold the sheep, and thou shalt 

perform the sprinklings. 
Making a step toward the slaughtered animal. 
The censer which is before Ramman thou shalt strew, and 

do as before. 
The censer which is before Marduk thou shalt strew, and 

do as before. 
The censer which is before A-a thou shalt strew, and do 

as before. 
The censer which is before Bu-ne-ne thou shalt strew, and 

do as before. 
The censer which is before Kettu thou shalt strew, and 

do as before. 
The censer which is before Mesharu thou shalt strew, and 

do as before. 
The censer which is before the protecting god thou shalt 

strew, and do as before. 
The right thigh, the hinqa flesh, and the shume flesh thou 

shalt wash in the bason. 
Lay before Shamash, light the censer. 
And make a step toward the censer. 



A RITUAL TABLET 



405 



The right thigh, the hinqa flesh, and the shume flesh thou 

shalt wash in the bason. 
Lay before Ramman, light the censer. 
And make a step toward the censer. 
The right thigh, the hinqa flesh, and the shume flesh thou 

shalt wash in the bason. 
Lay before Marduk, hght the censer, 
And make a step toward the censer. 
The right thigh, the hin^a flesh, and the shume flesh thou 

shalt wash in the bason. 
Lay before A-a, light the censer. 
And make a step toward the censer. 
The right thigh, the hin^a flesh, and the shume flesh thou 

shalt wash in the bason. 
Lay before Bu-ne-ne, light the censer. 
And make a step toward the censer. 
The right thigh, the hinga flesh, and the shume flesh thou 

shalt wash in the bason. 
Lay before Kettu, light the censer. 
And make a step toward the censer. 
The right thigh, the hinga flesh, and the shume flesh thou 

shalt wash in the bason. 
Lay before Mesharu, light the censer. 
And make a step toward the censer. 
The right thigh, the hin9a flesh, and the shume flesh thou 

shalt wash in the bason. 
Lay before the protecting god, light the censer. 
And make a step toward the censer. 

The sacrificer shall raise his hand, pray, prostrate himself, 
Clear away the table which stands before the protecting 

god. 
Take the four jugs of sesame wine which stand upon the 

table 
And pour them out before the censer. 
Take away the censer, prostrate himself, and kneel. 
The sacrificer shall raise his hand, pray, prostrate him- 
self. 
Clear away the table which stands before Mesharu, 



406 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

Take the four jugs of sesame wine which stand upon the 

table 
And pour them out before the censer, 
Take away the censer, prostrate himself, and kneel. 
The sacrificer shall raise his hand, pray, prostrate him- 
self, 
Clear away the table which stands before Kettu, 
Take the four jugs of sesame wine which stand upon the 

table 
And pour them out before the censer, 
Take away the censer, prostrate himself, and kneel. 
The sacrificer shall raise his hand, pray, prostrate him- 
self, 
Clear away the table which stands before Bu-ne-ne, 
Take the four jugs of sesame wine which stand upon the 

table 
And pour them out before the censer. 
Take away the censer, prostrate himself, and kneel. 
The sacrificer shall raise his hand, pray, prostrate him- 
self. 
Clear away the table which stands before A-a, 
Take the four jugs of sesame wine which stand upon the 

table 
And pour them out before the censer, 
Take away the censer, prostrate himself, and kneel. 
The sacrificer shall raise his hand, pray, prostrate him- 
self, 
Clear away the table which stands before Marduk, 
Take the four jugs of sesame wine which stand upon the 

table 
And pour them out before the censer. 
Take away the censer, prostrate himself, and kneel. 
The sacrificer shall raise his hand, pray, prostrate him- 
self. 
Clear away the table which stands before Ramman, 
Take the four jugs of sesame wine which stand upon the 

table 
And pour them out before the censer. 



A RITUAL TABLET 



407 



Take away the censer, prostrate himself, and kneel. 
The sacrificer shall raise his hand, pray, prostrate himself, 
Clear away the table which stands before Shamash, 
Take the four jugs of sesame wine which stand upon the 

table 
And pour them out before the censer. 
Take away the censer, prostrate himself, and kneel. 



ISHTAR'S DESCENT TO HADES 



TOWARD the land of No-Return, the region of dark- 
ness,* 
Ishtar, the daughter of the Moon-god, directed her 
attention. 
The Moon-god's daughter directed her attention 
Toward the house of darkness, Irkalla's dwelling-place. 
Toward the house out of which he who enters never 

comes, 
Toward the road whose way turns not back. 
Toward the house where he who enters is deprived of light, 
A place where dust is their sustenance, their food clay. 
Light they see not, they sit in darkness, 
They are clothed, like a bird, with feathered raiment. 
Over door and bolt is spread the dust. 
Ishtar, on her arrival at the gate of the land of No-Retum, 
Addressed the porter of the gate: 
" O porter of the waters, open thy gate, 
Open thy gate, let me enter! 
If thou dost not open the gate, and I enter not, 
I will shatter the door, the bolt I will break in pieces, 
I will shatter the threshold, I will tear away the doors, 
I will bring up the dead that they may eat and live. 
And the dead shall join themselves to the living." 

The porter opened his mouth to speak. 

He addressed the Princess Ishtar: 

" Stay, my lady, do not destroy it (i. e., the door). 

' Or, the region which thou knowest, of which thou hast heard. 

408 



ISHTAR'S DESCENT TO HADES 



409 



Let me go and announce thy name to the Queen Allatu." 

The porter went within and addressed Allatu: 

" These waters thy sister Ishtar has crossed 

nu-kil-tu sha kip-pi-i rabuti da * * * (?) " 

When the goddess Allatu [heard] this. 

Like a fallen tap-pu tree * * * 

Like a broken ku-ni-nu reed, she sank down and spoke: 

" What does her heart wish of me? What do her spirits 

desire? 
These waters have I with * * * 

For food I will eat clay, for wine I will drink [sewage], 
I will weep for the men who have left their wives, 
I will weep for the concubines who have been torn from 

the bosom of their masters, 
For the little children will I weep, who before their time 

[are taken away]. 
Go, porter, open thy gate for her. 
Do unto her according to the ancient custom." 

The porter went and opened for her his gate: 

" Enter, my lady; may Kutu (i. e., the under-world) rejoice. 

May the palace of the land of No-Return be glad at thy 

presence! " 
The first gate he caused her to enter, he approached and 

took off the great crown of her head. 
" Why, O porter, hast thou taken off the great crown of 

my head? " 
" Enter, my lady, for such is the custom of Allatu." 
The second gate he caused her to enter, he approached and 

took off the ornaments of her ears. 
" Why, O porter, hast thou taken off the ornaments of my 

ears? " 
" Enter, my lady, for such is the custom of Allatu." 
The third gate he caused her to enter, he approached and 

took off the chains about her neck. 
" Why, O porter, hast thou taken off the chains about my 

neck? " 
" Enter, my lady, for such is the custom of Allatu." 



410 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

The fourth gate he caused her to enter, he approached and 

took off the ornaments of her breast. 
" Why, O porter, hast thou taken off the ornaments of 

my breast? " 
" Enter, my lady, for such is the custom of AUatu." 
The fifth gate he caused her to enter, he approached and 

took off the studded girdle of her waist. 
" Why, O porter, hast thou taken off the studded girdle 

of my waist? " 
" Enter, my lady, for such is the custom of Allatu." 
The sixth gate he caused her to enter, he approached and 

took off the bracelets of her hands and the anklets of 

her feet. 
" Why, O porter, hast thou taken off the bracelets of my 

hands and the anklets of my feet? " 
" Enter, my lady, for such is the custom of Allatu." 
The seventh gate he caused her to enter, he approached 

and took off the garment covering the shame of her 

body. 
" Why, O porter, hast thou taken off the garment cover- 
ing the shame of my body? " 
" Enter, my lady, for such is the custom of Allatu." 

As soon as Ishtar had descended to the land of No-Return, 

Allatu saw her and moved angrily toward her. 

Ishtar took no counsel, she threw herself upon her (Allatu). 

Allatu opened her mouth to speak, 

She addressed Namtar, her messenger: 

" Go, Namtar, open my [gate] and * * * 

Bring her forth * * * the goddess Ishtar. 

With disease of the eyes [smite her]. 

With disease of the hips [smite] her. 

With disease of the feet [smite] her. 

With disease of the heart [smite] her, 

With disease of the head [smite] her. 

Upon her whole person [put disease] ." 

After the mistress Ishtar had descended to the land of No- 
Return, 



ISHTAR'S DESCENT TO HADES 



411 



The bull did not mount the cow, nor did the ass leap upon 

the she-ass, 
The man did not approach the maid in the street, 
The man lay down to sleep upon his own couch. 
While the maid slept by herself. 

Pap-sukal, the messenger of the great gods, with counte- 
nance downcast before Shamash, 

Was clad in sackcloth, he was filled with grief. 

Shamash came into the presence of Sin, his father, weep- 
ing, 

In the presence of Ea, the king, his tears ran down his 
cheeks. 

" Ishtar has gone down into the earth, and has not yet 
come forth; 

After Ishtar had descended to the land of No-Return, 

The bull did not mount the cow, nor did the ass leap upon 
the she-ass. 

The man did not approach the maid in the street. 

The man lay down to sleep upon his own couch. 

While the maid slept by herself." 

Ea in the wisdom of his heart created a man, 

He created Uddushunamir, the servant of the gods: 

" Go, Uddushunamir, set thy face toward the gate of the 

land of No-Return, 
May the seven gates of the land of No-Return open be- 
fore thee. 
May Allatu see thee, may she rejoice at thy arrival ! 
When her heart becomes at rest and she is in good spirits, 
Conjure her by the name of the great gods; 
Lift up thy head, direct thy attention to the water-skin (?) 

(saying), 
' If you please, my lady, give me the water-skin, that I may 
drink the water therefrom.' " 

Allatu, when she heard this. 

Smote her thigh and bit her finger-tip: 



412 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

"Thou hast sought from me a favour not to be sought 

after. 
Begone, Uddushunamir. I will curse thee with a fearful 

curse: 
The food of the sewage of the city shall be thy food, 
The gutters of the city shall be thy drinking-place. 
The shadow of the wall shall be thy station, 
The threshold shall be thy place of residence. 
May dungeon and prison-house destroy thy strength! " 

Allatu opened her mouth to speak. 
She addressed Namtar, her messenger: 
" Go, Namtar, destroy the palace of righteousness. 
Overturn the thresholds — ^for the posts are tottering — 
Bring out the Anunnaki, seat them upon a golden throne. 
Sprinkle Ishtar with the water of life, and take her from 
my presence." 

Namtar went and destroyed the palace of righteous- 
ness, 
He overturned the thresholds — the posts were tottering, 
He brought out the Anunnaki, he seated them upon a 

golden throne. 
He sprinkled Ishtar with the water of life and brought her 

forth. 
He led her out through the first gate and restored to her 

the garment covering the shame of her body. 
He led her out through the second gate and restored to 

her the bracelets of her hands and the anklets of 

her feet. 
He led her out through the third gate and restored to 

her the studded girdle of her waist. 
He led her out through the fourth gate and restored to 

her the ornaments of her breast. 
He led her out through the fifth gate and restored to her 

the chains about her neck. 
He led her out through the sixth gate and restored to her 

the ornaments of her ears. 



ISHTAR'S DESCENT TO HADES 413 

He led her out through the seventh gate and restored to 
her the great crown of her head. 

" If she * does not give to thee her * release, then turn 

thyself to her,^ 
Unto Tammuz, the husband of her ' youth, 
Pour out pure water, with goodly oil [anoint him] , 
In fine raiment clothe him, a flute of lapislazuli let him 

[play]. 

May the Uchati * wail with loud [wailing] , 
May the goddess Belili * [destroy] her ornaments, 
With eye-stones shall be filled * * * " 

The lament of her brother she heard, (and) Belili destroyed 

the ornaments of * * * 
The eye-stones which were filled * * * 

" O my only brother, do not let me perish ! 

On the day of Tammuz play for me the flute of lapislazuli, 
the samdu flute also play for me; 

At that time play for me, O male-mourners and female- 
mourners. 

On [?] instruments let them play, let them inhale the in- 
cense." 

' Allatu. ' That is, of the dead person. ' Ishtar. 

* Harlots, devoted to the worship of Ishtar. 'A sister of Tammuz. 



ORACLES GIVEN IN FAVOUR OF 
ESARHADDON 



To Esarhaddon, king of countries, 
Fear not! 
As for that calumny with which he has pressed his 
claims against thee, 
I will tell him that I will not support him (?). 
Thy enemies 

Like the wild-boar * * * of the month Simanu 
Shall be scattered from before thy feet. 
The great lady am I, 
I am Ishtar of Arbela, 
Who thy enemies 
Casts down before thy feet. 
What are the words of mine. 
That I have spoken to thee. 
Upon which thou couldst not rely? 
I am Ishtar of Arbela. 
Thine enemies I will cut off, 
I will hand them over to thee. I ^ 
Am Ishtar of Arbela. 
When thou commandest 
A forward march, 
Fear not! 
Thou art with the officers (?), 

' Or : I, Ishtar of Arbela, in front of thee and in thy rear, will march. 

414 



ORACLES GIVEN IN FAVOUR OF ESARHADDON 

Into the midst of my camp (?) 
I will come and remain. 

From the mouth of Ishtar-la-talimiat, 
Of Arbela. 

II 

King of Assyria, fear not! 
The enemy of the King of Assyria 
I will deliver over to slaughter. 
In thy harem * * * 

[The rest is too mutilated to translate.] 
From the mouth of Shinqi-sha-amur, 
Of Arbela. 

Ill 

I will rejoice with Esarhaddon, 
My king. Rejoice, O Arbela! 

From the mouth of Rimute-allate, of Darahuia, 
Which is a fortress of the mountains. 



IV 
Fear not, Esarhaddon. 
I, Bel, am speaking 
With thee. 

The beams of thy heart 
I will support, like thy mother 
Who brought thee into being. 
The sixty great gods with me 
Will support (?) and protect thee. 
Sin is on thy right, Shamash on thy left. 
The sixty great gods are standing round about thee. 
They are banded together on the site of the city. 
Trust not in men. 
Turn thy eyes 
Toward me, look at me. 
I, Ishtar of Arbela, 
Have made Ashur favourable to thee. 
Thy youth have I protected. 



415 



4l6 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

Fear not! Honour me! 

Where is that enemy 

Who is hostile to thee? 

As I proclaim (?), 

The future shall be like the past. 

I am Nabu, the lord of the writing-reed. 

Honour me! 

From the mouth of Baia of Arbela. 



This oracle contained originally twelve lines, of which 
only the beginning of the last four remain. 

VI 

I am Ishtar of Arbela. 

Esarhaddon, King of Assyria, 
Within Asshur, Nineveh, 
Kalah and Arbela, 

Length of days 
And everlasting years 
To Esarhaddon, my king, 

1 will grant. 

Thy great supporter (?) 

Ami. 

Thy good nurse 

Ami. 

Who, for distant days 

And everlasting years, 

Thy throne beneath the great heavens 

Have established. 

With pillars (?) of gold 

Will I support it in the midst of the heavens. 

The light of the diamond * 

Will I cause to shine 

In the face of Esarhaddon, King of Assyria. 

Like the crown of my head 

* Or, with Banks : the light which surrounds it. 



ORACLES GIVEN IN FAVOUR OF ESARHADDON 417 

Will I support him. 
Fear not, O king; 
I am speaking to thee, 
I will not oppose thee. 

I will establish thee (?). 

I will not put thee to shame (?). 

The river in safety 

I will cause thee to cross. 

Esarhaddon, faithful son. 
Son of Belit, 

Girt with might. 
With my own hands 

1 will make an end of 
Thy enemies. 

O Esarhaddon, King of Ass)Tia, 
Cup which is full of herbs, 
Casket which is full of shekels, 

Esarhaddon, in the city Asshur 
Length of days 

And everlasting years 

1 will grant thee. 

Esarhaddon, in the midst of Arbela 

1 will be thy goodly shield. 

Esarhaddon, faithful son, 
Son of Belit, 

Plan 

With understanding. 

1 love thee 
Greatly. 

On the earth is thy fear. 
In the mighty heavens 
Thy companionship. 
On thy right I will 
Cause smoke to ascend. 
On thy left I will 
Cause a fire to consume. 
Dominion over [the countries] 
27 



4l8 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

Forever * * * will I give thee, 
Forever * * * 

[The rest of the column is lost.] 

From his presence 
Shall not come forth 
He who. devises 
Secret (?) 
Plots (?), 
At his feet 
I will cut them off. 
Thou, even thou. 
Art the king, my king. 

From the mouth of Ishtar-bel-daini, 
The seer (?) of the king. 

VII 
I, the lady of Arbela, 
To the mother of the king: 
When thou makest complaint to the gods (?), 
Saying, " Those on the right 
And on the left 
Do thou place at thy side; " 
And again, " Where is the 
Offspring of my heart. 

Which thou hast left prostrate on the plain? " 
Now, O king, fear not! 
Shall the kingdom be weakened? 
Shall the power be weakened? 

From the mouth of Beltu-aba-ishkun, 
Of Arbela. 

VIII 

Greetings to Esarhaddon^ King of Assyria. 

Ishtar of Arbela 

Will go forth to the plain. 

Greetings to her child. 



MONOLITH WITH SCULPTURED PORTRAIT 
OF ESARHADDON. 



ORACLES GIVEN IN FAVOUR OF ESARHADDON 419 

To the midst of the city she will send, 
To * * * 

[The remaining four lines are too mutilated to translate.] 

Fear not, Esarhaddon, 

I am Ishtar of Arbela. 

* "^ * good. ; ' ' 

Ishtar (?) of Arbela 

Will fill 

His cup (?). 

The former word 

Which I spake unto thee 

On it thou didst not rely. 

Now, therefore. 

On the later one 

Rely, and 

Honour me. 

When the storm (?) 

Is raging. 

And the winds 

In my presence honour me. 

******** 

Out of my palace 

I will bring forth. 

Well-prepared food shalt thou eat, 

Well-mixed drinks 

Shalt thou drink. 

In the midst of thy palace 

Thou shalt be well established. 

Thy son, and thy son's son 

Shall enlarge 

The kingdom 

By the favour of Nineb. 

From the mouth of La-dagil-ili, 
Of Arbela.' 



PRAYERS AND HYMNS 



PRAYER TO MARDUK 

O MIGHTY, powerful, strong one of Ashur, 
O exalted prince, first-born of Nu-Dim-Mud, 
O Marduk, terrible one, who maketh Eturra to 
rejoice. 
Lord of Esag^Ia, support of Babylon, lover of Ezida, 
Protector of all living, patron of E-mahtila, renewer of life. 
Protection of the land, benefactor of peoples, far and wide. 
Forever the ruler of the shrines, 

Forever is thy name acceptable in the mouth of the people. 
O Marduk, great lord * * * 
By thy illustrious command, Let me live, let me prosper 

and 
Let me honour thy divinity! 
When I plan, let me attain (ray plan), 
Establish truth in my mouth. 
Put (?) kindness in my heart. 
Return and be established. May they proclaim favours 

to me! 
May my god stand at my right hand! 
May my goddess stand at my left hand! 
May my god, my benefactor, establish himself at my side. 
To give and to command, to hearken and to show favour! 
Let the word I speak, when I speak, be propitious. 
O Marduk, great lord, command life. 
The life of my life do thou command! 
When I bow myself before thee joyfully, may I be satisfied! 

420 



PRAYERS AND HYMNS 421 

May Bel be thy light, may Ea make thee to rejoice! 
May the gods of the world be tributary to thee! 
May the great gods please thy heart! 



PRAYER TO MARDUK 

O Marduk, lord of countries, terrible one * * * 

Powerful, independent, perfect * * * 

Exalted, lofty, whose * * * can not be changed 

[The next eight lines are too badly broken to translate.] 

Lord of the fountains, mountains, and seas, overseer of the 

mountains, 
Lords of * * * and fortresses, who directeth the course 

of the rivers, 
Bestower of corn and grain (?), grower of wheat and 

barley (?), who maketh the green herb to spring 

forth. 
Thou createst what god and goddess create, in the midst of 

their * * * art thou. 
Ruler of Anunnaki, leader of the Igigi, 
Wise one, first-born of Ea, creator of all mankind. 
Lord art thou, and like a father and a mother in * * * art 

thou, 
And thou, like the Sun-god, makest light their darkness. 

[Twenty-four lines omitted.] 

O my lord, stand by me at this time, and hear my cry, 
pronounce judgment and determine fate. 

The sickness of * * * do thou destroy and thfe disease of 
my body do thou take away.' ' 

O my god and goddess, judge mankind and *■ * * 

By commarld of thy mouth, may no evil approach me, 
the magic of the sorcerer and sorceress! 

PRAYER TO NABU 

O PRINCE, pre-eminent, first-bom of Marduk, 
O prudent ruler (?), oflfspring of Qarpanit, 



422 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

O Nabu, bearer of the tablet of the fate of the gods, di- 
rector of Esagila, 

Lord of Ezida, protection of Borsippa, 

Beloved of Ea, granter of life, 

Patron of Babylon, protector of the living, 

God of inhabited hills (?), of the fortress of the people, lord 
of temples, 

Thy name is * * * in the mouth of the people, O Shedu! 

Son of the great prince, Marduk, in thy mouth is 
truth! 

In thy illustrious name, by command of thy great di- 
vinity, 

I, So-and-so, son of So-and-so, who am grievously ill, thy 
servant. 

Whom the hand of the demon and the poison of * * * 

May I live and prosper * * * 

Establish truth in my mouth. 

Put (?) kindness in my heart, 

Return and be established. May they proclaim favours 
to me! 

May my god stand at my right hand! 

May my goddess stand at my left hand! 

May the favourable Shedu, the favourable Lamassu * * * 
with me! 

[The following lines are too badly broken to be translated. J 

PRAYER TO BAU 

Bau, mighty mistress, merciful mother,, who dwellest 

in the brilliant heavens,' 

1 beseech thee, my mistress, stand and hearken unto me; 

I have sought thee, I have turned to thee, like the gar- 
ment (?) of my god and goddess have I seized thy 
garment (?), 

Since to pronounce judgments, to determine destinies. 
To raise to life, to grant prosperity belongs to thee; 
Since thou knowest to protect, to benefit and to save, 
O Bau, mighty mistress, merciful mother. 



PRAYERS AND HYMNS 423 

Among the many stars of the heavens, 

[My mistress], I have turned to thee, I have given 

heed. 
Accept from me the upuntu plant and receive my supphcar 

tion. 
[May I send thee] to my god who is angry, to my goddess 

who is angry with me; 
[To the god of my city] who is wroth and enraged with 

me * * * 
O Ban, mighty mistress, at the word of thy exalted com- 
mand, which in Ekur [can not be altered], 
And thy eternal grace which [changeth not]. 
Let my wrathful god return, let my angry goddess * * * 
Let the god of my city (return) who is wroth with me and 

whose. heart is enraged with me. 
Let him who is angry be at rest, him who is enraged [be 

pacified] ! 
O Bau, mighty mistress, thou dost hold * * * 
To Marduk, king of the gods, my merciful lord * * * 
Broad is thy protection, great is thy compassion * * * 
The gift of favour and life do thou [bestow on me] . 
May I gladderi thy heart; may I bow in humility before 

thee! -' - n ■ 

PRAYER TO NERGAL 

O MIGHTY lord, exalted, first-born of NU.NAM.NIR, 

Chief of the Anunnaki, lord of battle, 

Oflfspring of KU.TU.SHAR, the great queen, 

Nergal, most powerful of the gods, beloved of NIN.MIN.- 

NA, 
Thou art brilliant in the bright heavens, lofty is thy posi- 
tion; 
Thou art great, in the Under World and the benefactor of 

<^-Q 'I* *(• 'F 

With Ea in the assembly of the gods, inscribe thy counsel. 
With Sin in the heavens, thou seekest all things. 
Bel, thy father, hath given thee the Black-headed people, 
all living creatures. 



424 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



The cattle of Nergal, created things, he hath placed in thy 
hands. 

I, So-and-so, the son of So-and-so * * * thy servant! 

The * * * of god and goddess are laid upon me! 

Raid and destruction are in my house. 

Because thou art kind, I have turned to thy divinity. 

Because thou art forgiving, I have sought for thee. 

Because thou dost look with favour * * * 

Because thou art merciful, I have stood before thee! 

Look with true favour upon me and hearken to my 
cry. 

May thy angry heart be at rest! 

Absolve my sin, [free me from] my iniquity * * * 

O angry god and angry goddess * * * 

Let me proclaim thy g^reatness! let me bow in humility be- 
fore thee! 

PRAYER TO NINIB 

O MIGHTY son, first-bom of Bel, 

Powerful, perfect, offspring of Esharra, 

Clothed with terror, filled with violence; 

Great storm, whose attack can not be withstood. 

Mighty is thy station among the great gods. 

In Ekur, the festival house, exalted is thy head, 

And Bel, thy father, hath granted thee 

That the commands for all the gods be intrusted to thy 

hand. 
Thou pronouncest judgments for mankind. ■ 
Thou giiidest aright the one without a guide, the one who 

is in need. 
Thou takest the hand of the weak, thou liftest up the one 

who is not strong. 
Thou bringest back the body of him who has been sent 

down to the Lower World. 
Thou absolvest from sin the one who has sinned. 
Thou speedily bringest into favour the one with whom his 

god is angry. 
O Ninib, chief of the gods, a warrior art thou. 



PRAYERS AND HYMNS 425 

I, So-and-so, son of So-and-so, whose god is So-and-so, 
whose goddess is So-and-so, 

Have bound for thee a cord * * * have I offered thee; 

I have offered thee tarrinnu, a goodly odour. 

I have poured out for thee mead, a drink made from 
grain. 

May the gods of Bel stand with thee! 

May the gods of Ekur stand with thee! 

Look with true favour upon me and hearken to my cry, 

Receive my supplication and accept my prayer. 

Let my words be acceptable unto thee. 

Turn with favour toward me, thy worshipper. 

Thy face have I beheld, may I attain prosperity. 

O thou who lookest with favour, look with true favour 
upon me. 

Absolve my sin, free me from my iniquity, 

Remove my disgrace, and cast from me my transgres- 
sion. 

May my gods and goddesses command me and may they 
declare my good fortune! 

May I gladden thy heart, may I bow in humility before 
thee! 

PRAYERS TO THE SUN-GOD 

I 

O Shamash, great lord, whom I ask, with true grace an- 
swer me. 

From this day, the third day of this month, lyyar, to the 
eleventh day of Ab of this year — 

A period covering one hundred days and one hundred 
nights — ^is a set time for priestly activity. In this 
set time 

Will Kashtariti with his soldiers, or the soldiers of the 
Gimirri, 

Or the soldiers of the Medes, or the soldiers of the Manni, 
or any enemy, as many as there are. 

Have success with their plans? Will they, either by over- 
throw, or by might, 



426 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

Or by contest, battle, and war, or by cutting through, or by 

making breaches with ipal and kipal, 
Or by battering-rams, or by war-engines, or by fam- 
ine. 
Or by mention (?) of the names of god and goddess, or by 

friendly speech and friendly advances. 
Or by any work of diplomacy, such as is used in the 

taking of a city. 
Seize the city Kishassu, will they make entrance into that 

city Kishassu, 
Will their hands capture that city Kishassu, 
Will it fall to their hands? Thy great divinity knows. 
Is the taking of that city Kishassu by the hand of any 

enemy, as many as there are. 
From this day to the day of the time set by me, by com- 
mand or, by order of thy great divinity, 
O Shamash, great lord, commanded, determined? Will 

one see it, will one hear it? 
Heed not what may come after my set time! Heed not 

that their hearts plan against (?) and * * * ! 
Heed not that they bring about a massacre and a raid on 

their field! 
Heed not what the chief offering of this day may be, 

whether good or bad; a stormy day on which it 

rains! 
Heed not that somethitig Unclean may have produced 

uncleanness at the place of vision and rendered it 

unclean! '■'■■■ 

Heed not that the lamb of thy divinity, which is looked 

upon foi- vision, be imperfect and with blemish! ' 
Heed not that he who touches the forepart of the lamb 

may have put on his garment for sacrifice as arshati, 

or have 
Eaten, drunk, or rubbed upon himself something unclean, 

(or) may have bent (?), pressed (?), and put down 

the kun of the hand! 
Heed not that in the mouth of the son of the seer, thy 

servant, a word may have been passed over in haste! 



PRAYERS AND HYMNS 



427 



So * * * or SO * * =*5, I ask thee, O Shamash, great lord, 
Whether from this day, the third day of this month lyyar, 

to the eleventh day of Ab of this year, 
Kashtariti with his soldiers, or the soldiers of the Gimirri, 

or the soldiers of the Manni, 
Or the soldiers of the Medes, or any enemy, as many as 

there are. 
Will seize that city Kishassu, will they make entrance into 

that city Kishassu? 
Will their hands capture that city Kishassu, will it fall to 

their hands? ' 

i [Here follow omens. j 

On account of this lamb, grant assistance, and true grace, 

auspicious (?) appearances (?), 
* * * favours bringing good fortune — the command of 

the mouth of thy great divinity — 
Grant that I may see! 

May it come unto thy great divinity, O Shamash, great 
lord, and may it (thou) answer with an oracle! 

[Here follow omens.J 

II 

O Shamash, great lord, whom I ask, with true grace 

answer me! 
Dur-Bel, a fortress of Esarhaddon, King of Assyria, which 

lies on the border > 

Of the Manni, and which the Manni have taken and hold 

as their own — 
j^jay * * * the rab-shak, with soldiers, horses, forces, as 

many as he wishes, 
March to retake that city Dur-Bel! By contest. 
Battle or war, or by friendly speech and friendly advances. 
Or by famine, hunger, or distress (?)*** 
Or by might, by cutting through, by tearing down (?) the 

wall. 



428 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

Or by battering-rams or by lulimiti, or 

By mention (?) of the names of god and goddess, or by 

any work of diplomacy, such as is used in the 

taking of a city. 
Will the forces of Esarhaddon, King of Assyria, seize that 

city Dur-Bel? 
Will that city Dur-Bel fall to their hands? 
Thy great divinity knows. Will one see it, will one hear it? 
Heed not what the chief offering of this day may be, 

whether good or bad! 
Heed not that something unclean may have produced 

uncleanness at the place of vision and rendered it 

unclean! 
Heed not that in this place something unclean may have 

been looked upon for vision! 
Heed not that an unclean AZAG may have touched the 

sacrifice, or that something may have been done to 

the sacrifice! 
Heed not that the lamb of thy divinity, which is looked 

upon for vision; be imperfect and with blemish! 
Heed not that he who touches the forepart of the lamb 

may have put on his garment for sacrifice as arshati, 

or have 
Eaten, drunk, or rubbed upon himself something unclean, 

or may have bent (?), pressed (?), and put down (?) 

the kun of his hand! 
Heed not that in the mouth of the son of the seer, thy 

servant, a word may have been passed over in haste! 
So * * * or so * * * I ask thee, O Shamash, great lord. 
When the forces of Esarhaddon, ' King of Assyria, march 
To retake Dur-Bel, the fortress which lies on the border of 

the Manni, 
And that city Dur-Bel falls to their hands. 
On account of this lamb grant assistance, and true grace, 

auspicious (?) appearances (?) 
* * * favours bringing good fortune — the command of 

the mouth of thy great divinity — 
Grant that I may see! 



PRAYERS AND HYMNS 



429 



May it come unto thy great divinity, O Shamash, great 
lord, and may it (thou) answer with an oracle! 

HYMN TO ISHTAR 

A LIGHT of heaven, which like fire rises resplendent over 

the earth, art thou. 
Goddess, when thou appearest on the earth. 
Glorious, like the earth art thou. . 

As for thee, the path of justice bring thee gracious blessing. 
When thou entereist the house of man — 
A jackal, who goes on the hunt for a lamb, art thou, 
A Hon, who roams about in the field, art thou. 
Welcome (?)! maid, beauty of heaven! 
Maid Ishtar, beauty of heaven! 

Adorned with splendid decorations, beauty of heaven,. 
Sister of the Sun-god, beauty of heaven. 

To give omens in abundance I appear, I appear in perfec- 
tion. 

To give omens in abundance to my father Sin, I appear, 
I appear in perfection. 

To, give omens in abundance to my brother Shamash, I 
appear, I appear in perfection. 

Me hath my father Nannar stationed; to give omens in 
abundance I appear. 

In the brilliant heavens, to give omens in abundance, I 
appear, I appear in perfection. 

With exultation in my supremacy, with exultation in my 
supremacy. 

With exultation do I, a goddess, walk supreme; 

Ishtar, the goddess of evening, am I; . 

Ishtar, the goddess of morning, am I ; 

Ishtar, who opens the portals of heaven, in my supremacy. 

The heavens I destroy, the earth I devastate, in my suprem- 
acy. 

Who destroys the heavens, who devastates the earth, in 
my supremacy. 



43° 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



Who rises resplendent on the firmament of heaven, whose 
name shines among the habitations of men, in my 
supremacy. 

Queen of heaven, invoked above and below, in my su- 
premacy. 

The mountain I sweep away altogether, in my supremacy. 

The great wall of the mountain am I, their great foundation 
am I, in my supremacy. 

May thy heart be at rest,"may thy liver be pacified! 

May the great lord Anu give thy heart rest! 

May the lord, the great mountain, Bel, pacify thy liver! 

O goddess, mistress of heaven, may thy heart be at rest! 

O lady, mistress of heaven, may thy liver be pacified! 

O lady, mistress of E-an-na, may thy heart be at rest! 

O lady, mistress of Erech, may thy liver be pacified! 

O lady, mistress of * * *, may thy heart be at rest! 

O lady, mistress of Harsag-kalama, may thy liver be paci- 
fied! 

O lady, mistress of E-tur-kalama, may thy heart be at 
rest! 

O lady, mistress of Babylon, may thy liver be pacified! 

O lady, my mistress, goddess Nana, may thy heart be at 
rest! '■ ' 

O mistress of the house, mistress of the gods; may thy 
liver be pacified! 

[Here follows the colophon.] 

HYMN TO SIN, THE MOON-GOD 

O Lord, chief of the gods, who in heaven and on earth 

alone is supreme! 
Father Nannar, lord of increase, chief of the gods! 
Father Nannar, lord of heaven, great one, chief of the 

gods! 
Father Nannar, lord of the moon, chief of the gods! 
Father Nannar, lord of Ur, chief of the gods! 
Father Nannar, lord of E-gis-sir-gal, chief of the gods! 



PRAYERS AND HYMNS 431 

Father Nannar, lord of the moon-disk, brilliant one, chief of 

the gods! 
Father Nannar, who rules with pomp, chief of the 

gods! ~ 

Father Nannar, who goes about in princely garb, chief of 

the gods! 
O strong bull, with terrible horns, well-developed muscles, 

with a flowing beard of the colour of lapislazuli, full 

of vigour and life! 
O fruit, which grows of itself, developed in appearance, 

beautiful to look upon; but whose luxuriance does 

not produce fruit! 
O merciful one, begetter of everything, who has taken up 

his illustrious abode among living creatures! 
O merciful and forgiving father, who holds in his hand the 

life of the whole country! 
O Lord, thy divinity is full of fear, like the far-off heavens 

and the broad sea! 
O ruler (?) of the land, founder of shrines, proclaimer of 

their name! 
O Father, begetter of gods and men, builder of dwellings, 

establisher of offerings! 
Who proclaims sovereignty, bestows sceptre and who de- 
termines destinies for far-off days! 
O mighty leader, whose large heart no god understands! 
O fiery one (?), whose knees do not grow weary, who 

opens up the road (?) for the gods his compan- 
ions! 
* * * who from the horizon to the zenith * * * who 

opens the doors of heaven, establishes his light (?) 

* * * 

O Father, begetter of everything * * * 

O Lord, who determines the decisions of heaven and earth, 

whose command no one [can set aside] ! 
O thou who boldest fire and water, who rulest over all 

creatures! What god can attain thy position? 
In heaven who is exalted? Thou alone art exalted! 
On earth who is exalted? Thou alone art exalted! 



432 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

As for thee, thy command is proclaimed in heaven and the 

Igigi prostrate themselves! 
As for thee, thy command is proclaimed on earth and the 

Anunnaki kiss the ground! 
As for thee, thy command blows on high like a storm-wind; 

it makes food and drink abundant! 
As for thee, when thy command is established on earth, 

vegetation springs up! 
As for thee, thy command maketh fat the stable and herds, 

it, increases all creatures! 
As for thee, thy command brings about truth and right- 
eousness, so that man speaks truth! 
As for thee, thy command is the far-off heavens and the 

hidden earth, which no one penetrates! 
As for thee, who can g^asp thy command? Who can 

rival it? 
O Lord, in heaven is [thy] sovereignty; on earth is [thy] 

supremacy; among the gods, thy companions, thou 

hast no rival! 

[Several lines too badly broken to be translated.] 



PENITENTIAL PSALMS 



SUPPLIANT: 
I, thy servant, full of sighs, cry unto thee. 
Thou acceptest the fervent prayer of him who is bur- 
dened with sin. 
Thou lookest upon a man and that man lives. 
O potentate of the world, mistress ,of mankind! 
Merciful one, to whom it is good to turn, who accepteth 
supplication! 

Priest: 

His god and his goddess being angry with him, he crieth 

unto thee. 
Turn thy face toward him and take his ^and. 

Suppliant: 

Besides thee there is no god who guideth aright. , .• 
Look with true favour upon me and accept my supplica- 

, tion. 
Declare, " how long " (I am to wait), and let thy liver be 

pacified. 
When, O my mistress, will thy face be turned? 
Like the doves do I moan, in sighs do I abound. 

Priest: 

With woe and grief, full of sighs, is his soul; 
Tears doth he weep, laments doth he.pour forth.;. : 

28 433 



434 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

II 

Thou who dost execute the commands of Bel * * * 

Pointed dagger * * * 

Thou who hast created the gods, who dost execute the 

commands of Bel! 
Who dost make the green herb to spring up, mistress of 

mankind! 
Who hast created everything, who dost guide aright all 

creatures! 
Mother Ishtar, whose power no god can approach! 
Most exalted mistress, whose command is all-powerful! 
A prayer will I utter; may she do unto me what seems 

good unto her! 
O my mistress, from the day when I was young, much to 

misfortune have I been yoked. 
Food have I not eaten, weeping was my sustenance. 
Water have I not drunk, tears were my drink. 
My heart has not rejoiced, my spirits have not been 

cheerful. 

* * * like a man I have not walked. 

* * * bitterly I moan. 

My transgressions are many, full of bitterness is my spirit. 

O my mistress, make me to know my deed, establish for 
me a place of rest! 

Absolve my sins, lift up my face! 

O my god, lord of prayer, may my prayer address thee! 

O my goddess, mistress of supplication, may my supplica- 
tion address thee! 

O god of the storm, lord of Harsaga, may my prayer ad- 
dress thee! 

O Gubarra, mistress of the field, may my supplication 
address thee! 

O lord of heaven and earth, lord of Eridu, may my prayer 
address thee! 

O Damkina, mother of the house supreme, may my sup- 
plication address thee! 

O Marduk, lord of Babylon, may my prayer address thee! 



PENITENTIAL PSALMS 435 

His consort, the exalted offspring (?) of heaven and earth, 
may my supplication address thee! 

O exalted servant, the god, who announces the good name, 
may my prayer address thee! 

O bride, the first-born of the god * * * , may my suppli- 
cation address thee! 

O mistress, who dost curb (?) unfriendly speech, may my 
prayer address thee! 

Exalted, great, my mistress, goddess Nana, may my suppli- 
cation address thee! 

" Turn thine eye with favour toward me," may it say to 
thee! 

" Turn thy face with favour toward me," may it say to 
thee! 

" May thy heart be at rest," may it say to thee! 

" May thy liver be pacified," may it say to thee! 

May thy heart, as the heart of a mother who has borne 
children, be glad! 

As a mother who has borne children, as a father who has 
begotten (them), may it be glad! 

Ill 

Because of his face, which he doth not raise on account of 
tears, doth he raise lamentation to thee. 

Because of his feet, on which fetters are laid, doth he raise 
lamentation to thee. 

Because of his hands, which are exhausted through weak- 
ness, doth he raise lamentation to thee. 

Because of his breast, which like a flute pipes forth in cries, 
doth he raise lamentation to thee. 

Suppliant: 

O mistress, in the anguish of my heart have I raised cries 

of anguish to thee; declare forgiveness. 
O mistress, to thy servant declare respite! May thy heart 

be at rest! 
Unto thy servant who hath experienced sorrow, grant 

mercy! 



436 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

Turn thy face, receive his supplication! 

To thy servant with whom thou hast been angry, turn in 

favour! 
O my mistress, my hands are bound, yet I embrace (?) 

thee. 
To the warlike hero, Shamash, thy beloved husband, grant 

a pledge, that I may walk before thee during a life 

of many days! 
My god hath made supplication unto thee, may thy heart 

be at rest! 
My goddess hath uttered a prayer unto thee, may thy liver 

be pacified ! 
O brave hero, god Anu, thy beloved husband, may my 

prayer address thee! 
O * * *, god of justice, may my supplication address 

thee! 
O * * *, thy exalted servant, may my prayer address 

thee! 
O * * *, potentate of Ebabbara, may my supplication ad- 
dress thee! 
" Turn thine eye with favour toward me," may it say to 

thee! 
"Turn thy face with favour toward me," may it say to 

thee! 
" May thy heart be at rest," may it say to thee! 
" May thy liver be pacified," may it say to thee! 
May thy heart, as the heart of a mother who has borne 

children, be glad! 
As a mother who has borne children, as a father who has 

begotten (them), may it be glad! 

Penitential Psalm to the goddess Anunit. 



IV 

May the wrath of the heart of my god be pacified! 
May the god who is unknown to me be pacified! 
May the goddess who is unknown to me be pacified! 



PENITENTIAL PSALMS 



437 



May the known and unknown god be pacified! 

May the known and unknown goddess be pacified! 

May the heart of my god be pacified! 

May the heart of my goddess be pacified! 

May the god or goddess known or unknown be pacified! 

May the god who is angry with me be pacified! 

May the goddess who is angry with me be pacified! 

The sin which I have committed I know not. 

The misdeed which I have committed I know not. 

A gracious name may my god announce! 

A gracious name may my goddess announce! 

A gracious name may my known and unknown god an- 
nounce ! 

A gracious name may my known and unknown goddess 
announce! 

Pure food have I not eaten, 

Clear water have I not drunk. 

An offence against my god have I unwittingly committed. 

A transgression against my goddess have I unwittingly 
done. 

O lord, my sins are many, great are my iniquities! 

My god, my sins are many, great are my iniquities! 

My goddess, my sins are many, great are my iniquities! 

Known or unknown god, my sins are many, great are my 
iniquities ! 

Known or unknown goddess, my sins are many, great are 
my iniquities! 

The sin, which I have committed, I know not. 

The iniquity, which I have done, I know not. 

The offence, which I have committed, I know not. 

The transgression I have done, I know not. 

The lord, in the anger of his heart, hath looked upon me. 

The god, in the wrath of his heart, hath visited me. 

The goddess hath become angry with me, and hath griev- 
ously stricken me. 

T^e known or unknown god hath straitened me. 

The known or unknown goddess hath brought affliction 
upon me. 



438 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

I sought for help, but no one taketh my hand. 

I wept, but no one came to my side. 

I utter cries, but no one hearkens to me. 

I am afflicted, I am overcome, I do not look up. 

Unto my merciful god I turn, I make supplication. 

I kiss the feet of my goddess and * * * 

To known and unknown god, I make supplication. 

To known and unknown goddess, I make supplication. 

O lord, look with favour upon me, receive my supplication! 

O goddess, look with favour upon me, receive my suppli- 
cation! 

Known and unknown god * * * 

Known and unknown goddess * * * 

How long, my god * * * 

How long, my goddess, until thy face be turned toward 
me? 

How long, known and unknown god, until the anger of 
thy heart be pacified? 

How long, known and unknown goddess, until thy un- 
friendly heart be pacified? 

Mankind is perverted .and has no judgment. 

Of all men who are alive, who knows anything? 

They do not know whether they do good or evil. 

O lord, do not cast aside thy servant! 

He is cast into the mire; take his hand. 

The sin which I have sinned, turn to mercy! 

The iniquity which I have committed, let the wind carry 
away! 

My many transgressions tear off like a garment! 

My god, my sins are seven times seven; forgive my 
sins! 

My goddess, my sins are seven times seven; forgive my 
sins! 

Known and unknown god, my sins are seven times seven; 
forgive my sins! 

Known and unknown goddess, my sins are seven times 
seven; forgive my sins! 

Forgive my sins and I will humble myself before thee. 



PENITENTIAL PSALMS 439 

May thy heart, as the heart of a mother who hath borne 

children, be glad! 
As a mother who hath borne children, as a father who hath 

begotten (them), may it be glad! 



COLOPHON 

Penitential Psalm of sixty-five lines. Tablet for any god. 
His word announces peace to me. 
Like the original, copied and revised. 
Palace of Ashurbanipal, king of the world, King of As- 
syria. 

V 

How long, O my mistress, will the powerful enemy con- 
sume thy land? 

In thy chief city, Erech, thirst prevails. 

In E-ul-bar, the house of thy oracle, blood is poured out 
like water. 

In all thy lands hath he kindled fires and over them hath 
he poured (fire) like * * * 

O my mistress, much to misfortune have I been yoked. 

my mistress, thou hast encompassed me, and into pain 

hast thou brought me. 
The mighty enemy hath trodden me under foot like a reed. 

1 can not think, I can not plan. 

Like a (wind-swept) field I moan night and day. ' 

I, thy servant, supplicate thee. 

May thy heart be at rest, may thy liver be pacified! 

[Broken off.] 

VI i 

O lord, whose heart in heaven doth not find rest! 
O lord, whose heart on earth is not appeased! 
In heaven and on earth it doth not find rest! 
He who hath brought me low and cut me off! 
He who hath placed fetters (?) on niy hands! 
He who hath placed chains on my body! 



440 ASSYRIAN AUD BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

He who hath filled my eyes with tears! 
He who hath filled my heart with dejection and lamenta- 
tion ! 
May his pure heart be at rest, may my prayer address him! 
May his heart rest in peace! 
May the heart of his lordship rest in peace! 
" O heart, turn thyself, turn thyself," let be said to him! 
" O heart, rest, rest," let be said to him! 

Priest: 

He desires too much for his heart, who would pass judg- 
ment on himself. 

To pacify his heart, may the spirits of earth [support him] 
in prayer! 

May the spirits of earth, who are the creation of Anu, sup- 
port him in prayer! 

His god hath borne aloft his supplication, may he address 
his prayer to thee! 

When he breaks into a lamentation to set at ease, may thy 
heart be at rest! 

Suppliant: 

O lord, great ruler, Ninib, may my prayer address thee! 

O suppliant mistress of Nippur, may my supplication ad- 
dress thee! 

O lord of heaven and earth, lord of Eridu, may my prayer 
address thee! ^ , 

O Damkina, mother of the house sujpreme, may my suppli- 
cation address thee! 

O Marduk, lord of Babylon, may my prayer address thee! 

His consort, the exalted offspring (?) of heaven and earth, 
may my supplication address thee! 

O exaltfed servant, the god, who announceth the good 
name, may my prayer address thee! 

O bride, the first-born of the god * * *, may my suppli- 
cation address thee! 

O god of the storm, lord of Harsaga, may my prayer ad- 
dress thee! 



PENITENTIAL PSALMS 



441 



O Gubarra, mistress of the field, may my supplication ad- 
dress thee! 

" Turn thine eye with favour toward me," may it say to 
thee! 

" Turn thy face with favour toward me," may it say 
to thee! 

" May thy heart be at rest," may it say to thee ! 

" May thy liver be pacified," may it say to thee! 

May thy heart, as the heart of a mother who hath borne 
children, be glad! 

As a mother who hath borne children, as a father who 
hath begotten (them), may it be glad! 

COLOPHON 

Penitential Psalm of forty-five lines. Tablet for the god 

- Bel. 
Like the original, copied and revised. 

VII 
Priest: 

In sighing he sits. 

With cries of affliction, in anguish of heart. 

With bitter weeping, with bitter sighing. 

Like the doves doth he moan, in distress night and 

day. 
Unto his merciful god like a wild cow doth he cry. 
Sighs of affliction doth he raise. 
Before his god he prostrates himself in supplication. 
He weeps that he may approach, that nothing may hold 

(him) back. 

Suppliant: 

My deed will I declare, my deed which can not be declared. 

My words will I repeat, my words which can not be re- 
peated. 

My god ! my deed will I declare, my deed which can not be 
declared. 



442 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

VIII 

Loose his chains, cast off his fetters, 
Undo his band, to his captivity * * * 

* * * his understanding (?)*** 

* * * have filled him (?) with lamentation and * * * 
Sickness, a stroke, misery, afRiction, 

Have laid hold of him, and his sighing has become weaker 

and weaker. 
Imprisonment (?), misery, fear, and oppression (?) 
Have brought him low and stilled his lamentation. 
He hath sinned and full of griei he weeps before thee. 
His spirits are depressed, he stands trembling before thee. 
He is unnerved; he rains down tears like a heavy storm. 
He is overpowered and * * * 
Like a shrieking bird he uttereth troublous cries. 
With sighs he declareth his humility. 
What has my lord's servant said and devised? 
Let his mouth bring that which I know not! 

Suppliant: 

My sins are many, the number which I have sinned. 
May this curse depart, may it go out into the desert! 
My sins are many, the number which I have sinned. 
May this curse depart, may it go out into the desert! 

Priest: 

* * * scorn; the covering (?) of his mouth and * * * 
Hath taken hold of him; the covering (?) of his face hath 

led him astray; he lieth prostrate. 
Before thy scorn, his hands are bound. 
" Will he loose thee? " He is not able to know. 
He speaketh to thee with sighing. 
May the command of Ea pacify thy heart! 
May his earnest supplication find favour with thee above! 
" Sighing or mercy; how long still," shall he say to thee! 
Behold his painful suffering! 
May thy heart be at rest, and grant him mercy! 
Take his hand, forgive his sin! 



PENITENTIAL PSALMS 



443 



Remove the erysipelas and fever which are on him! 
By thy command, grant respite to thy downcast servant! 
Send forth thy scorn into the river along with his jaundice! 
Undo his bands, loose his fetters! 
Light up thy countenance, commend him to his god, his 

creator! 
Grant life to thy servant, that he may glorify thy power! 
May all the habitations bow before thy greatness! 
Receive his present, accept his redemption-money! 
In the land of peace, may he walk before thee! 
With rich abundance may he fill thy shrine! 
In thy house (?) may his abundant (offering) be placed! 
May he pour out fat like water over thy (partition)- 

walls (?)! 
May he make thy thresholds to drip with fat in abundance! 
May he erect for thee a * * * of cedar-wood! 
The sweetest incense, the full product (?) of grain (?). 
Look with favour, O lord, upon thy servant, full of sighs! 
Let thy wind blow; grant him freedom (?) at once! 
May thy proud scorn be pacified! 
Cast off his fetters, that he may breathe freely! 
Undo his bands, loose his fetters! 

* * * declare his fate! 

* * * spare, spare his life! 

* * * declare his fate! 

* * * spare, spare his life! 

What hath the servant, the creation of thy hand, devised? 
What hath he planned, what is his fault (?)? 

* * * the servant fears his lord. 

* * * What can he add thereto? 

[Too badly broken to be translated.] 

IX 

O my god, who art angry with me, accept my prayer! 
O my goddess, who art wroth with me, receive my suppli- 
cation! 
Receive my supplication, let thy liver be at rest! 



444 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 



O my lord, gracious and merciful, [look upon me] ! 
He who guideth the span of life, who stayeth the hand 
of death, my god, accept my prayer! 

my goddess, look with favour upon me and receive my 

supplication! 

May my sins be forgiven, may my transgressions be for- 
gotten! 

May the ban be loosened, may the chains be cast off! 

May the seven winds carry away my sighs! 

May I strip off my wickedness, may the birds carry it to 
the heavens! 

May the fish carry off my misery, the river bear it away! 

May the beasts of the field take it from me, may the run- 
ning waters of the river wash me clean! 

Make me bright like gold! 

Like a ring (?) of diamonds (?) may I be precious in thy 
sight! 

Cleanse me from wickedness, save my soul! I will watch 
(?) thy court and pledge myself to thee. 

Remove me from my wickedness, and may I receive pro- 
tection from thee! 

Grant to me that I may see a favoiirable dream! 

May the dream which I see be favourable, may the dream 
which I see come true! 

The dream which I see, turn to my favour! 

May the god * * *, the god of dreams, stand at my head! 

Make me to enter into Esagila, the temple of the gods, the 
house of life! 

Commend me to the gracious favour of the merciful Mar- 
duk! ■• 

1 will bow myself before thy greatness, I will honour thy 

divinity. 
May the inhabitants of my city glorify thy power! 



SOME BABYLONIAN LAWS 



A. ANCIENT BABYLONIAN LAWS 

BE it enacted forever and for all future days: If a son 
say to his father, " Thou art not my father," he can 
cut off (his locks), make him a slave and sell him for 
money. — If a son say to his mother, " Thou art not my 
mother," she can cut off his locks, turn him out of town, or 
(at least) drive him away from home (i. e., she can have him 
deprived of citizenship and of inheritance, but his liberty he 
loses not). — If a father say to his son, " Thou art not my 
son," the latter has to leave house and field (i. e., he loses 
everything). — If a mother say tp her son, " Thou art not 
my son," he shall leave house and furniture. — If a wife be 
imfaithful to her husband and then says, "Thou art not 
my husband," let her be thrown into the river. — If a hus- 
band say to his wife, " Thou art not my wife," he shall 
as a fine pay one Jbalf maneh of silver. — If some one 
hires a servant and the latter dies or is rendered useless 
otherwise (e. g., by flight, rebellion; or sickness) he 
shall give (to the owner) as daily wages ten KA of corn 
a day. 

If an overseer or a fisherman ordered to the service 
of the king does not come, but sends a hireling in his 
stead, that same overseer or fisherman shall be put to 

• Laws governing private as well as public and political life were 
written up in Babylonia as early as 2250 B. c. Unfortunately, most of 
these early documents have been preserved in very fragmentary condi- 
tion, so that only a few phases of early Babylonian law and jurispru- 
dence are now known to us. 

445 



446 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

death, and his house shall go into the possession of the 
hireling. 

If a man lets out his field to a farmer and he has re- 
ceived the rent for his field, and afterward a flood pours 
down upon that field, or some animal destroys the har- 
vest of the farmer; in case now the rent of this field is not 
yet paid, or * * * ^ 

When a merchant gives to his clerk grain, wool, oil, or 
some other merchandise for sale, the clerk shall give a 
strict account and turn in the money to the merchant; and 
the merchant shall give to the clerk a receipt for the money 
paid over to him. 

When a man has bought a male or female slave, and; the 
sale is fought by a third party (the real owner) and is in 
consequence thereof declared void, the seller of the slave 
has to pay for all damages.* 

When in an inclosed yard a disturbance occurs, or, 
again, when a lion kills, his keeper shall pay all damages, 
and the owner of the yard shall receive the killed ani- 
mals. 

When a peasant says to the date-vender, " All the dates 
in this garden thou mayest take for thy money," that ven- 
der shall not do so; but the dates that grow in the gar- 
den shall be and remain the property of the owner, and 
with these dates he shall pay the vender for the latter's 
money and the interests accrued, as the written agreement 
calls for; but what remains of dates after that shall be and 
remain the property of the owner. 

When a shepherd of small cattle, after having driven the 
herd from pasture, and when the whole troop has passed 
within the city gates, drives his cattle to another man's 
field (within the city walls), and pastures it there, that shep- 
herd shall take care of the field, which he has given to his 

' The law here no doubt said that, in case of damage by weather or 
animals, a renter of a field will have certain reduction granted. If he 
paid in advance, part of the money will be refunded to him ; if he pays 
at the end of the lease, he need not pay the full amount. 

* Contract tablets show that in addition to this fine the falce-owner was 
condemned to do service unto the king in socage. 



SOME BABYLONIAN LAWS 447 

flock as pasture, and shall give to the owner of the field for 
every day the amount of sixty KA. 



B. NEO-BABYLONIAN LAWS 

If a man sell a slave-girl for money, and another party 
proves just claims to her, and takes her away (from her 
present owner), the seller shall return the money to the 
buyer, to exactly the same amount that his receipt calls for; 
if (in the meanwhile) she has borne children, he shall — in 
addition — pay for each child one half shekel. 

If a man, after having promised, either verbally or in 
writing, a certain dowry to his daughter, loses part of his 
property, he can give his daughter a dowry in accordance 
with the property as it is now, and neither father-in-law 
nor son-in-law shall go to law on that account. 

If a man has given his daughter a dowry, and the 
daughter dies without an issue, the dowry reverts to the 
house of her father. 

If a woman, whose dowry her husband has taken charge 
of, remains childless and loses her husband, her dowry shall 
be returned to her in full out of the late husband's estate. 
If her husband during his lifetime has presented her part of 
his property, she shall retain this also and still receive her 
own dowry in full. But if she had no dowry, the judge 
(of the probate court) shall examine into the condition of 
her husband's estate and then give her a proper share in 
accordance with her late husband's property. 



SOME PROVERBS AND SAYINGS 



WHO grows pregnant without having conceived? 
Who grows fat without having eaten? 
(He that says), " Oh, that I might take re- 
venge and even add to it more! " is like unto a man that 
draws water from a well in which there is no water, and 
rubs his skin without anointing it. 

When their god turned away, misery invaded their 
dwelling-places. The wicked established himself, but the 
righteous waxed not old; the religious and devout whose 
devotion his lord regarded not, and every noble whom 
his lord forsook,' their want set in and their suffering was 
heightened. 

The enemy will not be scattered in front of the gate of 
them whose weapons are not strong. 

My knees hasten on, not. do rest my feet; but bereft of 
common sense, misfortune follows at my heels. 

A heifer I am, yoked to a mule; on the wagon, to 
which we are harnessed, I pull the yoke. 

With disease that can not be cured and hunger that can 
not be stilled, a coffer of silver and a trunk full of gold 
are not able to restore health or to still hunger. 

My bracer surrounds me like as a divine garment; my 
powerful rock is founded in the ocean. 

In a house made of bitumen and brick I dwell; boats 
are gliding past above me. 

448 



SOME PROVERBS AND SAYINGS 



449 



If I consume all my garlic when the wind blows, my 
heart will be troubled when the rainy season sets in — i. e., 
if one eats all his vegetables when the wind blows, in the 
hope of the coming rain, he is apt to suffer want before 
fresh vegetables have grown, as the result of the rainy 
season. 

Just as an oven becomes old, so is (thine enemy) un- 
able to do harm unto thee. 

Thou camest to take thine enemy's property, the enemy 
came and took thy property. 

A drunken man has the strength of a worm. 

The life of yesterday, it is every day the same — i. e., 
nothing new under the sun. 

Thou art so offensive that when thou goest into the 
river the water becomes foul, and when thou goest into the 
garden the fruit grows bitter. 

When the seed corn is not good, germs can not sprout, 
and grain will not grow. 

I honour him, because he is head of the family; I polish 
it, because it is a stone. — A riddle on the Assyrian word 
shebu, which, according to Dr. Jager, in " Contributions 
to Assyriology," ii, 302, 303, means: (i) elder, old man, 
senex; and (2) brick — ^thus: if shebu means head of the 
family, I pay respect and honour him; if it means brick, I 
polish it. 

How do we know whether corn is good and full, and 
how do we know whether it is meagre and light? Answer: 
When the ears sink to the ground we know it is good, and 
when it stands upright we know it is meagre. 

Because I must die I will eat; because I must live I 
will work. 
29 



450 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

Strife you find among the servants (?), gossip among 
barbers. 

A servant in a strange town may be taken for a high 
officer. 

Enter into friendship the very first day, and thou dost 
thereby deliver thyself into everlasting servitude. 

With every one he is friendly and enters into compan- 
ionship. 

The ox of an enemy shall eat weeds, one's own ox shall 
lie in fat pasture. 

The liberality of the king insures the liberality of the 
magnate; the liberality of the king insures the benevolence 
of the governor — i. e., like master like man. 



THE REPORTS OF THE MAGI- 
CIANS AND ASTROLOGERS OF 
NINEVEH AND BABYLON 



I. WHEN THE MOON APPEARS ON THE FIRST DAY 
OF THE MONTH 

WHEN the Moon appears on the first day, there 
will be silence, the land will be satisfied. When 
the day is long according to its calculation, there 
will be a long reign. From Bullutu. 

When the Moon appears on the first day, there will be 
silence, the land will be satisfied. This is for Nisan and 
Tishri (?). When the Moon is regularly full, the crops of 
the land will prosper, the king will go to pre-eminence. 

May Ashur, Shamash, Nabu, and Marduk, day after 
day, month after month, year after year, grant happiness, 
health, joy, and exultation, a secure throne forever, for 
long days and many years to the king, my lord! From 
Nabu-iqbi. 

Two or three times during these days we have looked 
for Mars, but could not see it. If the king, my lord, should 
say, " Is it an omen that it is invisible? " it is not. From 
Ishtar-shum-eresh. 

II. OMENS FROM THE HORNS OF THE MOON 

When the Moon's horns face equally, there will be a 
secure dwelling for the land. When at the Moon's ap- 

45 1 



452 ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN LITERATURE 

pearance (its horns) are pointed, the king wherever his 
face is set will rule the land, (or) wherever he presses on 
will overcome. From Irasshi-ilu, the king's servant, the 
greater. 

When at the Moon's appearance its right horn is long 
and its left horn is;short,, the king's hand will conquer; a 
land other than this. When the Moon at its appearance is 
very large, an ^eclipse will take' place. When the Moori at 
its appearance is very bright, the crops of the land will 
prosper. When the day is long according to its calcula- 
tion, there will be a long reign. The thirtieth day com- 
pleted the month. In EIul an eclipse of Elam. From 
Nergal-etir. 

When the Moon appears on the first of Kislev, the King 
of Akkad, wherever he goes, will ravage the land; (or) the 
King of Akkad, wherever his face is set, will rule the land. 
(On the fourteenth day the Moon was seen with the Sun.) 
There will be an overthrowing of fohresses and downfall of 
garrisons; there will be obedience and good-will in the 
l^nd. As for the rest, the king (will see?) their good luck. 
May the king soon hear a happy report and greeting! 
From Asharidu. 

Concerning Mercury, of which the king, my lord, sent 
me, yesterday Ishtar-shum-eresh in the palace proclaimed 
its going forth to Nabu-ahi-eriba. The omens in the fes- 
tival day came, they have all been observed and seen, they 
have passed off. From Balasi. 

III. WHEN THE MOON APPEARS ON THE 
TWENTY-EIGHTH DAY 

When the Moon at its appearance appears on the 
twenty-eighth day as the first day, it is evil for Aharru. 
When the Moori appears on the twenty-eighth day, it is 
lucky for Akkad, unlucky for Aharru. From the Chief 
Physician. 



REPORTS OF THE MAGICIANS AND ASTROLOGERS 453 

IV. WHEN THE MOON APPEARS ON THE 
THIRTIETH DAY 

When the Moon appears on the thirtieth of Nisan, Su- 
bartu Ahlamu will devour: a foreign tongue will gain the 
ascendency in Aharru. (We are Subartu.) When the 
Moon appears on the thirtieth day, there will be cold in the 
land. 

The Moon appeared without the Sun on the fourteenth 
of Tebet; the Moon completes the day in Shebat. On the 
fourteenth it appears without the Sun; the Moon completes 
the day in Adar. On the fourteenth it appears without the 
Sun; the Moon will complete the day in Nisan. From 
Nabu-ahi-eriba. 

When the Moon appears on the thirtieth of Sivan, the 
abundance of Aharru Ahlamu will devour. When the 
Moon appears on the thirtieth day, there will be cold, (or) 
there will be the clamour